SUBEX Accounting Policy

1. Corporate information


Subex Limited ("the Company" or "Subex") a public limited company incorporated in 1994, is a leading global provider of Operations and Business Support Systems (OSS/BSS) to communication service providers (CSPs) worldwide in the Telecom industry.


The Company pioneered the concept of a Revenue Operations Centre (ROC) - a centralized approach that sustains profitable growth and financial health for the CSPs through coordinated operational control. Subex''''s product portfolio powers the ROC and its best-in-class solutions enable new service creation, operational transformation, subscriber-centric fulfilment, provisioning automation, data integrity management, revenue assurance, cost management, fraud management and interconnect / interparty settlement. Subex also offers a scalable Managed Services Program. The CSPs achieve competitive advantage through Business Optimization and Service Agility and improve their operational efficiency to deliver enhanced service experiences to their subscribers. The Company has its registered office in Bengaluru and operates through its wholly owned subsidiaries in India, USA, UK, Singapore, Canada and UAE and branches in USA, UK, Canada, Australia, Italy, UAE and Saudi Arabia.


These standalone financial statements for the year ended March 31, 2017 are approved by the Board of Directors on May 25, 2017.


2. Significant accounting policies


a. Basis of preparation


In accordance with the notification issued by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, the Company has adopted Indian Accounting Standards ("Ind AS") notified under The Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 and The Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) amendment Rules 2016, as amended with effect from April 1, 2016. The standalone financial statements of the Company have been prepared and presented in accordance with Ind AS. Previous year numbers in the standalone financial statements have been restated to Ind AS. In accordance with Ind AS 101 First-time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standards, the Company has presented a reconciliation from the presentation of standalone financial statements under Accounting Standards notified under The Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 ("Previous GAAP") to Ind AS of Shareholders'''' equity as at March 31, 2016 and April 1, 2015 and of the comprehensive net income for the year ended March 31, 2016. (refer note 41 for reconciliations and effects of transition).


The standalone financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis, except for certain financial instruments which are measured at fair value at the end of each reporting period, as explained further in the accounting policies below. The standalone financial statements are presented in INR (''''C'''') and all the values are rounded off to the nearest lakhs (INR 00,000) except when otherwise indicated.


b. Use of estimates, assumptions and judgments


The preparation of the standalone financial statements in conformity with Ind AS requires the management to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities on the date of the standalone financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses for the year reported. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the year in which the estimates are revised and future periods are affected.


Key source of estimation of uncertainty as at the date of standalone financial statements, which may cause a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year, is in respect of the following:


Revenue recognition


The Company uses the percentage of completion method in accounting for revenue from implementation and customization projects. Use of the percentage of completion method requires the Company to estimate the efforts to date as a proportion of the total efforts. Efforts have been used to measure progress towards completion as there is a direct relationship between input and productivity. Provisions for estimated losses, if any, on uncompleted contracts are recorded in the year in which such losses become probable based on the expected contract estimates at the reporting date.


Impairment of non-financial assets


Impairment exists when the carrying value of an asset or cash generating unit ("CGU") exceeds its recoverable amount, which is the higher of its fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. The fair value less costs of disposal calculation is based on available data from binding sales transactions, conducted at arm''''s length, for similar assets or observable market prices less incremental costs for disposing of the asset. The value in use calculation is based on a discounted cash flow ("DCF") model. The cash flows are derived from the budget for future years and do not include restructuring activities that the Company is not yet committed to or significant future investments that will enhance the asset''''s performance of the CGU being tested. The recoverable amount is sensitive to the discount rate used for the DCF model as well as the expected future cash-inflows and the growth rate used for extrapolation purposes.


Impairment of financial assets


The Company assesses impairment of financial assets (''''Financial instruments'''') and recognizes expected credit losses in accordance with Ind AS 109. The Company provides for impairment of trade receivables and unbilled revenue outstanding for more than 1 year from the date they are due for payment and billing respectively. The Company also assesses for impairment of financial assets on specific identification basis at each period end. Also, refer note 2(h).


The Company provides for impairment of investment in subsidiaries. Impairment exists when there is a diminution in value of the investment and the recoverable value of such investment is lower than the carrying value of such investment.


Defined benefit plans


The cost of the defined benefit gratuity plan and other post-employment benefits and the present value of the gratuity obligation is determined using actuarial valuation. An actuarial valuation involves making various assumptions that may differ from actual developments in the future. These include the determination of the discount rate, future salary increases and mortality rates. Due to the complexities involved in the valuation and its long-term nature, a defined benefit obligation is highly sensitive to changes in these assumptions. All assumptions are reviewed at each reporting date (refer note 37).


The parameter most subject to change is the discount rate. In determining the appropriate discount rate for plans operated in India, the management considers the interest rates of government bonds in currencies consistent with the currencies of the post-employment benefit obligation.


The mortality rate is based on publicly available mortality tables. These mortality tables tend to change only at interval in response to demographic changes. Future salary increases and gratuity increases are based on expected future inflation rates.


Fair Value measurement of financial instruments


When the fair values of financial assets and financial liabilities recorded in the balance sheet cannot be measured based on quoted prices in active markets, their fair value is measured using internal valuation techniques. The inputs to these models are taken from observable markets where possible, but where this is not feasible, a degree of judgment is required in establishing fair values. Judgments include considerations of inputs such as liquidity risk, credit risk and volatility. Changes in assumptions about these factors could affect the reported fair value of financial instruments. Also, refer note 2(k).


Share-based payments


Estimating fair value for share-based payment transactions requires determination of the most appropriate valuation model, which is dependent on the terms and conditions of the grant. This estimate also requires determination of the most appropriate inputs to the valuation model including the expected life of the share option, volatility and dividend yield and making assumptions about them. The assumptions and models used for estimating fair value for share-based payment transactions are disclosed in note 36.


Taxes


The Company''''s tax jurisdiction is India. Significant judgments are involved in determining the provision for income taxes and tax credits including the amount expected to be paid or refunded. Also refer note 2(q) and note 21.


c. Current/ non-current classification


The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current/non-current classification.


An asset is treated as current when it is:


- Expected to be realized or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle


- Held primarily for the purpose of trading


- Expected to be realized within twelve months after the reporting period, or


- Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period


All other assets are classified as non-current.


A liability is current when:


- It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle


- It is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or


- There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period


The Company classifies all other liabilities as non-current.


Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities, respectively.


The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash and cash equivalents. The Company has identified twelve months as its operating cycle.


d. Revenue recognition


The Company derives its revenues primarily from sale and implementation of its license and implementation of its proprietary software and managed/support services.


Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured, regardless of when the payment is made. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment. The following specific recognition criteria must also be met before revenue is recognized:


Revenues from licensing arrangements is recognized on transfer of the title in user licenses, except those contracts where transfer of title is dependent upon rendering of significant implementation and other services by the Company, in which case revenue is recognized over the implementation period in accordance with the specific terms of the contracts with clients.


Revenue from implementation and customization services is recognized using the percentage of completion method. Percentage of completion is determined on the basis of completed efforts against the total estimated efforts, which represent the fair value of services rendered.


Revenue from managed/support services comprise income from fixed price contracts, time-and-material contracts and annual maintenance contracts. Revenue from fixed price contracts is recognized over the period of the contracts using the percentage of completion method. Revenue from time and material contracts is recognized when the services are rendered in accordance with the terms of contracts. Revenue from annual maintenance contracts is recognized ratably over the period of the contracts.


Revenue from sale of hardware under reseller arrangements is recognized when all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer, usually on delivery of goods to customers. Revenue is shown as net of sales tax, value added tax, other taxes and applicable discounts.


In case of multiple element arrangements for sale of software license, related implementation and maintenance services the Company has applied the guidance in Ind AS18, by applying the revenue recognition criteria for each separately identifiable component of a single transaction. The arrangements generally meet the criteria for considering the sale of software license, related implementation and maintain services as separately identifiable components. For allocating the consideration, the Company has measured the revenue in respect of each separable component of a transaction at its fair value, in accordance with principles given in Ind AS 18. The price that is regularly charged for an item when sold separately is the best evidence of its fair value. In cases where the company is unable to establish objective and reliable evidence of fair value for the aforesaid services, the Company has used a residual method to allocate the arrangement consideration. In these cases the balance of the consideration, after allocating the fair values of undelivered components of a transaction has been allocated to the delivered components for which specific fair values do not exist.


The Company collects service tax, sales tax and other taxes as applicable in the respective tax jurisdictions where the Company operates, on behalf of the government and therefore it is not an economic benefit flowing to the Company. Hence it is excluded from revenue.


Provisions for estimated losses on contracts are recorded in the period in which such losses become probable based on the current contract estimates. ''''Unbilled revenue'''' included in the other financial assets represent revenues in excess of amounts billed to clients as at the balance sheet date. ''''Unearned revenue'''' included in the current liabilities represent billings in excess of revenues recognized.


Interest:


Interest income is recognized as it accrues in the standalone statement of profit and loss using effective interest rate method.


e. Property, plant and equipment


At the date of transition to Ind AS the Company has evaluated the cost of its plant and equipment and has regarded the carrying value under previous GAAP (''''Indian GAAP'''') as at such date as the deemed cost.


Plant and equipment is stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing costs if capitalization criteria are met, directly attributable cost of bringing the plant and equipment to its working condition for the intended use and cost of replacing part of the plant and equipment. When significant parts of plant and equipment are required to be replaced at intervals, the Company depreciates them separately based on their specific useful lives. Likewise, when a major inspection is performed, its cost is recognized in the carrying amount of the plant and equipment as a replacement if the recognition criteria are satisfied. All other repair and maintenance costs are recognized in standalone statement of profit or loss as incurred. The present value of the expected cost for the decommissioning of an asset after its use is included in the cost of the respective asset if the recognition criteria for a provision are met.


Gains or losses arising from derecognition of the assets are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amounts of the assets and are recognized in the standalone statement of profit and loss when the assets are derecognized.


f. Intangible assets


Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less any accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses. Internally generated intangibles, excluding capitalized development costs, are not capitalized and the related expenditure is reflected in standalone statement of profit and loss in the period in which the expenditure is incurred.


Intangible assets with finite lives are amortized over the useful economic life and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortization period and the amortization method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at least at the end of each reporting period. Changes in the expected useful life or the expected pattern of consumption of future economic benefits embodied in the asset are considered to modify the amortization period or method, as appropriate, and are treated as changes in accounting estimates.


Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the standalone statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.


g. Depreciation and amortization


Depreciation on property, plant and equipment and amortization on intangible assets with finite useful lives is calculated on a straight-line basis over the useful lives of the assets estimated by the management.


The Company has used the following useful lives to provide depreciation on plant and equipment and amortization of intangible assets:


* Based on an internal evaluation, management believes that the useful lives as given above are realistic and reflect fair approximation of the period over which the assets are likely to be used. Hence, the useful lives for these assets is different from the useful lives as prescribed under part C of Schedule II of The Companies Act 2013.


The residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation of property, plant and equipment are reviewed at each financial year end and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.


h. Impairment Financial Assets:


The Company assesses at each date of balance sheet whether a financial asset or a Group of financial assets is impaired. Ind AS 109 (''''Financial instruments'''') requires expected credit losses to be measured through a loss allowance. The Company recognizes lifetime expected losses for all contract assets and/or all trade receivables that do not constitute a financing transaction. For all other financial assets, expected credit losses are measured at an amount equal to the 12-month expected credit losses or at an amount equal to the life time expected credit losses if the credit risk on the financial asset has increased significantly since initial recognition.


Impairment of non-financial assets:


Non-financial assets including Property, plant and equipment and intangible assets with finite life are evaluated for recoverability whenever there is any indication that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount (i.e. higher of the fair value less cost to sell and the value-in-use) is determined on an individual asset basis unless the asset does not generate cash flows that are largely independent of those from other assets. In such cases, the recoverable amount is determined for the CGU to which the asset belongs.


If the recoverable amount of an asset (or CGU) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset (or CGU) is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognized in the standalone statement of profit and loss.


For assets excluding goodwill, an assessment is made at each reporting date to determine whether there is an indication that previously recognized impairment losses no longer exist or have decreased. If such indication exists, the Company estimates the asset''''s or CGU''''s recoverable amount. A previously recognized impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset''''s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognized in the standalone statement of profit and loss unless the asset is carried at a revalued amount, in which case, the reversal is treated as a revaluation increase.


i. Equity investments in subsidiaries


Investments in subsidiaries are classified as non-current investments. The Company has availed the option available in Ind AS 27 to carry its investment in subsidiaries at cost. Impairment recognized, if any, is reduced from the carrying value.


On disposal of an investment, the difference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is charged or credited to the standalone statement of profit and loss.


j. Leases


The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfillment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.


For arrangements entered into prior to April 1, 2015, the Company has determined whether the arrangement contain lease on the basis of facts and circumstances existing on the date of transition.


Company as a lessee:


A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Company is classified as a finance lease.


Finance leases are capitalized at the commencement of the lease at the inception date at fair value of the leased property or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognized in finance costs in the standalone statement of profit and loss, unless they are directly attributable to qualifying assets, in which case they are capitalized in accordance with the Company''''s general policy on the borrowing costs.


A leased asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term.


Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the standalone statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term unless the lease escalations are linked to inflation, in such a case the lease expense is recognized as per the terms of the lease arrangement.


k. Financial instruments


Financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.


Financial assets and liabilities are recognized when the Company becomes a party to the contract that gives rise to financial assets and liabilities. Financial assets and liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value measured on initial recognition of financial asset or financial liability.


Cash and cash equivalents


The Company considers all highly liquid financial instruments, which are readily convertible into known amounts of cash that are subject to an insignificant risk of change in value and having original maturities of three months or less from the date of purchase, to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents consist of balances with banks which are unrestricted for withdrawal and usage.


Financial assets at amortized cost


Financial assets are subsequently measured at amortized cost if these financial assets are held within a business whose objective is to hold these assets in order to collect contractual cash flows and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.


Financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income


Financial assets are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income if these financial assets are held within a business whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.


Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss


Financial assets are measured at fair value through profit or loss unless it is measured at amortized cost or at fair value through other comprehensive income on initial recognition. The transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets at fair value through profit or loss are immediately recognized in standalone statement of profit and loss.


Financial liabilities


Financial liabilities are subsequently carried at amortized cost using the effective interest method, except for contingent consideration recognized in a business combination which is subsequently measured at fair value through profit or loss. For trade and other payables maturing within one year from the balance sheet date, the carrying amounts approximate fair value due to the short maturity of these instruments.


Derecognition of financial assets and liabilities


The Company derecognizes a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire or it transfers the financial asset and the transfer qualifies for derecognition under Ind AS 109. A financial liability (or a part of a financial liability) is derecognized when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial asset/ liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognized in the standalone statement of profit and loss.


Embedded derivatives


If the hybrid contract contains a host that is a financial asset within the scope of Ind AS 109, the Company does not separate embedded derivatives. Rather, it applies the classification requirements contained in Ind AS 109 to the entire hybrid contract. Derivatives embedded in all other host contracts are accounted for as separate derivatives and recorded at fair value if their economic characteristics and risks are not closely related to those of the host contracts and the host contracts are not held for trading or designated at fair value though profit or loss. These embedded derivatives are measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in profit or loss, unless designated as effective hedging instruments.


Compound financial instruments


Compound financial instruments in the form of Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds ("FCCBs") are separated into liability and equity components based on the terms of the contract. On issuance of the Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds, the fair value of the liability component is determined using a market rate for an equivalent non-convertible instrument. This amount is classified as a financial liability measured at amortized cost (net of transaction costs) until it is extinguished on conversion or redemption.


The remainder of the proceeds is allocated to the conversion option that is recognized and included in other equity since conversion option meets Ind AS 32 criteria for fixed to fixed classification. Transaction costs are deducted from other equity, net of associated income tax. The carrying amount of the conversion option is not premeasured in subsequent years.


Transaction costs are apportioned between the liability and equity components of the Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds based on the allocation of proceeds to the liability and equity components when the instruments are initially recognized.


Reclassification of financial assets


The Company determines classification of financial assets and liabilities on initial recognition. After initial recognition, no reclassification is made for financial assets which are equity instruments and financial liabilities. For financial assets which are debt instruments, a reclassification is made only if there is a change in the business model for managing those assets. Changes to the business model are expected to be infrequent. The Company''''s senior management determines change in the business model as a result of external or internal changes which are significant to the Company''''s operations. Such changes are evident to external parties. A change in the business model occurs when the Company either begins or ceases to perform an activity that is significant to its operations. If the Company reclassifies financial assets, it applies the reclassification prospectively from the reclassification date which is the first day of the immediately next reporting period following the change in business model. The Company does not restate any previously recognized gains, losses (including impairment gains or losses) or interest.


Offsetting of financial instruments


Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the standalone balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognized amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realize the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.


Fair value of financial instruments


In determining the fair value of its financial instruments, the Company uses following hierarchy and assumptions that are based on market conditions and risks existing at each reporting date.


Fair value hierarchy:


All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the standalone financial statements are categorized within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:


Level 1 — Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.


Level 2 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable.


Level 3 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable.


For assets and liabilities that are recognized in the standalone financial statements on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorization (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.


l. Borrowing cost


Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized as part of the cost of the asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they occur. Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs that an entity incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing cost also includes exchange differences to the extent regarded as an adjustment to the borrowing costs.


m. Standalone statement of cash flow


Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit/(loss) for the period is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature, any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments and item of income or expenses associated with investing or financing cash flows. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated.


n. Employee share based payments


The Company measures compensation cost relating to employee stock options plans using the fair valuation method in accordance with Ind AS 102, Share-Based Payment. Compensation expense is amortized over the vesting period of the option on a straight line basis. The cost of equity-settled transactions is determined by the fair value at the date when the grant is made using an appropriate valuation model (Black-Scholes valuation model). That cost is recognized, together with a corresponding increase in employee stock options reserves in other equity, over the period in which the performance and/or service conditions are fulfilled in employee benefits expense. The cumulative expense recognized for equity-settled transactions at each reporting date until the vesting date reflects the extent to which the vesting period has expired and the Company''''s best estimate of the number of equity instruments that will ultimately vest.


The dilutive effect of outstanding options is reflected as additional share dilution in the computation of diluted earnings per share.


o. Employee benefits


Employee benefits include provident fund, gratuity and compensated absences.


Defined contribution plans


Contributions payable to recognized provident funds, which are defined contribution schemes, are charged to the standalone statement of profit and loss.


Defined benefit plans


Gratuity, which is a defined benefit plan, is accrued based on an independent actuarial valuation, which is done based on project unit credit method as at the balance sheet date. The Company recognizes the net obligation of a defined benefit plan in its balance sheet as an asset or liability. Gains and losses through re-measurements of the net defined benefit liability/ (asset) are recognized in other comprehensive income. In accordance with Ind AS, re-measurement gains and losses on defined benefit plans recognized in OCI are not to be subsequently reclassified to the standalone statement of profit and loss. As required under Ind AS compliant Schedule III, the Company transfers it immediately to "surplus/(deficit) in the statement of profit and loss".


Short-term employee benefits


Short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognized during the year when the employees render the service. Compensated absences, which are expected to be utilized within the next 12 months, are treated as short-term employee benefits. The Company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.


Long-term employee benefits


Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related services are treated as long-term employee benefits for measurement purpose. Such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the year end, less the fair value of the plan assets out of which the obligations are expected to be settled. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the standalone statement of profit and loss and are not deferred.


The Company presents the entire compensated absences balance as a current liability in the balance sheet, since it does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement for twelve months after the reporting date.


p. Foreign currencies


Foreign currency transactions are initially recorded in the functional currency of the Company by applying exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction. For practical reasons, the Company uses an average rate if the average approximates the actual rate at the date of the transaction. Foreign currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities are restated into the functional currency using exchange rates prevailing on the balance sheet date.


Gains and losses arising on settlement and restatement of foreign currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities are included in the standalone statement of profit and loss.


The Company''''s standalone financial statements are presented in INR. The Company determines the functional currency as INR on the basis of primary economic environment in which the entity operates.


q. Taxes on income


Income tax expense comprises current tax expense and the net change in the deferred tax asset or liability during the year. Current and deferred tax are recognized in the standalone statement of profit and loss, except when they relate to items that are recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in other equity, in which case, the current and deferred tax are also recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, respectively.


Current income tax


Current income tax for the current and prior periods are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities based on the taxable income for that period. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.


Deferred income tax


Deferred income tax is recognized using the balance sheet approach, deferred tax is recognized on temporary differences at the balance sheet date between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes, except when the deferred income tax arises from the initial recognition of goodwill or an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and affects neither accounting nor taxable profit or loss at the time of the transaction.


Deferred income tax assets are recognized for all deductible temporary differences, carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses, to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilized.


The carrying amount of deferred income tax assets is reviewed at each balance sheet date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred income tax asset to be utilized.


Deferred income taxes are not provided on the undistributed earnings of branches where it is expected that the earnings of the branch will not be distributed in the foreseeable future.


Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the year when the asset is realized or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date.


Deferred tax assets include Minimum Alternative Tax (''''MAT'''') paid in accordance with the tax laws in India, which is likely to give future economic benefits in the form of availability of set off against future income tax liability. Accordingly, MAT is recognized as deferred tax asset in the balance sheet when the asset can be measured reliably and it is probable that the future economic benefit associated with the asset will be realized.


r. Provision and contingencies


A provision is recognized when an enterprise has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. If the effect of time value of money is material, provision is discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognized as a finance cost.


Provisions for onerous contracts, i.e. contracts where the expected unavoidable costs of meeting obligations under a contract exceed the economic benefits expected to be received, are recognized when it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle a present obligation as a result of an obligating event, based on a reliable estimate of such obligation.


A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the standalone financial statements.


s. Earnings/(loss) per share


Basic earnings/(loss) per share is computed by dividing the profit/(loss) after tax attributable to the equity holders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit/(loss) after tax as adjusted for dividend, interest (net of any attributable taxes) other charges to expense or income relating to the dilutive potential equity shares, by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share and the weighted average number of equity shares which could have been issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. Potential equity shares are deemed to be dilutive only if their conversion to equity shares would decrease the net profit per share or increase the net loss per share. Potential dilutive equity shares are deemed to be converted as at the beginning of the period, unless they have been issued at a later date. The dilutive potential equity shares are adjusted for the proceeds receivable had the shares been actually issued at fair value (i.e. average market value of the outstanding shares). Dilutive potential equity shares are determined independently for each period presented.


t. Segment reporting


Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the chief operating decision maker.


The Company identifies primary segments based on the dominant source, nature of risks and returns and the internal organization and management structure. The operating segments are the segments for which separate financial information is available and for which operating profit/loss amounts are evaluated regularly by the Executive Management in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Company operate.


The accounting policies adopted for segment reporting are in line with the accounting policies of the Company. Segment revenue, segment expenses, segment assets and segment liabilities have been identified to the segments on the basis of their relationship to the operating activities of the segment.


Common allocable costs are allocated to each segment according to the relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.


Revenue, expenses, assets and liabilities which relate to the Company as a whole and are not allocable to segments on a reasonable basis have been included under ''''unallocated revenue/expenses/assets/liabilities''''.


u. Measurement of EBIT


As permitted by the Guidance Note on the Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013, the Company has elected to present earnings before interest and tax (EBIT) as a separate line item on the face of the standalone statement of profit and loss. The Company measures EBIT on the basis of profit/(loss) from its operations. In its measurement, the Company does not include, interest income, finance costs and tax expense.

CIN: U67190WB2003PTC096617. Trading in Commodities is done through our Group Company Dynamic Commodities Pvt. Ltd. The company is also engaged in Proprietory Trading apart from Client Business.
“2019 © COPYRIGHT DYNAMIC EQUITIES PVT. LTD.”

Disclaimer: There is no guarantee of profits or no exceptions from losses. The investment advice provided are solely the personal views of the research team. You are advised to rely on your own judgment while making investment / Trading decisions. Past performance is not an indicator of future returns. Investment is subject to market risks. You should read and understand the Risk Disclosure Documents before trading/Investing.

Disclosure: We, Dynamic Equities Private Limited are also engaged in Proprietory Trading apart from Client Business. In case of any complaints/grievances, clients may write to us at compliance@dynamiclevels.com

  • Download our Mobile App
  • Available on Google Play
  • Available on App Store
  • RSS