1. Company overview
Minda Industries Limited is a public company domiciled and headquartered in India. It was incorporated on 16 September 1992 under the Companies Act, 1956 and its shares are listed on the National Stock Exchange (NSE) and Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE).
Company is engaged in the business of manufacturing of auto components including auto electrical parts and its accessories. The Company caters to both domestic and international markets.
2. Significant accounting policies
The accounting policies set out below have been applied consistently to the period presented in these financial statements.
A. Basis of preparation of financial statements
These financial statements have been prepared and presented on the accrual basis of accounting and comply with the Accounting Standards referred to in section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 read with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014, the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013, pronouncements of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India and other accounting principles generally accepted in India, to the extent applicable. The financial statements are presented in Indian rupees.
B. Use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and reported amounts of assets, liabilities, income and expenses and the disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Any revision to accounting estimates is recognized prospectively in current and future periods.
C. Current-non-current classification
All assets and liabilities are classified into current and non-current.
An asset is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:
(a) it is expected to be realized in, or is intended for sale or consumption in, the Company’s normal operating cycle;
(b) it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;
(c) it is expected to be realized within 12 months after the reporting date; or
(d) it is cash or cash equivalent unless it is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date.
Current assets include the current portion of non-current financial assets. All other assets are classified as non-current.
A liability is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:
(a) it is expected to be settled in the Company’s normal operating cycle;
(b) it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;
(c) it is due to be settled within 12 months after the reporting date; or
(d) the Company does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date. Terms of a liability that could, at the option of the counterparty, result in its settlement by the issue of equity instruments do not affect its classification.
Current liabilities include current portion of non-current financial liabilities. All other liabilities are classified as non-current.
Operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash or cash equivalents. The Company’s operating cycle has been estimated not to exceed one year in all cases.
D. Fixed assets and depreciation
a) Tangible fixed assets
Tangible fixed assets except revalued assets are carried at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation and/ or accumulated impairment loss, if any. The cost of an item of tangible fixed asset comprises its purchase price, including import duties and other non-refundable taxes or levies and any directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use; any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price.
Subsequent expenditures related to an item of tangible fixed asset are added to its book value only if they increase the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance.
Tangible fixed assets acquired wholly or partly with specific grant/subsidy from government, if any, are recorded at the net acquisition cost to the Company.
Borrowing costs are interest and other costs (including exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent that they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs) incurred by the Company in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing costs directly attributable to acquisition or construction of those tangible fixed assets which necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use are capitalized. Other borrowing costs are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.
Exchange differences (favourable as well as unfavorable) arising in respect of translation/settlement of long term foreign currency borrowings attributable to the acquisition of a depreciable asset are also included in the cost of the asset.
Tangible fixed assets under construction are disclosed as capital work-in-progress.
Depreciation on plant & machinery and tools & dies is provided on WDV basis and on other tangible fixed assets on SLM basis, based on the rates as per useful life prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 except in the case of tools & dies, the life based on technical advice ranges between 3 to 8 years in case of additions up to 31 March 2015 and 6 years in case of additions from 1 April 2015 onwards.
Leasehold land and leasehold improvements are amortized on a straight line basis over the period of lease or their useful lives, whichever is shorter. Freehold land is not depreciated.
Depreciation is provided on a pro-rata basis i.e. from the date on which asset is ready for use.
Assets acquired under finance leases are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and their useful lives (not being greater than the useful life envisaged in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013) unless it is reasonably certain that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, in which case the depreciation rates applicable for similar assets owned by the Company are applied.
Assets costing up to H5,000 are fully depreciated in the year of purchase.
Depreciation for the year is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
The useful lives are reviewed by the management at each financial year-end and revised, if appropriate. In case of a revision, the unamortized depreciable amount is charged over the revised remaining useful life.
A fixed asset is eliminated from the financial statements on disposal or when no further benefit is expected from its use and disposal.
Assets retired from active use and held for disposal, if any, are stated at the lower of their net book value and net realizable value and shown under ‘Other current assets’.
Losses arising from retirement or gains or losses arising from disposal of fixed assets which are carried at cost are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
b) Intangible fixed assets and amortization
Goodwill that arises on the acquisition of a business is presented as an intangible asset. Goodwill arising from amalgamation is measured at cost less accumulated amortization and any accumulated impairment loss. Such goodwill is amortized over its estimated useful life or five years whichever is shorter. Goodwill arising on acquisition of a business is measured at cost less any accumulated impairment loss. Goodwill is tested for impairment annually.
(ii) Acquired intangible assets
Intangible assets that are acquired by the Company are measured initially at cost. After initial recognition, an intangible asset is carried at its cost less any accumulated amortization and any accumulated impairment loss.
Subsequent expenditure is capitalized only when it increases the future economic benefits from the specific asset to which it relates.
Intangible assets are amortized in the Statement of Profit or Loss over their estimated useful lives, from the date that they are available for use based on the expected pattern of consumption of economic benefits of the asset. Accordingly, at present, these are being amortized on straight line basis. In accordance with the applicable Accounting Standard, the Company follows a rebuttable presumption that the useful life of an intangible asset will not exceed ten years from the date when the asset is available for use. However, if there is persuasive evidence that the useful life of an intangible asset is longer than ten years, it is amortized over the best estimate of its useful life. Such intangible assets and intangible assets that are not yet available for use are tested annually for impairment.
i) Technical know-how: Amortized over the period of agreement.
ii) Computer software: Amortized over the period of 6 years.
Amortization method and useful lives are reviewed at each reporting date. If the useful life of an asset is estimated to be significantly different from previous estimates, the Amortization period is changed accordingly. If there has been a significant change in the expected pattern of economic benefits from the asset, the Amortization method is changed to reflect the changed pattern.
An intangible asset is derecognized on disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use and disposal.
Losses arising from retirement and gains or losses arising from disposal of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
c) Capital work-in-progress
Fixed assets under construction and cost of assets not put to use before the year-end, are disclosed as capital work-in-progress.
The carrying values of all assets are reviewed at each reporting date to determine if there is an indication of any impairment. If any indication exists, the asset’s recoverable amount is estimated. For assets that are not yet available for use, the recoverable amount is estimated at each reporting date. An impairment loss is recognized whenever the carrying amount of an asset, or its cash generating unit exceeds its recoverable amount. Impairment losses are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss. An impairment loss is reversed if there is a change in the estimate used to determine the recoverable amount. An impairment loss is reversed only to the extent the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined net off depreciation or Amortization, if no impairment loss had been recognized .
a) Operating leases
Assets acquired under leases other than finance leases are classified as operating leases. The total lease rentals (including scheduled rental increases) in respect of an asset taken on operating lease are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight line basis over the lease term unless another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern of the benefit.
b) Finance leases
Assets acquired under finance leases are recognized as an asset and a liability at the lower of the fair value of the leased assets at the inception of the lease and the present value of minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charge and the reduction of the outstanding liability. The finance charge is allocated to periods during the lease term so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability and charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Investments that are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than a year from the date of acquisition are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. However, that part of long term investments which is expected to be realized within 12 months after the reporting date is also presented under ‘current assets’ as “current portion of long term investments” in consonance with the current-non-current classification under Schedule III.
Long-term investments (including current portion thereof) are carried at cost less any other-than-temporary diminution in value, determined separately for each individual investment.
Current investments are carried at the lower of cost and fair value.
Any reductions in the carrying amount and any reversals of such reductions are charged or credited to the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Investment in the capital of a partnership firm is shown by reference to the capital of the firm on the balance sheet date. The Company’s share of profit or loss in a partnership firm is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss as and when it accrues i.e. when it is computed and credited or debited to the capital/current/any other account of the Company in the books of the partnership firm.
Inventories which comprise raw materials, work-in-progress, finished goods, stock-in-trade, stores and spares, and loose tools are carried at the lower of cost and net realizable value.
Cost of inventories comprises all costs of purchase, costs of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.
In determining the cost, weighted average cost method is used. In the case of manufactured inventories and work in progress, fixed production overheads are allocated on the basis of normal capacity of production facilities.
Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
The net realizable value of work-in-progress is determined with reference to the selling prices of related finished products. Raw materials and other supplies held for use in the production of finished products are not written down below cost except in cases where material prices have declined and it is estimated that the cost of the finished products will exceed their net realizable value.
The comparison of cost and net realizable value is made on an item-by-item basis.
Finished goods inventory is inclusive of excise duty.
Inventories in transit are valued at cost.
Appropriate adjustments are made to the carrying value of damaged, slow moving and obsolete inventories based on management’s current best estimate.
I. Revenue recognition
a) Revenue from sale of goods in the course of ordinary activities is recognized when the property in the goods or all significant risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the customer and no significant uncertainty exists regarding the amount of the consideration that will be derived from the sale of goods and regarding its collection. The amount recognized as revenue is inclusive of excise duty and exclusive of sales tax, value added taxes (VAT) and is net of returns, trade discounts and quantity discounts.
b) Management fees, Designing fees and service revenue is recognized on an accrual basis as and when the services are rendered in accordance with the terms of the underlying contract.
c) Interest income is recognized on a time proportionate basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the interest rate applicable.
d) Dividend income is recognized when the right to receive dividend is established.
e) Royalty income is recognized based on the terms of the underlying agreement.
f) Claims lodged with insurance companies are accounted for on an accrual basis, to the extent these are measurable and the ultimate collection is reasonably certain.
g) Export entitlement under Duty Entitlement Pass Book Scheme (‘DEPB’) is recognized on accrual basis and when the right to entitlement has been established.
h) Share of profit from partnership firms is recognized on accrual basis.
J. Government grants
Government grants in the nature of promoters’ contribution are credited to capital reserve and treated as a part of shareholders’ funds. Grants from State Government towards revenue expenditure are recognized as income either till the period of benefit expires or the financial cap is reached, whichever occurs earlier.
K. Research and development
a) Revenue expenditure on research and development is charged off under the respective heads of account in the year in which it is incurred.
b) Capitalized development expenditure is stated at cost less accumulated Amortization and impairment losses, if any. Fixed assets used for research and development are depreciated in accordance with the Company’s policy as stated above.
L. Foreign currency transactions
(a) Initial recognition
Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.
Foreign currency monetary items are retranslated using the exchange rate prevailing at the reporting date. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.
Non-monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are, translated using the exchange rates that existed when such values were determined.
(c) Exchange differences
The Company accounts for exchange differences arising on translation / settlement of foreign currency monetary items as below:
i) Exchange differences arising on long-term foreign currency monetary items related to acquisition of a fixed asset are capitalized and depreciated over the remaining useful life of the asset.
ii) Exchange differences arising on other long-term foreign currency monetary items are accumulated in the ‘Foreign Currency Monetary Item Translation Difference Account’ and amortized over the remaining life of the concerned monetary item.
iii) All other exchange differences are recognized as income or as expense in the period in which they arise.
For the purpose of i) and ii) above, the Company treats a foreign currency monetary item as “long-term foreign currency monetary item”, if it has a term of 12 months or more at the date of its origination. In accordance with MCA circular dated 09 August 2012, exchange differences for this purpose, are total differences arising on long-term foreign currency monetary items for the period.
(d) Forward exchange contracts not intended for trading or speculation purposes
The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contract is amortized and recognized as an expense / income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts, except the contract which are long-term foreign currency monetary items, are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on calculation or renewal of such forward exchange contract is also recognized as income or as expense for the period. Any gain/loss arising on forward contracts which are long-term foreign currency monetary items is recognized in accordance with paragraph (c) (i) above.
A provision is recognized if, as a result of a past event, the Company has a present obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are recognized at the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the balance sheet date. The provisions are measured on an undiscounted basis.
Warranty costs are estimated on the basis of a technical evaluation and past experience. Provision is made for estimated liability in respect of warranty costs in the year of sale of goods and is included in the statement of profit and loss. The estimates used for accounting for warranty costs are reviewed periodically and revisions are made, as and when required.
Provision in respect of loss contingencies relating to claims, litigation, assessment, fines, penalties, etc. are recognized when it is probable that a liability has been incurred, and the amount can be estimated reliably.
N. Contingent liabilities and contingent assets
A contingent liability exists when there is a possible but not probable obligation, or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources, or a present obligation whose amount cannot be estimated reliably. Contingent liabilities do not warrant provisions, but are disclosed unless the possibility of outflow of resources is remote. Contingent assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in the financial statements. However, contingent assets are assessed continually and if it is virtually certain that an inflow of economic benefits will arise, the asset and related income are recognized in the period in which the change occurs.
O. Employee benefits
a) Short term employee benefits
Employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of receiving employee services are classified as short-term employee benefits. These benefits include salaries and wages, bonus and ex-gratia. The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits to be paid in exchange for employee services is recognized as an expense as the related service is rendered by employees.
b) Post-employment benefits Defined contribution plans
A defined contribution plan is a post-employment benefit plan under which an entity pays specified contributions to a separate entity and has no obligation to pay any further amounts. The Company makes specified monthly contributions towards employee provident fund and ESI to Government administered fund which is a defined contribution plan. The Company’s contribution is recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss during the period in which the employee renders the related service.
The Company makes specified monthly contribution towards superannuation fund which is managed by the Life Insurance Corporation of India (“LIC”).
Defined benefit plan
The Company’s gratuity benefit scheme is a defined benefit plan. The Company’s net obligation in respect of a defined benefit plan is calculated by estimating the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior periods; that benefit is discounted to determine its present value. The fair value of plan assets is reduced from the gross obligation under the defined benefit plans, to recognize the obligation on net basis. The calculation of the Company’s obligation is performed annually by a qualified actuary using the projected unit credit method.
The Company recognizes all actuarial gains and losses arising from defined benefit plans immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss. All expenses related to defined benefit plans are recognized in employee benefits expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The Company recognizes gains and losses on the curtailment or settlement of a defined benefit plan when the curtailment or settlement occurs.
The Company’s gratuity fund is administered and managed by the Life Insurance Corporation of India (“LIC”).
c) Long term employee benefits Compensated absences
The employees can carry-forward a portion of the unutilized accrued compensated absences and utilize it in future service periods or receive cash compensation on termination of employment. Since the compensated absences do not fall due wholly within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service and are also not expected to be utilized wholly within twelve months after the end of such period, the benefit to such extent is classified as a long-term employee benefit. The Company records an obligation for such compensated absences in the period in which the employee renders the services that increase this entitlement. The obligation is measured on the basis of independent actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method.
Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
d) Termination benefits
Termination benefits are recognized as an expense when, as a result of a past event, the Company has a present obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation.
P. Income taxes
Income-tax expense comprises current tax (i.e. amount of tax for the period determined in accordance with the income-tax law) and deferred tax charge or credit (reflecting the tax effects of timing differences between accounting income and taxable income for the period). Income-tax expense is recognized in Statement of Profit or Loss except that tax expense related to items recognized directly in reserves is also recognized in those reserves.
Current tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to (recovered from) the taxation authorities, using the applicable tax rates and tax laws. Deferred tax is recognized in respect of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income i.e. differences that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liabilities or assets are recognized using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realized in future; however, where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward loss under taxation laws, deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is a virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. Deferred tax assets are reviewed as at each balance sheet date and written down or written-up to reflect the amount that is reasonably/virtually certain (as the case may be) to be realized.
Minimum Alternative Tax (‘MAT’) under the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961 is recognized as current tax in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The credit available under the Act in respect of MAT paid is recognized as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the period for which the MAT credit can be carried forward for set-off against the normal tax liability. MAT credit recognized as an asset is reviewed at each balance sheet date and written down to the extent, the aforesaid convincing evidence no longer exists.
Deferred tax in respect of timing differences which reverse after the tax holiday period is recognized in the year in which the timing differences originate.
Q. Earnings per share
Basic earnings/ (loss) per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. The weighted average numbers of equity shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for events of bonus issue and share split. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings/ (loss) per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares. The dilutive potential equity shares are deemed to be converted as of the beginning of the period, unless they have been issued at a later date.
R. Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash balance on hand, cash balances with bank, demand deposits with banks with original maturities of three months or less and highly liquid investments.
S. Employee share based payments
Equity settled stock options granted are accounted for under the intrinsic value method as per the accounting treatment prescribed by Securities and Exchange Board of India (Share Based Employee Benefits) Regulations, 2014, issued by Securities and Exchange Board of India and the Guidance Note on Employee Share-based Payments issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India.
The Company has only one class of equity shares having par value of Rs,2/- per share (previous year Rs,10/- per share). Each shareholder is entitled to one vote per share held. The dividend proposed by the Board of Directors is subject to the approval of the shareholders in the ensuing Annual General Meeting. In the event of liquidation, the equity shareholders are eligible to receive the remaining assets of the Company after distribution of all preferential assets, in proportion to their shareholding. During the year, the Board, declared an interim dividend of Rs, 1.2/- per equity share of Rs, 2/- each i.e. 60% (previous year Rs, 7/- per equity share of Rs, 10/- each i.e. 70% ). Further, the Board, in its meeting on 16 May 2017, has recommended a final dividend of Rs, 1/- per equity share for the financial year ended 31 March 2017. The proposal is subject to the approval of shareholders at the Annual General Meeting to be held on 29 August 2017 and, if approved, would result in a cash outflow of approximately Rs, 10.45 Crore including corporate dividend distribution tax.
The Company issued 3% cumulative redeemable preference shares of class ‘C’ having par value of Rs,10/- per share on 17 February 2010. Each Shareholder had right to receive fixed preferential dividend at a rate of 3% on the paid up capital of the Company. Preference shareholders also had right to receive all notices of general meetings of the Company but no right to vote at any meetings of the Company save to the extent and in the manner provided in the Companies Act, 2013. Preference shareholders neither had right to participate in any offer or invitation by way of right or otherwise to subscribe additional shares nor they had right to participate in any issue of bonus shares or shares issued by way of capitalization of reserves. The Board, in its meeting held on 7 February 2017, declared and paid the interim dividend of Rs, 0.30/- (previous year Rs, 0.30/-) per share. The preference shares were redeemed on 20 February 2017 at par.
(f) Aggregate number and class of shares allotted as fully paid up pursuant to contract(s) without payment being received in cash for the period of five years immediately preceding the balance sheet date:
Equity shares includes
(i) 5,600,820 equity shares of Rs, 2/- each (previous year 1,120,164 equity shares of Rs,10/- each) fully paid up issued during the year 2011-12 for consideration other than cash to the shareholders of Minda Acoustic Limited, pursuant to the scheme of amalgamation.
(ii) 9,175,000 equity shares of Rs, 2/- each (previous year 1,835,000 equity shares of Rs,10/- each) fully paid up issued during the year 2011-12 on conversion of 3% cumulative compulsorily convertible preference shares of Rs, 2,187/- each (Class ‘B’).
(g) The Company has not allotted any bonus shares or bought back any shares during the current year or for a period of five years immediately preceding the balance sheet date.
(h) Pursuant to the shareholders approval dated 11 August 2016, the Company has sub-divided its equity shares of Rs, 10/- each into equity shares of Rs, 2/- each for which 14 September 2016 was fixed as the record date. Accordingly, the basic and diluted earnings per share and the number of shares disclosed in note 30 have been computed for the current year and re-computed for the previous year based on the revised number of shares and face value of Rs, 2/- per equity shares.