1. Corporate information
Whirlpool of India Limited (“the Company”) is a public company domiciled in India and is incorporated under the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 as replaced by the Companies Act, 2013, applicable in India. Its shares are listed on Bombay Stock Exchange and National Stock Exchange and has its principal place of business located at Plot No. 40, Sector-44, Gurgaon, Haryana - 122002.
The Company is a leading manufacturer of home appliances. It is primarily engaged in manufacturing and trading of Refrigerators, Washing Machines, Air Conditioners, Microwave Ovens and small appliances and caters to both domestic and international markets. It also provides services in the area of product development, and procurement services to Whirlpool Corporation, USA and other group companies. The financial statements were authorized for issue in accordance with a resolution of the directors on 16 May 2017.
2. Significant accounting policies
I. Basis of preparation
The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015, as amended.
For all periods up to and including the year ended 31 March 2016, the Company prepared its financial statements in accordance accounting standards notified under the section 133 of the Companies Act 2013, read together paragraph 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 (Indian GAAP). These financial statements for the year ended 31 March 2017 are the first the Company has prepared in accordance with Ind AS. Refer to note 43 for information on how the Company adopted Ind AS.
The financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis, except for the following assets and liabilities which have been measured at fair value or revalued amount:
- Derivative financial instruments, and
- Certain financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value (refer accounting policy regarding financial instruments).
The financial statements are presented in INR and all values are rounded to the nearest lacs except when otherwise indicated.
II. Summary of significant accounting policies
a) Current versus non-current classification
The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current/ non-current classification. An asset is treated as current when it is:
- Expected to be realized or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle
- Held primarily for the purpose of trading
- Expected to be realized within twelve months after the reporting period, or
- Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period
All other assets are classified as non-current.
A liability is current when:
- It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle
- It is held primarily for the purpose of trading
- It is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or
- There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period The Company classifies all other liabilities as non-current.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.
The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash and cash equivalents. The Company has identified twelve months as its operating cycle.
b) Foreign currencies
Items included in the financial statements of the Company are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the Company operates (‘the functional currency’). The financial statements are presented in Indian Rupee (INR), which is the Company’s functional and presentation currency.
Transactions and balances
Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded by the Company at its functional currency spot rates at the date the transaction first qualifies for recognition. However, for practical reasons, the Company uses an average rate if the average approximates the actual rate at the date of the transaction.
Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the functional currency spot rates of exchange at the reporting date.
Exchange differences arising on settlement or translation of monetary items are recognized in profit or loss.
Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the dates of the initial transactions. Non-monetary items measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value is determined. The gain or loss arising on translation of non-monetary items measured at fair value is treated in line with the recognition of the gain or loss on the change in fair value of the item (i.e., translation differences on items whose fair value gain or loss is recognized in OCI or profit or loss are also recognized in OCI or profit or loss, respectively).
c) Fair Value measurement
The Company measures financial instruments, such as, derivatives at fair value at each balance sheet date.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:
- In the principal market for the asset or liability, or
- In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the Company.
The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.
A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant’s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use.
The Company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximizing the use of relevant observable inputs and minimizing the use of unobservable inputs.
All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorized within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:
- Level 1 — Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
- Level 2 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable
- Level 3 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable
For assets and liabilities that are recognized in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorization (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.
For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the Company has determined classes of assets and liabilities on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy as explained above.
This note summarizes accounting policy for fair value. Other fair value related disclosures are given in the relevant notes.
- Disclosures for valuation methods, significant estimates and assumptions (note 32, 40, 42)
- Financial instruments (including those carried at amortized cost) (note 5, 8, 9, 10, 14, 39, 40, 41, 42)
d. Revenue recognition
Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured, regardless of when the payment is being made. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes or duties collected on behalf of the government. The Company has concluded that it is the principal in all of its revenue arrangements since it is the primary obligor in all the revenue arrangements as it has pricing latitude and is also exposed to inventory and credit risks. Based on the Educational Material on Ind AS 18 issued by the ICAI, the Company has assumed that recovery of excise duty flows to the Company on its own account. This is for the reason that it is a liability of the manufacturer which forms part of the cost of production, irrespective of whether the goods are sold or not. Since the recovery of excise duty flows to the Company on its own account, revenue includes excise duty.
However, sales tax/ value added tax (VAT) is not received by the Company on its own account. Rather, it is tax collected on value added to the commodity by the seller on behalf of the government. Accordingly, it is excluded from revenue.
The specific recognition criteria described below must also be met before revenue is recognized:
Sale of goods
Revenue from sale of goods is recognized when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer, usually on delivery of the goods. Revenue from the sale of goods is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of returns and allowances, trade discounts and volume rebates.
Rendering of services
Revenue from rendering of services comprises of services provided to group companies in relation to research & development and revenue from maintenance contracts (AMC). Revenue from services provided to group companies is recognized on the basis of time spent for the activities in relation to research & development and agreed rates as per the agreements entered. Revenues from maintenance contracts are recognized on straight line basis which is pro-rata over the period of the contract as and when services are rendered. The Company collects service tax on behalf of the government and, therefore, it is not an economic benefit flowing to the Company. Hence, it is excluded from revenue.
For all debt instruments measured either at amortized cost, interest income is recorded using the effective interest rate (EIR). EIR is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash receipts over the expected life of the financial instrument or a shorter period, where appropriate, to the gross carrying amount of the financial asset. When calculating the effective interest rate, the Company estimates the expected cash flows by considering all the contractual terms of the financial instrument (for example, prepayment, extension, call and similar options) but does not consider the expected credit losses. Interest income is included in “other income” in the statement of profit and loss.
Interest income on fixed deposits is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable interest rate. Interest income is included under the head “other income” in the statement of profit and loss.
e. Government Grants
Government grants are recognized where there is reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and all attached conditions will be complied with. When the grant relates to an expense item, it is recognized as income on a systematic basis over the periods that the related costs, for which it is intended to compensate, are expensed. When the grant relates to an asset, it is recognized as income in equal amounts over the expected useful life of the related asset.
When the Company receives grants of non-monetary assets, the asset and the grant are recorded at fair value amounts and released to profit or loss over the expected useful life in a pattern of consumption of the benefit of the underlying asset i.e. by equal annual installments. When loans or similar assistance are provided by governments or related institutions, with an interest rate below the current applicable market rate, the effect of this favorable interest is regarded as a government grant. The loan or assistance is initially recognized and measured at fair value and the government grant is measured as the difference between the initial carrying value of the loan and the proceeds received. The loan is subsequently measured as per the accounting policy applicable to financial liabilities.
Current income tax
Current income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date in the country where the Company operates and generate taxable income.
Current income tax relating to items recognized outside profit or loss is recognized outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity). Current tax items are recognized in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity. Management periodically evaluates positions taken in the tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulations are subject to interpretation and establishes provisions where appropriate.
Deferred tax is provided using the liability method on temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes at the reporting date.
Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable temporary differences except:
- When the deferred tax liability arises from the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss
Deferred tax assets are recognized for all deductible temporary differences, the carry forward of unused tax credits and any unused tax losses. Deferred tax assets are recognized to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilized, except:
- When the deferred tax asset relating to the deductible temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be utilized. Unrecognized deferred tax assets are re-assessed at each reporting date and are recognized to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the year when the asset is realized or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Deferred tax relating to items recognized outside profit or loss is recognized outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity). Deferred tax items are recognized in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity.
Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.
g. Property, plant and equipment
Under the previous GAAP (Indian GAAP), property, plant and equipment (PPE) comprising of freehold land, leasehold land, leasehold improvements, building, plant and machinery, office equipment, furniture & fixtures and vehicles were carried in the balance sheet at their respective carrying value. Using the deemed cost exemption available as per Ind AS 101, the Company has elected to carry forward the carrying value of PPE under Indian GAAP as on 31 March 2015 as book value of such assets under Ind AS at the transition date i.e. 1 April, 2015.
Capital work in progress, property, plant and equipment is stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Such cost includes the cost of replacing part of the property, plant and equipment and borrowing costs for long-term construction projects if the recognition criteria are met. When significant parts of property, plant and equipment are required to be replaced at intervals, the Company depreciates them separately based on their specific useful lives. Likewise, when a major inspection is performed, its cost is recognized in the carrying amount of the property, plant and equipment as a replacement if the recognition criteria are satisfied. All other repair and maintenance costs are recognized in statement of profit or loss as incurred. The present value of the expected cost for the decommissioning of an asset, if any, after its use is included in the cost of the respective asset if the recognition criteria for a provision are met.
Plant and equipment used in production, depreciation is calculated based on units produced, unless units produced drop below a minimum threshold at which point depreciation is recorded using the straight-line method. This method is referred as modified units of production (MUOP) in the books of account.
Above lives have been estimated by management considering single shift usage. Whenever an asset is used for additional shifts, extra shift depreciation is charged as per the method prescribed in Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013.
The amount paid for leasehold land is amortized over the lease period of 99 years and depreciation on leasehold improvement, which includes temporary structures, is provided over the unexpired period of lease or estimated useful life of 3 years, whichever is lower.
The Company, based on technical assessment made by technical expert and management estimate, depreciates certain items of plant and equipment i.e. Trolleys and other equipment & Mould and tools over the period of 2 years and 6 years respectively, which are different from the useful life prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013. The management believes that estimated useful lives are realistic and reflect fair approximation of the period over which the assets are likely to be used.
An item of property, plant and equipment and any significant part initially recognized is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Any gain or loss arising on derecognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset) is included in the income statement when the asset is derecognized.
Considering the proprietary nature of assets and historical data, the management has estimated the salvage value of the assets to be nil for the purpose of computing depreciation. Further, the residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation of property, plant and equipment are reviewed at each financial year end and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.
h. Intangible assets
Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any.
Intangible assets with finite lives are amortized over the useful economic life and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortization period and the amortization method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at least at the end of each reporting period. Changes in the expected useful life or the expected pattern of consumption of future economic benefits embodied in the asset are considered to modify the amortization period or method, as appropriate, and are treated as changes in accounting estimates. The amortization expense on intangible assets with finite lives is recognized in the statement of profit and loss unless such expenditure forms part of carrying value of another asset.
Using the deemed cost exemption available as per Ind AS 101, the Company has elected to carry forward the carrying value of intangible assets under Indian GAAP as on 31 March 2015 as book value of such assets under Ind AS at the transition date i.e. 1 April 2015.
Cost of software is amortized over its useful life of 60 months starting from the month of project implementation.
Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.
Research and development costs
Research costs are expensed as incurred. Development expenditures on an individual project are recognized as an intangible asset when the Company can demonstrate:
- The technical feasibility of completing the intangible asset so that the asset will be available for use or sale
- Its intention to complete and its ability and intention to use or sell the asset
- How the asset will generate future economic benefits
- The availability of resources to complete the asset
- The ability to measure reliably the expenditure during development
All expenses incurred on research and development activities are expensed as incurred by the Company since these do not meet the recognition criteria as listed above.
The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfillment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.
For arrangements entered into prior to 1 April 2015, the Company has determined whether the arrangement contain lease on the basis of facts and circumstances existing on the date of transition.
Company as a lessee
A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Company is classified as a finance lease.
Finance leases are capitalized at the commencement of the lease at the inception date fair value of the leased property or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognized in finance costs in the statement of profit and loss. Contingent rentals are recognized as expenses in the periods in which they are incurred. Lease management fees, legal charges and other initial direct costs are capitalized.
A leased asset is depreciated on a straight-line basis over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain the ownership by the end of the lease term, the capitalized leased assets are depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset or the lease term.
Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term, except in case where lease rentals are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the less or’s expected inflationary cost.
Company as a less or
Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of an asset are classified as operating leases. Rental income from operating lease is recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating and arranging an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognized over the lease term on the same basis as rental income. Contingent rents are recognized as revenue in the period in which they are earned.
Leases are classified as finance leases when substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership transfer from the Company to the lessee. Amounts due from lessees under finance leases are recorded as receivables at the Company’s net investment in the leases. Finance lease income is allocated to accounting periods so as to reflect a constant periodic rate of return on the net investment outstanding in respect of the lease.
Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value.
Costs incurred in bringing each product to its present location and conditions are accounted for as follows:
- Raw materials: cost includes cost of purchase and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost is determined on first in, first out basis.
- Finished goods and work in progress: cost includes cost of direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on the normal operating capacity, but excluding borrowing costs. Cost is determined on first in, first out basis.
- Traded goods: cost includes cost of purchase and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost is determined on weighted average basis.
Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
k. Impairment of non-financial assets
The Company assesses at each reporting date whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset’s recoverable amount. An asset’s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s or cash-generating units (CGU) net selling price and its value in use. Recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. Where the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount.
In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining fair value less costs of disposal, recent market transactions are taken into account. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used. These calculations are corroborated by valuation multiples, quoted share prices for publicly traded companies or other available fair value indicators.
The Company bases its impairment calculation on detailed budgets and forecast calculations which are prepared separately for each of the Company’s cash-generating units to which the individual assets are allocated. These budgets and forecast calculations are generally covering a period of five years. For longer periods, a long term growth rate is calculated and applied to project future cash flows after the fifth year. To estimate cash flow projections beyond periods covered by the most recent budgets/forecasts, the Company extrapolates cash flow projections in the budget using a steady or declining growth rate for subsequent years, unless an increasing rate can be justified. In any case, this growth rate does not exceed the long-term average growth rate for the products, industries, or country or countries in which the entity operates, or for the market in which the asset is used.
Impairment losses, including impairment on inventories, are recognized in the statement of profit and loss, except for properties previously revalued with the revaluation surplus, if any, taken to OCI. For such properties, the impairment is recognized in OCI up to the amount of any previous revaluation surplus.
The impairment assessment for all assets is made at each reporting date to determine whether there is an indication that previously recognized impairment losses no longer exist or have decreased. If such indication exists, the Company estimates the asset’s or CGU’s recoverable amount. A previously recognized impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset’s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognized in the statement of profit or loss.
A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. When the Company expects some or all of a provision to be reimbursed, for example, under an insurance contract, the reimbursement is recognized as a separate asset, but only when the reimbursement is virtually certain. The expense relating to a provision is presented in the statement of profit and loss net of any reimbursement. If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognized as a finance cost.
Provisions for product warranty related costs are recognized when the product is sold to the customer. The provision is determined on the basis of valuation carried out by an independent actuary as at the year end.
m. Retirement and other employee benefits
Retirement benefit in the form of Provident Fund is a defined contribution scheme. The Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the provident fund. The Company recognizes contribution payable to the provident scheme as an expenditure, when an employee renders the related service. If the contribution payable to the scheme for service received before the balance sheet date exceeds the contribution already paid, the deficit payable to the scheme is recognized as a liability after deducting the contribution already paid. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for services received before the balance sheet date, then excess is recognized as an asset to the extent that the pre-payment will lead to, for example, a reduction in future payment or a cash refund.
Retirement benefit in the form of Superannuation Fund is a defined contribution scheme. The Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the superannuation fund. The Company recognizes contribution payable to the relevant scheme as expenditure, when an employee renders the related service. The Company has arrangement with Insurance Company to administer its superannuation scheme.
Gratuity liability is defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit (PUC) method made at the end of each financial year. The Company has created an approved Gratuity Fund, which has taken a group gratuity cum insurance policy with an Insurance company to cover the gratuity liability of the employees and premium paid to such insurance company is charged to the statement of profit and loss.
Remeasurements, comprising of actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the asset ceiling, excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability and the return on plan assets (excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability), are recognized immediately in the balance sheet with a corresponding debit or credit to retained earnings through OCI in the period in which they occur. Remeasurements are not reclassified to profit or loss in subsequent periods.
Past service costs are recognized in profit or loss on the earlier of:
- The date of the plan amendment or curtailment, and
- The date that the Company recognises related restructuring costs
Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net defined benefit liability or asset. The Company recognizes the following changes in the net defined benefit obligation as an expense in the statement of profit and loss:
- Service costs comprising current service costs, past-service costs, gains and losses on curtailments and non-routine settlements; and
- Net interest expense or income Welfare schemes:
i. The Company provides liability in respect of other long term benefit schemes offered to the employees of the Faridabad Refrigeration Operations on the basis of year end actuarial valuation. This is an unfunded defined benefit scheme.
ii. The Company provides for liability in respect of long term service award scheme for its employees at the Faridabad Refrigeration Operations and Pondicherry Washers Operations on the basis of year end actuarial valuation. This is an unfunded defined benefit scheme.
The cost of providing benefits under the welfare schemes is determined using the projected unit credit method.
The Company treats accumulated leave to be carried forward beyond twelve months as long term employee benefit for measurement purposes, such long term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation which is done as per projected unit credit method at year end. The Company presents the leave as current liability in the balance sheet to the extent it does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement beyond twelve months from the reporting date.
Employees (including senior executives) of the Company receive remuneration from the Ultimate Holding Company in the form of share-based payments, whereby employees render services as consideration for equity instruments (equity-settled transactions).
The cost of equity-settled transactions is determined by the fair value at the date when the grant is made using an appropriate valuation model.
That cost is recognized as employee benefits expense in the statement of profit and loss together with a corresponding increase in other equity as ‘Share based payments reserve’ in lines with requirement as per Ind AS 102 (Share based payments), over the period in which the performance and/or service conditions are fulfilled. The cumulative expense recognized for equity-settled transactions at each reporting date until the vesting date reflects the extent to which the vesting period has expired and the Company’s best estimate of the number of equity instruments that will ultimately vest. The statement of profit and loss expense or credit for a period represents the movement in cumulative expense recognized as at the beginning and end of that period and is recognized in employee benefits expense.
Service and non-market performance conditions are not taken into account when determining the grant date fair value of awards, but the likelihood of the conditions being met is assessed as part of the Company’s best estimate of the number of equity instruments that will ultimately vest. Market performance conditions are reflected within the grant date fair value. Any other conditions attached to an award, but without an associated service requirement, are considered to be non-vesting conditions. Non-vesting conditions are reflected in the fair value of an award and lead to an immediate expensing of an award unless there are also service and/or performance conditions.
No expense is recognized for awards that do not ultimately vest because non-market performance and/or service conditions have not been met. Where awards include a market or non-vesting condition, the transactions are treated as vested irrespective of whether the market or non-vesting condition is satisfied, provided that all other performance and/or service conditions are satisfied.
When the terms of an equity-settled award are modified, the minimum expense recognized is the expense had the terms had not been modified, if the original terms of the award are met. An additional expense is recognized for any modification that increases the total fair value of the share-based payment transaction, or is otherwise beneficial to the employee as measured at the date of modification. Where an award is cancelled by the entity or by the counterparty, any remaining element of the fair value of the award is expensed immediately through profit or loss.
Cash Incentives to employees
The Ultimate Holding Company gives performance based cash incentives to certain employees including key management personnel on account of their contribution towards Company’s growth. As the amount is paid to employees after a period of 3 years, therefore the cost of cash incentive is recognized on an accrual basis based on the best possible estimate by the management. Such cost is recognized as a part of employee benefits expense in the statement of profit and loss with a corresponding increase in other equity as ‘Incentive reserve’.
n. Financial Instruments
A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.
Initial recognition and measurement
All financial assets are recognized initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within a time frame established by regulation or convention in the market place (regular way trades) are recognized on the trade date, i.e., the date that the Company commits to purchase or sell the asset.
For purposes of subsequent measurement, financial assets are classified in four categories:
- Debt instruments at amortized cost Debt instruments at amortized cost
A ‘debt instrument’ is measured at the amortized cost if both the following conditions are met:
a) The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and
b) Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.
This category is the most relevant to the Company. After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortized cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortization is included in other income in the statement of profit or loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognized in the statement of profit or loss. This category generally applies to trade receivables, security deposits and other receivables. For more information on receivables, refer note 5 & 8.
Debt instrument at FVTPL
FVTPL is a residual category for debt instruments. Any debt instrument, which does not meet the criteria for categorization as at amortized cost or as FVTOCI, is classified as at FVTPL.
In addition, the Company may elect to designate a debt instrument, which otherwise meets amortized cost or FVTOCI criteria, as at FVTPL. However, such election is allowed only if doing so reduces or eliminates a measurement or recognition inconsistency (referred to as ‘accounting mismatch’). The Company has designated, forward exchange contracts taken by the Company to mitigate the foreign exchange risk, as at FVTPL.
Debt instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the P&L. Derecognition
A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a Company of similar financial assets) is primarily derecognized (i.e. removed from the Company’s balance sheet) when:
- The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or
- The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ‘pass-through’ arrangement; and either (a) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.
When the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into a pass-through arrangement, it evaluates if and to what extent it has retained the risks and rewards of ownership. When it has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the asset, nor transferred control of the asset, the Company continues to recognize the transferred asset to the extent of the Company’s continuing involvement. In that case, the Company also recognizes an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained.
Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured at the lower of the original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration that the Company could be required to repay.
Impairment of financial assets
In accordance with Ind AS 109, the Company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the following financial assets and credit risk exposure:
a) Financial assets that are debt instruments, and are measured at amortized cost e.g., deposits and bank balance The Company follows ‘simplified approach’ for recognition of impairment loss allowance on:
- Trade receivables
The application of simplified approach does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognizes impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition.
For recognition of impairment loss on other financial assets and risk exposure, the Company determines that whether there has been a significant increase in the credit risk since initial recognition. If credit risk has not increased significantly, 12-month ECL is used to provide for impairment loss. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, lifetime ECL is used. If, in a subsequent period, credit quality of the instrument improves such that there is no longer a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, then the entity reverts to recognizing impairment loss allowance based on 12-month ECL.
Lifetime ECL are the expected credit losses resulting from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial instrument. The 12-month ECL is a portion of the lifetime ECL which results from default events that are possible within 12 months after the reporting date.
ECL is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the entity expects to receive (i.e., all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original EIR. When estimating the cash flows, an entity is required to consider:
- All contractual terms of the financial instrument (including prepayment, extension, call and similar options) over the expected life of the financial instrument. However, in rare cases when the expected life of the financial instrument cannot be estimated reliably, then the entity is required to use the remaining contractual term of the financial instrument
- Cash flows from the sale of collateral held or other credit enhancements that are integral to the contractual terms
As a practical expedient, the Company uses a provision matrix to determine impairment loss allowance on portfolio of its trade receivables. The provision matrix is based on its historically observed default rates over the expected life of the trade receivables and is adjusted for forward-looking estimates. At every reporting date, the historical observed default rates are updated and changes in the forward-looking estimates are analyzed. On that basis, the Company estimates the following provision matrix at the reporting date, except to the individual cases where recoverability is certain :
ECL impairment loss allowance (or reversal) recognized during the period is recognized as income/ expense in the statement of profit and loss. This amount is reflected under the head ‘other expenses’ in the statement of profit and loss. The balance sheet presentation for financial instruments is described below:
- Financial assets measured as at amortized cost: ECL is presented as an allowance, i.e., as an integral part of the measurement of those assets in the balance sheet. The allowance reduces the net carrying amount. Until the asset meets write-off criteria, the Company does not reduce impairment allowance from the gross carrying amount.
For assessing increase in credit risk and impairment loss, the Company combines financial instruments on the basis of shared credit risk characteristics with the objective of facilitating an analysis that is designed to enable significant increases in credit risk to be identified on a timely basis.
Initial recognition and measurement
Financial liabilities are classified, at initial recognition, as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, trade & other payables, as appropriate.
All financial liabilities are recognized initially at fair value and, in the case of payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs. The Company’s financial liabilities include trade and other payables and derivative financial instruments.
The measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification, as described below:
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss. Financial liabilities are classified as held for trading if they are incurred for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term. This category also includes derivative financial instruments entered into by the Company that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as defined by Ind AS 109. Separated embedded derivatives, if any, are also classified as held for trading unless they are designated as effective hedging instruments. Gains or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognized in the profit or loss
Financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition at fair value through profit or loss are designated as such at the initial date of recognition, and only if the criteria in Ind AS 109 are satisfied. For liabilities designated as FVTPL, fair value gains/ losses attributable to changes in own credit risk are recognized in OCI. These gains/ loss are not subsequently transferred to P&L. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity. All other changes in fair value of such liability are recognized in the statement of profit or loss. The Company has not designated any financial liability as at fair value through profit and loss.
A financial liability is derecognized when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognized in the statement of profit or loss. Reclassification of financial assets
The Company determines classification of financial assets and liabilities on initial recognition. After initial recognition, no reclassification is made for financial assets which are equity instruments and financial liabilities. For financial assets which are debt instruments, a reclassification is made only if there is a change in the business model for managing those assets. Changes to the business model are expected to be infrequent. The Company’s senior management determines change in the business model as a result of external or internal changes which are significant to the Company’s operations. Such changes are evident to external parties. A change in the business model occurs when the Company either begins or ceases to perform an activity that is significant to its operations. If the Company reclassifies financial assets, it applies the reclassification prospectively from the reclassification date which is the first day of the immediately next reporting period following the change in business model. The Company does not restate any previously recognized gains, losses (including impairment gains or losses) or interest.
Offsetting of financial instruments
Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognized amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realize the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.
o. Derivative financial instruments
Initial recognition and subsequent measurement
The Company uses derivative financial instruments, such as forward currency contracts, to hedge its foreign currency risks. Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognized at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at fair value. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.
Any gains or losses arising from changes in the fair value of derivatives are taken directly to profit or loss, except for the effective portion of cash flow hedges (if any), which is recognized in OCI and later reclassified to profit or loss when the hedge item affects profit or loss or treated as basis adjustment if a hedged forecast transaction subsequently results in the recognition of a non-financial asset or non-financial liability.
p. Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents for the purposes of cash flow statement comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.
3. Property, plant and equipment (Contd.)
a. Plant and equipment includes moulds lying with the third parties amounting to INR 22,664 lacs (31 March 2016: INR 20,425 lacs, 1 April 2015: INR 19,361 lacs) with a net book value of INR 6,246 lacs (31 March 2016: INR 5,608 lacs, 1 April 2015: INR 6,309 lacs)
c. Assets under construction
Capital work in progress (CWIP) as at 31 March 2017 comprises expenditure for the plant and building in the course of construction. These expenditures relates to the various projects undertaken for new models and modification to the existing models of the Company. Total amount of CWIP is INR 2,954 lacs (31 March 2016: INR 3,667 lacs, 1 April 2015: INR 1,320 lacs).
Diluted EPS amounts are calculated by dividing the profit attributable to equity holders of the Company (after adjusting for interest on the convertible preference shares) by the weighted average number of Equity shares outstanding during the year plus the weighted average number of Equity shares that would be issued on conversion of all the dilutive potential Equity shares into Equity shares.
The following reflects the income and share data used in the basic and diluted EPS computations: