a. Financial instruments
i. Recognition and initial measurement
Trade receivables are initially recognised when they are originated. All other financial assets and financial liabilities are initially recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.
A financial asset or financial liability is initially measured at fair value plus, for an item not at fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL), transaction costs that are directly attributable to its acquisition or issue.
ii. Classification and subsequent measurement
On initial recognition, a financial asset is classified as measured at
— amortised cost;
— FVOCI - debt investment;
— FVOCI - equity investment; or
Financial assets are not reclassified subsequent to their initial recognition, except if and in the period the Company changes its business model for managing financial assets.
A financial asset is measured at amortised cost if it meets both of the following conditions and is not designated as at FVTPL:
— the asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets to collect contractual cash flows; and
— the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
A debt investment is measured at FVOCI if it meets both of the following conditions and is not designated as at FVTPL:
— the asset is held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets; and
— the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
On initial recognition of an equity investment that is not held for trading, the Company may irrevocably elect to present subsequent changes in the investment’s fair value in OCI (designated as FVOCI - equity investment). This election is made on an investment-by- investment basis.
— All financial assets not classified as measured at amortised cost as described above are measured at FVTPL. This includes all derivative financial assets. On initial recognition, the Company may irrevocably designate a financial asset that otherwise meets the requirements to be measured at amortised cost or at FVOCI as at FVTPL if doing so eliminates or significantly reduces an accounting mismatch that would otherwise arise.
Financial liabilities are classified as measured at amortised cost or FVTPL. A financial liability is classified as at FVTPL if it is classified as held- for- trading, or it is a derivative or it is designated as such on initial recognition. Financial liabilities at FVTPL are measured at fair value and net gains and losses, including any interest expense, are recognised in statement of profit or loss. Other financial liabilities are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. Interest expense and foreign exchange gains and losses are recognised in statement of profit or loss. Any gain or loss on derecognition is also recognised in statement of profit or loss.
The Company derecognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire, or it transfers the rights to receive the contractual cash flows in a transaction in which substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset are transferred or in which the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership and does not retain control of the financial asset.
If the Company enters into transactions whereby it transfers assets recognised on its balance sheet, but retains either all or substantially all of the risks and rewards of the transferred assets, the transferred assets are not derecognised.
The Company derecognises a financial liability when its contractual obligations are discharged or cancelled, or expire.
The Company also derecognises a financial liability when its terms are modified and the cash flows under the modified terms are substantially different. In this case, a new financial liability based on the modified terms is recognised at fair value. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability extinguished and the new financial liability with modified terms is recognised in statement of profit or loss.
Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount presented in the balance sheet when, and only when, the Company currently has a legally enforceable right to set off the amounts and it intends either to settle them on a net basis or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously,
v. Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting
The Company holds derivative financial instruments to hedge its foreign currency and interest rate risk exposures. Embedded derivatives are separated from the host contract and accounted for separately if the host contract is not a financial asset and certain criteria are met.
Derivatives are initially measured at fair value. Subsequent to initial recognition, derivatives are measured at fair value, and changes therein are generally recognised in statement of profit or loss.
The Company designates certain derivatives as hedging instruments to hedge the variability in cash flows associated with highly probable forecast transactions arising from changes in foreign exchange rates and interest rates.
At inception of designated hedging relationships, the Company documents the risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge. The Company also documents the economic relationship between the hedged item and the hedging instrument, including whether the changes in cash flows of the hedged item and hedging instrument are expected to offset each other.
Cash flow hedges
W hen a derivative is designated as a cash flow hedging instrument, the effective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative is recognised in OCI and accumulated in other equity under ‘effective portion of cash flow hedges’. The effective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative that is recognised in OCI is limited to the cumulative change in fair value of the hedged item, determined on a present value basis, from inception of the hedge. Any ineffective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative is recognised immediately in statement of profit or loss.
If a hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting or the hedging instrument is sold, expires, is terminated or is exercised, then hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively. When hedge accounting for cash flow hedges is discontinued, the amount that has been accumulated in other equity remains there until, for a hedge of a transaction resulting in recognition of a non-financial item, it is included in the non-financial item’s cost on its initial recognition or, for other cash flow hedges, it is reclassified to profit or loss in the same period or periods as the hedged expected future cash flows affect profit or loss.
If the hedged future cash flows are no longer expected to occur, then the amounts that have been accumulated in other equity are immediately reclassified to statement of profit or loss.
vi. Treasury shares
The Company has created an Employee Welfare Trust (EWT) for providing share-based payment to its employees. Own equity instruments that are acquired (treasury shares) are recognised at cost and deducted from equity. When the treasury shares are issued to the employees by EWT, the amount received is recognised as an increase in equity and the resultant gain / (loss) is transferred to / from securities premium.
vii. Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalent in the balance sheet comprise cash at banks and on hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value. For the purpose of the statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and short-term deposits, as defined above, net of outstanding bank overdrafts as they are considered an integral part of the Company’s cash management.
Cash dividend to equity holders
The Company recognises a liability to make cash to equity holders when the distribution is authorised and the distribution is no longer at the discretion of the Company. As per the corporate laws in India, a distribution is authorised when it is approved by the shareholders. A corresponding amount is recognised directly in equity. Interim dividends are recorded as a liability on the date of declaration by the Company’s Board of Directors.
b. Property, plant and equipment
i. Recognition and measurement
I tems of property, plant and equipment are measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. The cost of a self-constructed item of property, plant and equipment comprises the cost of materials and direct labour, any other costs directly attributable to bringing the item to working condition for its intended use, and estimated costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located.
Exchange differences arising on long-term foreign currency monetary items initially recognized in the period ending immediately before the beginning of the first Ind AS financial reporting period as per the previous GAAP are capitalised.
If significant parts of an item of property, plant and equipment have different useful lives, then they are accounted for as separate items (major components) of property, plant and equipment.
Any gain or loss on disposal of an item of property, plant and equipment is recognised in statement of profit or loss.
Subsequent expenditure is capitalised only if it is probable that the future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the Company,
Depreciation is calculated on cost of items of property, plant and equipment less their estimated residual values over their estimated useful lives using the straight-line method. Assets acquired under finance leases are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and their useful lives unless it is reasonably certain that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term. Freehold land and land under perpetual lease are not depreciated.
The estimated useful lives of items of property, plant and equipment for the current and comparative periods are as follows:
Depreciation method, useful lives and residual values are reviewed at each financial year-end and adjusted if appropriate. Based on technical evaluation and consequent advice, the management believes that its estimates of useful lives as given above best represent the period over which management expects to use these assets.
Depreciation on additions (disposals) is provided on a pro-rata basis i.e. from (upto) the date on which asset is ready for use (disposed off).
c. Intangible assets Internally generated
Expenditure on research activities is recognised in statement of profit or loss as incurred.
Development expenditure is capitalised as part of the cost of the resulting intangible asset only if the expenditure can be measured reliably, the product or process is technically and commercially feasible, future economic benefits are probable, and the Company intends to and has sufficient resources to complete development and to use or sell the asset. Otherwise, it is recognised in statement of profit or loss as incurred. Subsequent to initial recognition, the asset is measured at cost less accumulated amortisation and any accumulated impairment losses.
Other intangible assets are initially measured at cost. Subsequently, such intangible assets are measured at cost less accumulated amortization and any accumulated impairment losses.
i. Subsequent expenditure
Subsequent expenditure is capitalised only when it increases the future economic benefits embodied in the specific asset to which it relates. All other expenditure, including expenditure on internally generated goodwill and brands, is recognised in statement of profit or loss as incurred.
Intangible assets are amortised on a straight line basis over the estimated useful life as follows:
— Computer software 5 years
— Intellectual property right 5-10 years
Amortisation method, useful lives and residual values are reviewed at the end of each financial year and adjusted if appropriate.
d. Business combination
In accordance with Ind AS 103, Business combinations, the Company accounts for business combinations after acquisition date using the acquisition method when control is transferred to the Company (see Note 4). The cost of an acquisition is measured at the fair value of the assets given, equity instruments issued and liabilities incurred or assumed at the date of exchange. The cost of acquisition also includes the fair value of any contingent consideration and deferred consideration, if any. Any goodwill that arises is tested annually for impairment. Any gain on a bargain purchase is recognised in OCI and accumulated in equity as capital reserve if there exists clear evidence of the underlying reasons for classifying the business combination as resulting in a bargain purchase; otherwise the gain is recognised directly in equity as capital reserve. Transaction costs are expensed as incurred.
Inventories are measured at the lower of cost and net realisable value. The cost of inventories is based on the first-in first-out formula, and includes expenditure incurred in acquiring the inventories, production or conversion costs and other costs incurred in bringing them to their present location and condition. In the case of manufactured inventories and work-in-progress, cost includes an appropriate share of fixed production overheads based on normal operating capacity,
Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and selling expenses. The net realisable value of work-in-progress is determined with reference to the selling prices of related finished products.
Chemicals, reagents and consumables held for use in the production of finished products are not written down below cost except in cases where material prices have declined and it is estimated that the cost of the finished products will exceed their net realisable value.
The comparison of cost and net realisable value is made on an item-by-item basis.
i. Impairment of financial assets
In accordance with Ind AS 109, the Company applies expected credit loss (“ECL”) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on financial assets measured at amortised cost.
Loss allowance for trade receivables with no significant financing component is measured at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses. For all other financial assets, ECL are measured at an amount equal to the 12-month ECL, unless there has been a significant increase in credit risk from initial recognition in which case those are measured at lifetime ECL.
Loss allowance for financial assets measured at amortised cost are deducted from gross carrying amount of the assets.
The Company assess at each reporting date whether there is any indication that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. If any such indication exists, then the asset’s recoverable amount is estimated and an impairment loss is recognised if the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its estimated recoverable amount in the statement of profit or loss.
The Company’s non-financial assets, inventories and deferred tax assets, are reviewed at each reporting date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, then the asset’s recoverable amount is estimated. For impairment testing, assets that do not generate independent cash inflows are grouped together into cash-generating units (CGUs). Each CGU represents the smallest group of assets that generates cash inflows that are largely independent of the cash inflows of other assets or CGUs.
I mpairment loss recognised in respect of a CGU is allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the CGU, and then to reduce the carrying amounts of the other assets of the CGU (or groups of CGUs) on a pro rata basis.
An impairment loss in respect of assets for which impairment loss has been recognised in prior periods, the Company reviews at each reporting date whether there is any indication that the loss has decreased or no longer exists. An impairment loss is reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. Such a reversal is made only to the extent that the asset’s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortisation, if no impairment loss had been recognised.
g. Employee benefits
The Company provides for gratuity, a defined benefit plan (“the Gratuity Plan”) covering the eligible employees of the Company. The Gratuity Plan provides a lump-sum payment to vested employees at retirement, death, incapacitation or termination of employment, of an amount based on the respective employee’s salary and the tenure of the employment with the Company,
Liability with regard to the Gratuity Plan are determined by actuarial valuation, performed by an independent actuary, at each balance sheet date using the projected unit credit method. The defined benefit plan is administered by a trust formed for this purpose through the Company gratuity scheme.
The Company recognises the net obligation of a defined benefit plan as a liability in its balance sheet. Gains or losses through remeasurement of the net defined benefit liability are recognised in other comprehensive income and are not reclassified to profit and loss in the subsequent periods. The actual return of the portfolio of plan assets, in excess of the yields computed by applying the discount rate used to measure the defined benefit obligation is recognised in other comprehensive income. The effect of any plan amendments are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.
ii. Provident Fund
Eligible employees of the Company receive benefits from provident fund, which is a defined contribution plan. Both the eligible employees and the Company make monthly contributions to the Government administered provident fund scheme equal to a specified percentage of the eligible employee’s salary. Amounts collected under the provident fund plan are deposited with in a government administered provident fund. The Company has no further obligation to the plan beyond its monthly contributions.
iii. Compensated absences
The Company has a policy on compensated absences which are both accumulating and non-accumulating in nature. The expected cost of accumulating compensated absences is determined by actuarial valuation performed by an independent actuary at each balance sheet date using the projected unit credit method on the additional amount expected to be paid/availed as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the balance sheet date. Expense on non-accumulating compensated absences is recognised is the period in which the absences occur,
iv. Share-based compensation
The grant date fair value of equity settled share-based payment awards granted to employees is recognised as an employee expense, with a corresponding increase in equity, over the period that the employees unconditionally become entitled to the awards. The amount recognised as expense is based on the estimate of the number of awards for which the related service and non-market vesting conditions are expected to be met, such that the amount ultimately recognised as an expense is based on the number of awards that do meet the related service and non-market vesting conditions at the vesting date.
h. Provisions (other than for employee benefits)
A provision is recognised if, as a result of a past event, the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows (representing the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the balance sheet date) at a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability. The unwinding of the discount is recognised as finance cost. Expected future operating losses are not provided for.
A contract is considered to be onerous when the expected economic benefits to be derived by the Company from the contract are lower than the unavoidable cost of meeting its obligations under the contract. The provision for an onerous contract is measured at the present value of the lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of continuing with the contract. Before such a provision is made, the Company recognises any impairment loss on the assets associated with that contract.
i. Contract research and manufacturing services income
I n respect of contracts involving research services, in case of ‘time and materials’ contracts, contract research fee are recognised as services are rendered, in accordance with the terms of the contracts.
Revenues relating to fixed price contracts are recognised based on the percentage of completion method determined based on efforts expended as a proportion to total estimated efforts. The Company monitors estimates of total contract revenue and cost on a routine basis throughout the contract period. The cumulative impact of any change in estimates of the contract revenue or costs is reflected in the period in which the changes become known. In the event that a loss is anticipated on a particular contract, provision is made for the estimated loss.
In respect of contracts involving sale of compounds arising out of contract research, revenue is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the compounds have passed to the buyer,
The Company collects service tax and sales taxes, as applicable, on behalf of the government and, therefore, it is not an economic benefit flowing to the Company. Hence, it is excluded from revenue.
Dividend income is recognised when the Company’s right to receive dividend is established by the reporting date.
iii. Interest Income
Interest income is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the applicable interest rate. Interest income is included under the head “other income” in the statement of profit and loss.
iv. Contribution received from customers towards plant and equipment
Contributions received from customers towards items of property, plant and equipment which require an obligation to supply services to the customer in the future, are recognised as a credit to deferred revenue. The contribution received is recognised as revenue from operations over the useful life of the assets. The Company capitalises the gross cost of these assets as the Company controls these assets.
j. Government grants
The Company recognises government grants only when there is reasonable assurance that the conditions attached to them will be complied with, and the grants will be received. Government grants received in relation to assets are presented as a reduction to the carrying amount of the related asset. Grants related to Income are recognized in statement of profit and loss as other operating revenues..
k. Income taxes
Income tax comprises current and deferred income tax. Income tax expense is recognised in statement of profit or loss except to the extent that it relates to an item recognised directly in equity in which case it is recognised in other comprehensive income. Current income tax for current year and prior periods is recognised at the amount expected to be paid or recovered from the tax authorities, using the tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognised for all temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the financial statements.
Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realised.
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date and are expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect of changes in tax rates on deferred income tax assets and liabilities is recognised as income or expense in the period that includes the enactment or substantive enactment date. A deferred income tax assets is recognised to the extent it is probable that future taxable income will be available against which the deductible temporary timing differences and tax losses can be utilised. The Company offsets income-tax assets and liabilities, where it has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognised amounts and where it intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously,
l. Borrowing cost
Borrowing costs are interest and other costs (including exchange differences relating to foreign currency borrowings to the extent that they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs) incurred in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing costs directly attributable to acquisition or construction of an asset which necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use are capitalised as part of the cost of that asset. Other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.
m. Earnings per share
Basic earnings per share is computed using the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period adjusted for treasury shares held. Diluted earnings per share is computed using the weighted-average number of equity and dilutive equivalent shares outstanding during the period, using the treasury stock method for options and warrants, except where the results would be anti-dilutive.