1. Corporate information
Ramco Systems Limited (the “Company”) is a public limited company domiciled and headquartered in India and incorporated under the provisions of Companies Act,1956. Its shares are listed in BSE Limited and National Stock Exchange of India Limited. The registered offi ce of the Company is located at No. 47, P.S.K Nagar, Rajapalayam 626108 and corporate office and R&D center is located at 64, Sardar Patel Road, Taramani, Chennai 600113.
The Company develops Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Software solutions for various verticals in various domains like Human Capital Management, Aviation Maintenance Repair & Overhaul, Banking Analytics and provides these with related solutions and services, including managed services. The Software is either delivered on-premise or offered as a service hosted on cloud.
The financial statements of the Company for the year were approved and adopted by Board of Directors of the Company in its meeting held on 30 May 2017.
2. Basis of preparation of separate financial statements
2.1 The financial statements for the period up to 31 March 2016 were prepared in accordance with Accounting Standards notified under section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 read together with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 (Previous Indian GAAP). Pursuant to the mandatory requirement for adoption of Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS), as notif ed by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA), the Company has prepared its financial statements for the year ended 31 March 2017 in accordance with Ind AS notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules 2015 as amended from time to time. As mandated by the Ind AS, the comparative figures in the financial statements with respect to the previous year also have been restated. As a fi rst time adopter of Ind AS, the comparative Balance Sheet prepared for the opening date (01 April 2015 being the date of transition), is prepared under Ind AS. Refer note no.32 for information on how the Company adopted Ind AS.
2.2 The financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except certain financial instruments (refer note no.3.a and 3.l) and defined benefit plan assets, share based payments that are measured at fair values.
2.3 Foreign currency transactions
The functional currency of the Company is Indian Rupee. Transactions denominated in foreign currency are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of transaction. The monetary items denominated in the foreign currency at the year-end are translated at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the balance sheet and the loss or gain arising out of such transactions is adjusted in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
2.4 Translation of financial statements of foreign branches
Functional currency of foreign branches is the respective local currency of domicile. All income and expenditure transactions during the year are reported at a monthly moving average exchange rate for the respective periods. All assets and liabilities are translated at the rate prevailing on the Balance Sheet date. Net gain / loss on foreign currency translation is recognized in Other Comprehensive Income. As allowed by Ind AS 101, cumulative currency translation differences for all foreign operations have been reset to zero at the date of transition, viz., 01 April 2015.
2.5 An asset is treated as current when it is:
- Expected to be realized or intended to sold or consumed in normal operating cycle
- Held primarily for the purpose of trading
- Expected to be realized within twelve months after the reporting period, or
- Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.
All other assets are classified as non-current.
2.6 A liability is current when:
- It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle
- It is held primarily for the purpose of trading
- It is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or
- There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.
All other liabilities are classified as non-current.
2.7 Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.
2.8 The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash and cash equivalents. The Company has identified twelve months as its operating cycle.
2.9 The financial statements are presented in Indian Rupees rounded to the nearest million with two decimals.
3. Significant accounting policies
a. Fair value measurement
The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.
All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorized within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:
Level 1 - Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable.
Level 3 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable.
For assets and liabilities that are recognized in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorization (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.
For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the Company has determined classes of assets and liabilities on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy as explained above.
b. Revenue recognition
Revenue is recognized in accordance with Ind AS 18: ‘Revenue’. This requires exercise of judgment and the use of estimates in connection with the determination of the amount of revenue to be recognized in each accounting period.
Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured, regardless of when the payment is being made. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes or duties.
The specific recognition criteria described below must be met before revenue is recognized.
Revenues are derived from the following streams: (1) Software License (2) Software development / implementation services (3) Product Support Services (4) Application Maintenance Services (5) Software as a Service (SaaS)
(6) Managed Services (7) Value Added Resale Hardware & Software and (8) Other income.
Software license revenues represent all fees earned from granting customers licenses to use the Company’s software, through initial licensing and or through the purchase of additional modules or user rights. For software license arrangements that do not require significant modification or customization of the underlying software, revenue is recognized on delivery of the software, including cases with extended credit period, when, in the opinion of the Company, there are no collectability concerns.
Software development / implementation fees
Software development / implementation contracts are either fixed price or time and material based. In the case of fixed price contracts, revenue is recognized in accordance with percentage of completion method. In the case of time and material contracts, revenue is recognized based on billable time spent in the project, priced at the contractual rate.
Non-refundable one-time upfront fees for enablement / application installation, consisting of standardization set-up, initiation or activation or user login creation services in the case of hosting contracts, forming part of the implementation services are recognized in accordance with percentage of completion method.
Product support service fees
Fees for product support services, covering inter alia improvement and up gradation of the basic Software, whether sold separately (e.g., renewal period AMC) or as an element of a multiple-element arrangement, are recognized as revenue ratably on straight line basis, over the term of the support arrangement.
Application maintenance service fees
Fees for the application maintenance services, covering inter alia the support of the customized software, are recognized as revenue ratably on straight line basis, over the term of the support arrangement.
Software as a Service (SaaS) fees
Subscription fees for offering the hosted software as a service are recognized as revenue ratably on straight line basis, over the term of the subscription arrangement.
Managed services fees
Fees for managed services, which include business processing services, are recognized as revenue as services are provided.
Value added resale hardware & software
Revenue from sale of traded hardware / software is recognized on transfer of significant risks and rewards of ownership to customers which generally coincides with dispatch of goods.
Multiple element arrangements
Software licenses are often sold in combination with implementation and product support services. The consideration in such multiple element contracts is allocated based either on the fair value of each element or on the residual method. Under the residual method, the balance of the consideration, after allocating the fair values of undelivered components of a transaction has been allocated to the delivered components for which specific fair values do not exist.
In cases, where implementation services significantly alter the software’s capabilities, software license revenue is recognized on percentage of completion method, instead of considering software and implementation services as separate elements.
Revenues from implementation services in respect of hosting contracts are to be recognized as revenue ratably over the longer of the contract term or the estimated expected life of the customer relationship. However, considering the existence of partners being available for rendering such implementation services, these services are considered to be a separate element and recognized in accordance with percentage of completion method.
Interest on bank deposits and rental income are recognized on accrual basis.
The imputed interest attributable to arrangements having extended credit period is eliminated from the revenue from operations and accounted as interest over the credit period.
c. Income Taxes
Current tax is the amount of tax payable on the taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the applicable tax rates the provisions of the Income tax Act, 1961 and other applicable tax laws.
Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives future economic benefits in the form of adjustment to future tax liability, is recognized as an asset viz. MAT Credit Entitlement, to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal Income tax and it is highly probable that future economic benefits associated with it will flow to the Company during the specified period. The Company reviews the “MAT Credit Entitlement” at each Balance Sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of the same to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that the Company will pay normal Income tax during the specified period.
Current tax assets and liabilities are offset, when the Company has legally enforceable right to set off the recognized amounts and intends to settle the asset and the liability on a net basis.
Deferred tax is recognized using the balance sheet approach on temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting at the reporting date.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the year where the asset is realized or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if such items relate to taxes on income levied by same governing tax laws and the Company has legally enforceable right to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities.
Both current tax and deferred tax relating to items recognized outside the Profit or Loss is recognized either in “Other Comprehensive Income” or directly in “Equity” as the case may be.
d. Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. The cost comprises of purchase price, borrowing cost if capitalization criteria are met and directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. When significant parts of plant and equipment are required to be replaced at intervals, the Company depreciates them separately based on their specific useful lives.
When assets are acquired on Hire Purchase these are capitalized at the gross value and interest thereon charged to statement of profit and loss.
Depreciation in the books of the Company is charged on a pro-rata basis on the Straight Line Method as prescribed under Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013 over the useful life of the assets.
An item of property, plant and equipment and any significant part initially recognized is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Any gain or loss arising on de-recognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset) is included in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.
The residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation of property, plant and equipment are reviewed at each financial year end and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.
e. Intangible assets
Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Internally generated intangibles, excluding capitalized software development costs, are not capitalized and the related expenditure is reflected in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which the expenditure is incurred.
The useful lives of intangible assets of the Company are assessed as finite.
Intangible assets with finite lives are amortized over the useful economic life and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortization period and the amortization method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at least at the end of each reporting period. Changes in the expected useful life or the expected pattern of consumption of future economic benefits embodied in the asset are considered to modify the amortization period or method, as appropriate, and are treated as changes in accounting estimates. The amortization expense on intangible assets with finite lives is recognized in the statement of profit and loss unless such expenditure forms part of carrying value of another asset.
Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit or loss when the asset is derecognized.
Software development costs
Research costs are expensed as incurred. Software development expenditures on product / platform are recognized as intangible assets when the Company can demonstrate:
- The technical feasibility of completing the intangible asset so that the asset will be available for use or sale
- Its intention to complete and its ability and intention to use or sell the asset
- How the asset will generate future economic benefits
- The availability of resources to complete the asset
- The ability to measure reliably the expenditure during development
Following initial recognition of the development expenditure as an asset, the asset is carried at cost less any accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Amortization of these assets begins from the year, following the year in which such development costs are incurred. It is amortized over the period of expected future benefit. Amortization expense is recognized in the statement of profit and loss unless such expenditure forms part of carrying value of another asset.
Costs incurred in the development of the product, together with repository of new business components, upon completion of the development phase, have been classified and grouped as “Product software” under intangible assets. Similarly, costs incurred in the development of technology platform framework, which would enable the Company to provide solutions -both standard and customized - in an efficient manner, have been classified and grouped as “Technology platform” under intangible assets.
Company is fling patent applications and costs incurred for fling the patent application like consultancy and fling fees are capitalized upon grant of Patents.
f. Borrowing costs
Borrowing cost include interest computed using Effective Interest Rate method, amortization of ancillary costs incurred and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.
Borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction, production of a qualifying asset are capitalized as part of the cost of that asset which takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. The Company determines the amount of borrowing cost eligible for capitalization by applying capitalization rate to the expenditure incurred on such cost. The capitalization rate determined based on the weighted average rate of borrowing cost applicable to the borrowings of the Company which are outstanding during the period, other than borrowings made specifically towards purchase of the qualifying asset. The amount of borrowing cost that the Company capitalizes during the period does not exceed the amount of borrowing cost incurred during that period. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they occur.
The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfillment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.
For arrangements entered into prior to 01 April 2015, the Company has determined whether the arrangement contain lease on the basis of facts and circumstances existing on the date of transition.
Company as a lessee
A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Company is classified as a finance lease.
Finance leases are capitalized at the commencement of the lease at the inception date fair value of the leased property or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognized in finance costs in the statement of profit and loss, unless they are directly attributable to qualifying assets, in which case they are capitalized in accordance with the Company’s general policy on the borrowing costs. Contingent rentals are recognized as expenses in the periods in which they are incurred.
A leased asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term.
Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Company as a less or
Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of an asset are classified as operating leases. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating and arranging an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognized over the lease term on the same basis as rental income. Contingent rents are recognized as revenue in the period in which they are earned.
Leases are classified as finance leases when substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership transfer from the Company to the lessee. Amounts due from lessees under finance leases are recorded as receivables at the Company’s net investment in the leases. Finance lease income is allocated to accounting periods so as to reflect a constant periodic rate of return on the net investment outstanding in respect of the lease.
Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value.
Cost includes bringing the inventories to their present location and condition and is determined based on FIFO method.
Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
i. Impairment of non-financial assets
The carrying values of the non-financial assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment of the carrying amount of the Company’s assets. If any indication exists, an asset’s recoverable amount is estimated. An impairment loss is recognized whenever the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor. When there is indication that an impairment loss recognized for an asset in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased such reversal of impairment loss is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.
j. Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets
Provisions are recognized when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. When the Company expects some or all of a provision to be reimbursed, for example, under an insurance contract, the reimbursement is recognized as a separate asset, but only when the reimbursement is virtually certain. The expense relating to a provision is presented in the statement of profit and loss net of any reimbursement.
If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognized as a finance cost.
Contingent liability is a possible obligation that may arise from past events and its existence will be confirmed only by occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company or it is not probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and the same are not recognized but disclosed in the financial statements.
Insurance claims are accounted on the basis of claims admitted or expected to be admitted and to the extent that the amount recoverable can be measured reliably and it is reasonable to expect ultimate collection. Any subsequent change in the recoverability is provided for. Contingent Assets are neither recognized nor disclosed.
k. Employee benefits expense Short-term employee benefits
Short-term employee benefits viz., salaries, wages and other benefits are recognized as expenses at the undiscounted amount as per contractual terms in the statement of profit and loss for the year in which the related service is rendered.
Defined contribution plans Superannuation
The senior officers of the Company have been given an option to participate in Defined Contribution Plan (“The Superannuation Plan”) maintained by the Life Insurance Corporation of India. For those who opt to participate, the company makes contributions not exceeding Rupees One Lakh per annum, based on specified percentage of basic salary of each covered employee. For those who do not opt to participate, an amount equivalent to the contribution determined at the time of exercise of option is paid along with salary. The Company has no further obligation beyond its contribution/payments.
National pension system
The employees of the Company have been given an option to participate in a defined contribution plan (’’National Pension System”), maintained by the fund managers approved by the Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority. For those who opt to participate, the Company makes contributions equal to 10% of the covered employee’s basic salary. For those who do not opt to participate, an amount equivalent to the contribution determined at the time of exercise of option is paid along with salary. The Company has no further obligation beyond its contributions/payments.
In addition to the above benefits, all employees receive benefits from a Provident fund, which is defined contribution plan. Both the employee and employer each make monthly contributions to the plan equal to 12% of the covered employee’s basic salary. These contributions are made to the employees’ provident fund maintained by the Government of India. The company has no further obligations under the plan beyond its monthly contributions.
Defined benefit plans Gratuity
In accordance with the Indian Law, the Company provides for gratuity, a defined benefit plan (“The Gratuity Plan”), covering all employees. The employees are covered under the Company Gratuity Scheme of the Life Insurance Corporation of India. The liability for Gratuity is ascertained as at the end of the financial year, based on the actuarial valuation by an independent external actuary as at the Balance Sheet date using the “projected unit credit method”.
Remeasurement of net defined benefit asset / liability comprising of actuarial gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are charged / credited to other comprehensive income in the period in which they arise and immediately transferred to retained earnings. Other costs are accounted in the consolidated statement of profit and loss.
The Company has a policy of providing encashment of unveiled leave for its employees. The obligation for the leave encashment is recognized based on an independent external actuarial valuation at the Balance Sheet date. The expense is recognized in the statement of profit and loss at the present value of the amount payable determined based on actuarial valuation using “projected unit credit method”.
l. Financial instruments
1.1 A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.
1.2 Financial assets and liabilities are offset and the net amount is presented in the Balance sheet when and only when the Company has a legal right to offset the recognized amounts and intends either to settle on a net basis or to realize the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.
1.3 The Company initially determines the classification of financial assets and liabilities. After initial recognition, no re-classification is made for financial assets which are categorized as equity instruments at FVTOCI and financial assets / liabilities that are specifically designated as FVTPL. However, other financial assets are re-classifiable when there is a change in the business model of the Company. When the Company reclassifies the financial assets, such reclassifications are done prospectively from the fi rst day of the immediately next reporting period. The Company does not restate any previously recognized gains, losses including impairment gains or losses or interest.
1.4 Financial assets comprises of investments in equity and mutual funds, trade receivables, cash and cash equivalents and other financial assets.
1.5 Depending on the business model (i.e) nature of transactions for managing those financial assets and its contractual cash flow characteristics, the financial assets are initially measured at fair value and subsequently measured and classified at:
a) Amortized cost; or
b) Fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI); or
c) Fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)
Amortized cost represents carrying amount on initial recognition at fair value plus or minus transaction cost.
1.6 The Company has evaluated the facts and circumstances on date of transition to Ind AS for the purpose of classification and measurement of financial assets. Accordingly, financial assets are measured at FVTPL except for those financial assets whose contractual terms give rise to cash flows on specified dates that represents solely payments of principal and interest thereon, are measured as detailed below depending on the business model:
Investment in equity of subsidiaries are carried at cost (i.e) previous GAAP carrying amount as at the date of transition to Ind AS. The Company has exercised an irrevocable option at time of initial recognition to measure the changes in fair value of other equity investments at FVTOCI. Accordingly, the Company classifies its financial assets for measurement as below:
1.7 Financial assets are derecognized (i.e) removed from the financial statements, when its contractual rights to the cash flows expire or upon transfer of the said assets. The Company also derecognizes when it has an obligation to adjust the cash flows arising from the financial asset with third party and either upon transfer of:
a. significant risk and rewards of the financial asset, or
b. control of the financial asset
However, the Company continue to recognize the transferred financial asset and its associated liability to the extent of its continuing involvement, which are measured on the basis of detainment of its rights and obligations of financial asset. The Company has applied the de-recognition requirements prospectively.
1.8 Upon derecognition of its financial asset or part thereof, the difference between the carrying amount measured at the date of recognition and the consideration received including any new asset obtained less any new liability assumed shall be recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
1.9 For impairment purposes, significant financial assets are tested on individual basis at each reporting date. Other financial assets are assessed collectively in groups that share similar credit risk characteristics. Accordingly, the impairment testing is done retrospectively on the following basis:
1.12 Financial liabilities are derecognized when and only when it is extinguished (i.e) when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged or cancelled or expired.
1.13 Upon derecognition of its financial liabilities or part thereof, the difference between the carrying amount of a financial liability that has been extinguished or transferred to another party and the consideration paid including any non-cash assets transferred or liabilities assumed is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
m. Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents in the Balance Sheet comprises of cash at banks and on hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into cash.
n. Cash dividend
The Company recognizes a liability to make cash dividend, when the distribution is authorized and the distribution is no longer at the discretion of the Company. A corresponding amount is recognized directly in equity including applicable taxes.
o. Cash flow statement
Cash flows’ are presented using indirect method, whereby profit / (loss) before extraordinary items and tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments.
For the purpose of the statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and short-term deposits net of outstanding bank overdrafts as they are considered an integral part of the Company’s cash management.
p. Share based payments
Stock options granted to the option grantees in the Company / subsidiaries are measured at the fair value of the equity instruments granted. For each stock option, the measurement of fair value is performed on the grant date. The grant date is the date on which the options are granted. The fair value so determined is revised only if the stock option scheme is modified in a manner that is beneficial to the employees. The ex-modification fair value is recognized as an employee expense equally over the vesting period and the incremental fair value resulting from modification of the scheme, is recognized over the vesting period remaining after the modification date.
Graded vesting options
If the options vest in installments (i.e. the options vest pro rata over the vesting period), then each installment is treated as a separate share option grant because each installment has a different vesting period.
q. Earnings Per Share (EPS)
Net profit after tax is divided by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding.
When an item of income or expense which is otherwise required to be recognized in the statement of profit and loss is debited or credited to Equity, the amount in respect thereof is suitably adjusted in Net Prof t for the purpose of computing Earnings Per Share.
Basic EPS amounts are calculated by dividing the profit for the year attributable to equity holders of the Company by the weighted average number of Equity Shares outstanding during the year.
Diluted EPS amounts are calculated by dividing the profit attributable to equity holders of the Company by the weighted average number of Equity Shares outstanding during the year plus the weighted average number of Equity Shares that would be issued on conversion of all the dilutive potential Equity Shares into Equity shares.
r. Operating segments
The Company’s business operation comprises of single operating segment viz., Software and related solutions. Operating segment has been identified on the basis of nature of products and reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to Chief Operating Decision Maker.
4. Significant estimates and judgments
The preparation of the financial statements requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the accompanying disclosures, and the disclosure of contingent liabilities. Actual results could vary from these estimates. The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an on-going basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision effects only that period or in the period of the revision or future periods, if the revision affects both current and future years.
Accordingly, the management has applied the following estimates / assumptions / judgments in preparation and presentation of financial statements:
Property, plant and equipment and intangible assets
The residual values and estimated useful life of PPEs, Intangible assets are assessed by technical team duly reviewed by the management at each reporting date. Wherever the management believes that the assigned useful life and residual value are appropriate, such recommendations are accepted and adopted for computation of depreciation / amortization / impairment.
Calculations of income taxes for the current period are done based on applicable tax laws and management’s judgments by evaluating positions taken in tax returns and interpretations of relevant provisions of law.
Deferred tax asset (including MAT credit entitlement)
Significant management judgment is exercised by reviewing the deferred tax assets at each reporting date to determine the amount of deferred tax assets that can be retained / recognized, based upon the likely timing and the level of future taxable profits together with future tax planning strategies.
Management judgment is exercised for estimating the possible outflow of resources, if any, in respect of contingencies / claims / litigations against the Company as it is not possible to predict the outcome of pending matters with accuracy.
Impairment of financial assets
The impairment for financial assets are done based on assumptions about risk of default and expected loss rates. The assumptions, selection of inputs for calculation of impairment are based on management judgment considering the past history, market conditions and forward looking estimates at the end of each reporting date.
Impairment of non-financial assets (PPE / Intangible assets)
The impairment of non-financial assets is determined based on estimation of recoverable amount of such assets. The assumptions used in computing the recoverable amount are based on management judgment considering the timing of future cash flows, discount rates and the risks specific to the asset.
Defined benefit plans and other long term benefits
The cost of the defined benefit plan and other long term benefits, and the present value of such obligation are determined by the independent actuarial valuer. Management believes that the assumptions used by the actuary in determination of the discount rate, future salary increases, mortality rates and attrition rate are reasonable. Due to the complexities involved in the valuation and its long term nature, this obligation is highly sensitive to changes in these assumptions.
Fair value measurement of financial instruments
When the fair values of financial assets and financial liabilities could not be measured based on quoted prices in active markets, management uses valuation techniques including the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model, to determine its fair value. The inputs to these models are taken from observable markets where possible, but where this is not feasible, a degree of judgment is exercised in establishing fair values. Judgments include considerations of inputs such as liquidity risk, credit risk and volatility.
Share based payments
The Company initially measures the equity settled transactions with employees using fair value model. This requires determination of most appropriate valuation model, which is dependent on the terms and conditions of the grant. This estimate also requires determination of the most appropriate inputs to the valuation model including volatility and dividend yield and making assumptions about them.