i. Current versus non-current classification
The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current /non-current classification.
An asset is treated as current when it is:
- Expected to be realized or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle.
- Held primarily for the purpose of trading
- Expected to be realized within twelve months after the reporting date, or
- Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period
All other assets are classified as non-current.
A liability is current when:
- It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle
- It is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or
- There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period
All other liabilities are classified as non-current.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.
Based on the nature of products and services offered by the Company, operating cycle determined is 12 months for the purpose of current and non-current classification of assets and liabilities.
The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash and cash equivalents.
ii. Segment Reporting
The company identifies operating segments based on the internal reporting provided to the chief operating decision-maker.
The chief operating decision-maker, who is responsible for allocating resources and assessing performance of the operating segments, has been identified as the Board of Directors that makes strategic decisions.
The accounting policies adopted for segment reporting are in line with the accounting policies of the company. Segment revenue, segment expenses have been identified to segments on the basis of their relationship to the operating activities of the segment.
iii. Foreign Currencies
The company’s financial statements are presented in INR (rounded off to lakhs), which is also the company’s functional currency.
Transaction and balances
Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded by the company in their functional currency spot rates at the date the transaction first qualifies for recognition.
Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the functional currency spot rates of exchange at the reporting period.
Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on translating monetary items are recognized in the statement of profit or loss except
- exchange differences on foreign currency borrowings relating to assets under construction for future productive use, which are included in the cost of those assets when they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs on those foreign currency borrowings;
- exchange differences on transactions entered into in order to hedge certain foreign currency risks
- exchange differences on monetary items receivable from or payable to a foreign operation for which settlement is neither planned nor likely to occur (therefore forming part of the net investment in foreign operation), which are recognised initially in other comprehensive income and reclassified from equity to profit or loss on repayment of the monetary items.
Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates as at the dates of the initial transactions. Non-monetary items measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value was determined. The gain or loss arising on translation of non-monetary items measured at fair value is treated in line with the recognition of the gain or loss on the change in fair value of the item (i.e. translation differences on items whose fair value gain or loss is recognised in OCI or profit or loss are also recognised in OCI or profit or loss, respectively).
iv. Revenue recognition
Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable. Revenue is reduced for estimated customer returns, rebates and other similar allowances.
Sale of services
The Company recognizes revenue on accrual basis when the significant terms of the arrangement are enforceable, services have been delivered and the collectability is reasonably assured. The method of recognizing the revenues and costs depends on the nature of the services rendered. Revenue is recognized when no significant uncertainty exists as to its realization or collection. Commission income is recognized on earned basis for activities performed in different services delivered at Vakrangee Kendra.
The Company executes the delivery in various e-governance projects at its Vakrangee Kendra’s. Revenue for the Company accrues on successful delivery and confirmation by the business associate involved. The Company estimates successful delivery based on past trends and complexities involved in delivery and revenue is accounted accordingly till the confirmation is received. Any deviation with the actual confirmation is accounted in the period in which the actual results are known to the Company.
Sale of goods
Revenue from the sale of goods is recognised when the goods are delivered and titles have passed, at which time all the following conditions are satisfied:
- the company has transferred to the buyer the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods;
- the company retains neither continuing managerial involvement to the degree usually associated with ownership nor effective control over the goods sold
- the amount of revenue can be measured reliably;
- it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the company; and
- the costs incurred or to be incurred in respect of the transaction can be measured reliably.
The amount recognised as revenue in its Statement of Profit and Loss is exclusive of Service Tax and Value Added Taxes (VAT), and is net of discounts.
Interest income from financial assets is recognized when it is probable that economic benefits will flow to the company and the amount of income can be measured reliably. Interest income is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and at the effective interest rate applicable, which is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial assets to that asset’s net carrying amount on initial recognition.
Dividend income from investments is recognised when the shareholder’s right to receive payment has been established (provided that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the company and the amount of income can be measured reliably).
Insurance claims are accounted for on the basis of claims admitted / expected to be admitted and to the extent that there is no uncertainty in receiving the claims.
v. Property, Plant and Equipment
Land and buildings held for use in the production or supply of goods or services, or for administrative purposes, are stated in the balance sheet at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. Freehold land is not depreciated.
All items of property, plant and equipment are initially recorded at cost. Such cost includes the cost of replaced part of the property, plant and equipment and borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying property, plant and equipment. The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment is recognized as an asset if, and only if, it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably.
Properties in the course of construction for production, supply or administrative purposes are carried at cost, less any recognized impairment loss. Cost includes professional fees and, for qualifying assets, borrowing costs capitalized in accordance with the company’s accounting policy. Such properties are classified to the appropriate categories of property, plant and equipment when completed and ready for intended use. Depreciation of these assets, on the same basis as other property assets, commences when the assets are ready for their intended use.
Subsequent to recognition, property, plant and equipment (excluding freehold land) are measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. When significant parts of property, plant and equipment are required to be replaced in intervals, the company recognizes such parts as individual assets with specific useful lives and depreciation respectively. Likewise, when a major inspection is performed, its cost is recognized in the carrying amount of the plant and equipment as a replacement cost only if the recognition criteria are satisfied. All other repair and maintenance costs are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss as incurred.
Assets held under finance leases are depreciated over their expected useful lives on the same basis as owned assets. However, when there is no reasonable certainty that ownership will be obtained by the end of the lease term, assets are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and useful lives.
Depreciation is recognised so as to write off the cost of assets (other than freehold land and properties under construction) less their residual values over the useful lives, using the straight- line method (“SLM”). Management, based on a technical evaluation, believes that the useful lives of the assets reflect the periods over which these assets are expected to be used, which are as follows:
The carrying values of property, plant and equipment are reviewed for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable.
The residual values, useful life and depreciation method are reviewed at each financial year-end to ensure that the amount, method and period of depreciation are consistent with previous estimates and the expected pattern of consumption of the future economic benefits embodied in the items of property, plant and equipment.
An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of the asset. Any gain or loss arising on disposal or retirement of an item of property, plant and equipment is determined as the difference between sale proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognised in profit or loss.
Transition to Ind AS
On transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its property, plant and equipment recognised as at April 1, 2015 measured as per the previous GAAP as the deemed cost of the property, plant and equipment.
Income tax expense is recognized in net profit in the statement of profit and loss except to the extent that it relates to items recognized directly in other comprehensive income or equity, in which case it is recognized in other comprehensive income or equity respectively. Current income tax is recognized at the amount expected to be paid to or recovered from the tax authorities, using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date. The Company offsets, on a year to year basis, the current tax assets and liabilities, where it has legally enforceable right to do so and where it intends to settle such assets and liabilities on a net basis.
Deferred tax is recognized on differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit and are accounted for using the balance sheet liability method. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognized for all taxable temporary differences, and deferred tax assets are generally recognized for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which those deductible temporary differences can be utilized. Such assets and liabilities are not recognized if the temporary difference arises from goodwill or from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of other assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the taxable profit nor the accounting profit.
Deferred tax relating to items recognised outside the profit and loss is recognised outside profit and loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity)
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each balance sheet date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and when they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority and the Company intends to settle its current tax assets and liabilities on a net basis.
vii. Fair Value measurement
The Company measures financial instruments at fair value at each balance sheet date.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to settle a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date, regardless of whether that price is directly observable or estimated using another valuation technique
In estimating the fair value of an asset or liability, the Company takes into account the characteristics of the asset or liability if market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.
All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorised within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:
- Level 1 — Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
- Level 2 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable
- Level 3 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable
For assets and liabilities that are recognised in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorisation (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.
This note summarises accounting policy for fair value. Other fair value related disclosures are given in the relevant notes.
viii. Investment property
Investment properties are properties that is held for long-term rentals yields or for capital appreciation (including property under construction for such purposes) or both, and that is not occupied by the Company, is classified as investment property.
Investment properties are measured initially at cost, including transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, investment properties are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment loss, if any.
Investment properties are depreciated using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives. The useful life has been determined based on technical evaluation performed by the management expert.
Though the Company measures investment property using cost based measurement, the fair value of investment property is disclosed in the notes. Fair values are determined based on an annual evaluation performed by an accredited external independent valuer.
Investment properties are derecognised either when they have been disposed of or when they are permanently withdrawn from use and no future economic benefit is expected from their disposal. The difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset is recognised in profit or loss in the period of derecognition.
Transition to Ind AS
The Company has elected to continue with the carrying value for all of its investment property as recognised in its Indian GAAP financial statements as deemed cost at the transition date, viz., 1st April 2015.
ix. Impairment of Non-Financial Assets
At the end of each reporting period, the company reviews the carrying amounts of its tangible and intangible assets to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of impairment loss (if any). When it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of an individual asset, the company estimates the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs. When a reasonable and consistent basis of allocation can be identified, corporate assets are also allocated to individual cash-generating units, or otherwise they are allocated to the smallest group of cash-generating units for which a reasonable and consistent allocation basis can be identified.
Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives and intangible assets not yet available for use are tested for impairment at least annually, and whenever there is an indication that the asset may be impaired.
Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted.
If the recoverable amount of an asset (or cash-generating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset (or cash-generating unit) is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognized in the profit or loss.
When an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset (or a cash-generating unit) is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, but so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset ( or cash-generating unit) in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognised immediately in profit or loss.
x. Financial Instruments
A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.
a) Initial recognition and measurement
All financial assets are recognised initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within a time frame established by regulation or convention in the market place (regular way trades) are recognised on the trade date, i.e., the date that the Company commits to purchase or sell the asset.
b) Subsequent measurement
Debt Instruments at amortised cost:
A financial asset is subsequently measured at amortised cost if it is held within a business model whose objective is to hold the asset in order to collect contractual cash flows and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding. Interest income from these financial assets is included in finance income using the effective interest rate method. A gain or loss on a debt investment that is subsequently measured at amortised cost is recognized in profit or loss when the asset is derecognised or impaired.
Debt instrument at Fair Value through Other Comprehensive Income (OCI)
A financial asset is subsequently measured at fair value through other comprehensive income if it is held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding. Interest income from these financial assets is included in finance income using the effective interest rate method. Fair value movements are recognized in the other comprehensive income (OCI). However, the Company recognizes interest income, impairment gains or losses and foreign exchange gains and losses in the statement of profit and loss. On derecognition of the asset, the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI is reclassified from equity to statement of profit and loss.
Debt instrument at Fair Value through Profit or Loss (FVTPL)
A financial asset which does not meet the criteria for categorization as at amortized cost or as fair value through other comprehensive income is classified as fair value through profit or loss. Debt instruments subsequently measured at fair value through profit or loss are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the statement of profit and loss.
All equity investments in scope of Ind AS 109 are measured at fair value. Equity instruments which are held for trading are classified as at FVTPL. For all other equity instruments, the Company may make an irrevocable election to present subsequent changes in the fair value in OCI. The Company makes such election on an instrument-by-instrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable.
Dividends from such investments are recognized in profit or loss as other income. There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to Profit and Loss, even on sale of investment. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity.
Equity instruments subsequently measured at fair value through profit or loss are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the statement of profit and loss.
Investment in subsidiaries is carried at cost in the financial statements.
A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a group of similar financial assets) is primarily derecognised (i.e. removed from the company balance sheet) when:
The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or
The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ‘pass-through’ arrangement; and either (a) the company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset
When the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into a pass through arrangement, it evaluates if and to what extent it has retained the risks and rewards of ownership.
When it has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the asset, nor transferred control of the asset, the company continues to recognise the transferred asset to the extent of the company’s continuing involvement. In that case, the company also recognises an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the company has retained.
Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured at the lower of the original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration that the company could be required to repay.
d) Impairment of financial assets
The Company recognises impairment loss applying the expected credit loss (ECL) model on the financial assets measured at amortised cost, debt instruments at FVTOCI, lease receivables, trade receivables, other contractual right to receive cash or other financial asset and financial guarantee not designated as at FVTPL.
Expected credit losses are the weighted average of credit losses with the respective risks of default occurring as the weights.
The Company measures the loss allowance for a financial instrument at an amount equal to the lifetime expected credit losses if the credit risk on that financial instrument has increased significantly since initial recognition. If the credit risk on a financial instrument has not increased significantly since initial recognition, the Company measures the loss allowance for that financial instrument at an amount equal to 12 months expected credit losses.
For trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or other financial assets that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 11 and Ind AS 18, the Company always measures the loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses.
Further, for the purpose of measuring lifetime expected credit loss allowance for trade receivables, the Company applies ‘simplified approach’ permitted by Ind AS 109 Financial Instruments. This expected credit loss allowance is computed based on a provision matrix which takes into account historical credit loss experience and adjusted for forward-looking information.
a) Initial recognition and measurement
All financial liabilities are recognised initially at fair value and, in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs.
b) Subsequent measurement
The measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification, as described below:
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss. Financial liabilities are classified as held for trading if they are incurred for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term. This category also includes derivative financial instruments entered into by the comapny that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as defined by Ind-AS 109. Separated embedded derivatives are also classified as held for trading unless they are designated as effective hedging instruments.
Gains or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognised in the profit or loss.
Financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition at fair value through profit or loss are designated at the initial date of recognition, and only if the criteria in Ind AS 109 are satisfied. For liabilities designated as FVTPL, fair value gains/ losses attributable to changes in own credit risk is recognized in OCI. These gains/ loss are not subsequently transferred to P&L. However, the company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity. All other changes in fair value of such liability are recognised in the statement of profit or loss. The Company has not designated any financial liability as at fair value through profit and loss.
Financial liabilities are subsequently carried at amortized cost using the effective interest method, except for contingent consideration recognized in a business combination which is subsequently measured at fair value through profit and loss. For trade and other payables maturing within one year from the Balance Sheet date, the carrying amounts approximate fair value due to the short maturity of these instruments.
Loans and borrowings
After initial recognition, interest-bearing loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method. Gains and losses are recognised in profit or loss when the liabilities are derecognised as well as through the effective interest rate amortisation process.
Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the effective interest rate. Such amortisation is included as finance costs in the statement of profit and loss.
Financial guarantee contracts
Financial guarantee contracts issued by the Company are those contracts that require a payment to be made to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because the specified debtor fails to make a payment when due in accordance with the terms of a debt instrument. Financial guarantee contracts are recognised initially as a liability at fair value, adjusted for transaction costs that are directly attributable to the issuance of the guarantee. Subsequently, the liability is measured at the higher of the amount of loss allowance determined as per impairment requirements of Ind AS 109 and the amount recognised less cumulative amortisation.
A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognised in the statement of profit or loss
d) Offsetting of financial instruments
Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.
Inventories are valued at lower of cost on First-In-First-Out (FIFO) or net realizable value after providing for obsolescence and other losses, where considered necessary. Cost of inventories comprises all costs of purchase and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost of purchased inventory is determined after deducting rebates and discounts. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfillment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.
A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the lessee is classified as a finance lease.
Finance Lease as a lessee
Finance leases are capitalised at the commencement of the lease at the inception date at fair value of the leased property or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognised in finance costs in the statement of profit and loss, unless they are directly attributable to qualifying assets, in which case they are capitalized in accordance with the Company’s general policy on the borrowing costs. Contingent rentals are recognised as expenses in the periods in which they are incurred.
A leased asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term.
Operating Lease as a lessee
Leases where a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are retained by the lessor are classified as operating leases.
Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term except where another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which economic benefits from leased assets are consumed. The aggregate benefit of incentives (excluding inflationary increases) provided by the lessor is recognized as a reduction of rental expense over the lease term on a straight-line basis. Contingent rentals arising under operating leases are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.
xiii. Borrowing Costs
Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use or sale. All other borrowing costs are recognised in statement of profit and loss in the period in which they are incurred.
xiv. Equity Instruments
An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of new shares or options are shown in equity as a deduction, net of tax, from the proceeds.
Provision is made for the amount of any dividend declared, being appropriately authorized and no longer at the discretion of the Company, on or before the end of the reporting period but not distributed at the end of the reporting period.
Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation, legal or constructive, as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.
Where a provision is measured using the cash flows estimated to settle the present obligation, its carrying amount is the present value of those cash flows. If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability.
xvii. Contingent Liabilities
A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements. Payments in respect of such liabilities, if any are shown as advances.
xviii. Earnings Per Share
Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.
Diluted earnings per share adjusts the figures used in the determination of basic earnings per share to take into account
- The after income tax effect of interest and other financing costs associated with dilutive potential equity shares, and
- Weighted average number of equity shares that would have been outstanding assuming the conversion of all the dilutive potential equity.
xix. Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash comprises cash on hand and demand deposits with banks. Cash equivalents are short-term balances (with an original maturity of three months or less from the date of acquisition), and highly liquid time deposits that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash and which are subject to insignificant risk of changes in value.
xx. Employee Benefits
- Short-term obligations
Liabilities for wages and salaries, including non-monetary benefits that are expected to be settled wholly within 12 months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service are recognised in respect of employee’s services up to the end of the reporting period and are measured at the undiscounted amounts of the benefits expected to be paid when the liabilities are settled. The liabilities are presented as current employee benefit obligations in the balance sheet.
- Other Long-term employee benefit obligations
The liabilities for compensated absences (annual leave) which are not expected to be settled wholly within 12 months after the end of the period in which the employee render the related service are presented as noncurrent employee benefits obligations. They are therefore measured as the present value of expected future payments to be made in respect of services provided by employees up to the end of the reporting period using the Projected Unit Credit method. The benefits are discounted using the market yields at the end of the reporting period on government bonds that have terms approximating to the terms of the related obligations. Remeasurements as a result of experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions (i.e. actuarial losses/ gains) are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
The obligations are presented as current in the balance sheet if the Company does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement for at least twelve months after the reporting period, regardless of when the actual settlement is expected to occur.
- Post- employment obligations
The Company operates the following post-employment schemes:
I. Defined benefit plans such as gratuity
II. Defined contribution plans such as provident fund.
Defined benefit plan - Gratuity Obligations
The Company provides for gratuity, a defined benefit plan (the “Gratuity Plan”) covering eligible employees in accordance with the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972. The Gratuity Plan provides a lump sum payment to vested employees at retirement, death, incapacitation or termination of employment, of an amount based on the respective employee’s salary and the tenure of employment.
The liability or asset recognised in the balance sheet in respect of defined benefit gratuity plans is the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the end of the reporting period less the fair value of plan assets. The defined benefit obligation is actuarially determined using the Projected Unit Credit method.
The present value of the defined benefit obligation is determined by discounting the estimated future cash flows outflows by reference to market yields at the end of the reporting period on government bonds that have a terms approximating to the terms of the obligation.
The net interest cost, calculated by applying the discount rate to the net balance of the defined benefit obligation and the fair value of the plan assets, is recognised as employee benefit expenses in the statement of profit and loss.
Remeasurements gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognised in the other comprehensive income in the year in which they arise and are not subsequently reclassified to Statement of Profit and Loss.
Changes in the present value of the defined benefit obligation resulting from plan amendments or curtailments are recognised immediately in profit or loss as past service cost.
Defined Contribution Plan
The Company pays provident fund contributions to publicly administered provident funds as per local regulatory authorities. The Company has no further obligations once the contributions have been paid. The contributions are accounted for as defined contribution plans and the contributions are recognised as employee benefit expense when they are due.
xxi. Share-based Payments
Shared based compensation benefits are provided to employees via Vakrangee Limited Employee Stock Option Plan.
The cost of equity-settled transactions is determined by the fair value of the options granted at the date when the grant is made. The fair value of options granted under the Employee Option Plan is recognised as an employee benefits expense with a corresponding increase in equity. The total amount to be expensed is determined by reference to the fair value of the options granted:
- including any market performance conditions (e.g., the Company’s share price)
- excluding the impact of any service and non-market performance vesting conditions ( e.g. profitability, sales growth targets and remaining employee of the entity over a specified time period), and
- Including the impact of any non-vesting conditions (e.g. the requirement for employee to save or holding shares for a specific period of time)
The total expense is recognised over the vesting period, which is the period over which all of the specified vesting conditions are to be satisfied. At the end of each period, the Company revises its estimates of the number of options that are expected to be vest based on the non-market vesting and service conditions. It recognises the impact of the revision to original estimates, if any, in profit or loss, with a corresponding adjustment to equity.