Note 1: Corporate Information
Sharda Motor Industries Limited (“the Company”) is primarily engaged in the manufacturing and assembly of Auto Components and White Goods Components. The company serves as a ‘Tier I’ vendor for some of the major Automobiles and Electronics Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). It has got a ‘State of Art’ manufacturing facilities across thirteen locations in seven states of India. The Company’s production range includes Exhaust Systems, Catalytic Convertors, Suspension Systems, Sheet Metal Components and Plastic parts for the Automotive and White Goods Industries
Note 2: Basis of Preparation of Financial Statements
The financial statements of the company have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in India (Indian GAAP), and mandatory Accounting Standards as prescribed under section 133 of the Companies Act 2013 read with rule 7 of companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 issued by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs. The company has complied in all material respects with the Accounting Standards notified under the Companies Act 2013. The financial statements have been prepared on an accrual basis and under the historical cost convention. The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of financial statements are consistent with those of previous year except where a newly issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing accounting standard requires a change in the accounting policy hitherto in use.
Note 2.1: Significant Accounting Policies
(a) Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires the management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities, at the end of the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on the management’s best knowledge of current events and actions, uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in the outcomes requiring a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets or liabilities in future periods. Differences between the actual results and estimates are recognized in the year in which the results are known\materialized. Changes in estimates are reflected in the financial statements in the period in which the changes are made and, if material, their effects are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements.
(b) Classification of Current/ Non Current Assets & Liabilities
All assets and liabilities has been classified as current and non-current as under :
An asset is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:
a. it is expected to be realized in, or is intended for sale or consumption in, the company’s normal operating cycle;
b. it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;
c. it is expected to be realized within 12 months after the reporting date; or
d. it is cash or cash equivalent unless it is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date;
A liability is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:
a. it is expected to be settled in the Company’s normal operating cycle;
b. it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;
c. it is due to be settled within 12 months after the reporting date; or
d. the company does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date. Terms of a liability that could, at the option of the counterparty, result in its settlement by the issue of equity instrument do not affect its classification Current Assets/ liabilities include the current portion of non-current financial assets/liabilities respectively. All other assets/liabilities are classified as non- current.
Operating Cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash or cash equivalents
(c) Fixed Assets
I) Tangible Assets
Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition inclusive of freight, duties & taxes and incidental expenses related to acquisition up to the date of installation. Cost of Fixed assets are further adjusted by the amount of Modvat/Cenvat credit availed and VAT credit wherever applicable. Interest and finance charges incurred are allocated to the respective fixed assets on installation. Fixed assets under construction, and cost of assets not put to use before year end are shown as capital work in progress while advance paid towards acquisition of fixed assets are shown as capital advance under the head Loans & Advances. Leasehold Improvements are amortized over the period of lease.
Gain or loss arising on account of sale of fixed assets are measured as the difference between the net proceeds and the carrying amount of assets and all other expenses incurred on existing fixed assets, including day to day repair and maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the statements of profit and loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred.
II) Intangible Assets
Intangible assets representing computer software (which does not form an integral part of related hardware), Technical Know-How and Guidance Fee. Computer software which is acquired separately, is recognized initially at cost. Following initial recognition principle, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any.
(d) (I) Depreciation on tangible fixed assets
Depreciation is provided using the written down value method as per the useful life specified in Part “C” of Schedule II of the Companies Act,2013 and after retaining the residual value of 5% of the original cost of the assets as specified in the said Schedule. The Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 requires that useful life and depreciation for significant components of an asset should be determined separately. The identification of significant components is matter of technical judgment and is decided on case to case basis; wherever applicable. Further as per Note No. 7 of Part “C” of the said Schedule the carrying amount of the assets has been depreciated as follow:
a) Carrying value of asset has been depreciated over the remaining useful life of assets and recognized in the Statement of Profit & Loss.
b) However, some assets has been depreciated over useful life different from life specified in Schedule II of Companies Act, 2013 based on the technical estimates as details given below:-
c) Assets costing up to Rs. 5,000 are fully depreciated in the period of acquisition.
II) Amortization of Intangible Assets
Intangible assets other than Technical Know-How and Guidance Fee are amortized on a straight line basis over the estimated life of three years and Technical Know-How and Guidance Fee is amortized on straight line method over the estimated life of 6 years from the date of capitalization.
Raw material, Consumable Stores and spare parts are valued at lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost includes purchase price (excluding taxes which are subsequently recoverable by the enterprise from the Concerned revenue authorities), freight inwards and other expenditure incurred in bringing such inventories to their present location and condition. In determining the cost, FIFO method is used.
Work in progress, manufactured finished goods and traded goods are valued at lower of cost or net realizable value. The comparison of cost and net realizable value is made on an item by item basis. Cost of work in progress and manufactured finished goods is determined on FIFO basis and comprises direct material, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing these inventories to their present location and condition.
Stock in Transit is valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Scrap is valued at estimated net realizable value.
Excise duty liability is included in the valuation of closing inventory of finished goods.
(f) Revenue Recognition
Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. Following are the specific revenue recognition criteria:
a) Domestic Sales are recognized on transfer of significant risk and rewards to customer, which takes place on dispatch of goods to the customers from factory. The sales are accounted for net of trade discount, sales tax; sale returns. Export Sales are recognized at the time of the clearance of goods and approval of excise authorities.
b) Sales include revision in prices received from customers with retrospective effect.
c) Revenue relating to interest income is recognized on time proportionate basis determined by the amount outstanding and the rate applicable and where no significant uncertainty as to measurability or collectability exists. Dividend income is recognized when the right to receive the dividend is established.
a) Purchase of material is recognized on the basis of acceptance of material at the respective location.
b) Price revision of material purchased has also been included in purchases. Further adjustments, if any, are made in the year of final settlement.
(h) Foreign Exchange Transactions
Transactions in foreign currency are recorded on initial recognition at the exchange rate prevailing at the time of transaction. Exchange differences arising on foreign currency transactions settled during the year are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Monetary items (i.e. receivables, payable, loans etc.) denominated in foreign currencies as at the Balance sheet Date are translated at year end rates. The resultant exchange differences are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Non-Monetary assets are recorded at the rates prevailing on the date of transaction.
The exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting these items at rates different from rates at which these were initially recorded/reported in previous financial statement are recognized as income/expense in the period in which they arise.
The Company has one branch office outside India which is classified as integral foreign operation according to the provision of Accounting Standard (AS) 11, “The effects of Changes in foreign exchange rates”. The financial statement of an integral foreign operation are translated into Indian Rupees as if the transaction of the foreign operation were those of company itself. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies as at the Balance Sheet date are translated at year end rates. The resultant exchange differences are recognized in the Statement of Profit & Loss. Non-monetary assets are recorded at the rates prevailing at the rates on the date of the transaction.
In case of forward exchange contracts, the premium or discount arising at the inception of such contracts, is amortized as income or expense over the life of contract as well as exchange difference on such contracts i.e. difference between the exchange rate at the reporting/settlement date and the exchange rate on the date of inception/the last reporting date, is recognized as income/expense for the period.
(i) Borrowing Costs
The borrowing costs which are directly attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying fixed assets, which necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use, are capitalized as part of cost of the assets. All other borrowing costs are immediately recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
a) Investments, which are readily realizable and not intended to be held for more than one year from the date on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as Non-Current Investments. Current Investments are carried in the financial statements at lower of cost and fair value.
b) Non-Current Investments are carried at Cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the Investments.
(k) Expenditure on Research and Development
a) The revenue expenditure on research and development is charged as an expense in the year in which it is incurred. However Expenditure on development activities, whereby research findings are applied to a future plan or design for the production of new or substantially improved products and process and has got future benefits is capitalized. Such capitalization includes cost of materials, direct labor and an appropriate proportion of overheads that are directly attributable to preparing the assets for its intended use.
b) Capitalized development expenditure is stated at cost less accumulated amortization and impairment losses. Depreciation on such capital assets is followed in accordance with the Company''''s Policy.
(l) Employee Benefits
a) Short term employee benefits are recognized as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the Statement of Profit and Loss of the year in which related service is rendered.
b) The Company has Defined Contribution plans for post employment benefits'''' namely Provident Fund and Employee State Insurance Scheme. The Company''''s contributions in the above plans are charged to revenue every year.
c) The Company has Defined benefits plans namely Leave Encashment / Compensated Absence and Gratuity for employees. Gratuity liability is a defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation made at the end of each Financial Year by using ‘Projected Unit Credit'''' (PUC) method. However, the company through its Trust has taken a policy with ‘Life Insurance Corporation of India'''' to cover the gratuity liability of the employees. The difference between the actuarial valuation of the gratuity of employees at the year end and the balance of funds with Life Insurance Corporation of India is provided for as liability in the books.
d) Provision for Leave Encashment is accrued and provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation made at the end of each Financial Year by using ‘Projected Unit Credit'''' (PUC) method.
e) Actuarial gains / losses are immediately taken to Statement of Profit and Loss.
f) Terminal benefits are recognized as an expense immediately.
Other Long Term Benefits
Long term compensated absences (EL) are provided for on the basis of actuarial valuation, using the Projected Unit Credit method, at the end of each financial year. Actuarial gains/ losses, if any, are recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
(m) Taxes on Income
(a) Current Tax
Current Tax is measured and expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961, and based on the expected outcome of assessment/appeals. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date. Current Income Tax relating to the items recognized directly in equity is recognized in equity and not in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The provisions of current tax is made after considering impact if any, of provisions contained in Income Computation Disclosure Standards (ICDS) issued by CBDT vide Notification S.O. 892(E) dated March 31, 2016.
(b) Deferred Tax
Deferred tax resulting from “timing difference between book and taxable profit is accounted for using the tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted as on the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets subject to consideration of prudence, are recognized and carried forward only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. Such assets are reviewed as at each balance sheet date to re-assess realization.
(c) Minimum Alternate Tax
Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in the year is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss as current tax. The Company recognize MAT credit available as an asset only to the extent that there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period, i.e., the period for which MAT credit is allowed to be carried forward. In the year in which Company recognizes MAT credit as an asset in accordance with the Guidance Note on Accounting for Credit Available in respect of Minimum Alternate Tax under the Income Tax Act, 1961, the said asset is created by way of credit to the Statement of Profit and Loss and shown as “MAT Credit Entitlement “. The Company reviews the “MAT Credit Entitlement” asset at each reporting date and writes down the asset to the extent the Company does not have convincing evidence that it will pay normal tax during the specified period.
(n) Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets
a) Provisions are recognized in the accounts in respect of present probable obligations arising as a result of past events and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resources, the amount of which can be reliably estimated.
b) Contingent liabilities are disclosed in respect of possible obligations that arise from past events but their existence is confirmed by the occurrence or non occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company.
c) Contingent Assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in the financial statements.
The Lease under which the Company assumes substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as Finance leases. Such assets are capitalized at the inception of the lease at the lower of the fair value or the present value of minimum lease payments and a liability is created for an equivalent amount. Each lease rental paid is allocated between the liability and the interest cost, so as to obtain a constant periodic rate of interest on the outstanding liability for each period. The Assets acquired under leases where a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are retained by the lessor are classified as Operating leases. Lease rentals in case of Operating leases are charged to the Statement of Profit & Loss on accrual basis on straight line basis.
(p) Earnings Per Share
a) In determining earnings per share, the company considers the net profit after tax and includes the post tax effect of any extra ordinary items.
b) Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.
c) For the purpose of calculating Diluted Earnings per share, the number of shares comprises of weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share and also the weighted average number of equity share which could have been issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. Dilutive potential equity shares are deemed as converted at the beginning of the period, unless they have been issued at a later date. A transaction is considered to be antidilutive if its effect is to increase the amount of EPS, either by lowering the share count or increasing the earnings.
(q) Cash Flow
The cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit before tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature, any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments and item of income or expenses associated with investing or financing cash flows. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated as specified in Accounting Standard -3 (AS-3) “Cash Flow Statement”.
(r) Cash and cash equivalents
Cash comprises cash on hand and demand deposits with banks. Cash equivalents are short-term highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash and which are subject to insignificant risk of changes in value.
Warranty expenses are provided for in the year of sales based on technical estimates. In addition, specific provision is also made against customer claims for manufacturing.
(t) Impairment of Assets
The Company assesses at each reporting date whether there is an indication that an asset or Cash Generating Unit (CGU) may be impaired. If any indication exists, the recoverable amount of the same is determined. Where the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and risks specific to the asset. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the assets over its remaining useful life. A previously recognized impairment loss is reversed in Statement of Profit & Loss only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset’s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized.
u) Segment Reporting
(a) Based on the guiding principles given in Accounting Standard on “Segment Reporting” (AS-17) as notified under Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014, the Company’s primary business segment involves manufacturing and trading of auto component parts mainly with similar risks and returns. As the Company’s business activities fall within a single primary business segment, i.e. sale of auto component parts, the disclosure requirements of AS-17 in this regard are not applicable.
(b) The Company sells its products mostly within India and does not have any operations in economic environments with different risks and returns. Hence it is considered to be operating in single geographical segment.