a) Basis of accounting and preparation of Standalone Financial Statements:
Basis of accounting
i) These standalone financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the recognition and measurement principles laid down in Indian Accounting Standards (hereinafter referred to as the ‘Ind AS’) as notified under section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 (‘the Act’) read with Rule 4 of the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 as amended and other relevant provisions of the Act and accounting principles generally accepted in India. These standalone financial statements were authorized for issue by the Company’s Board of Directors on May 24, 2017.
ii) These standalone financial statements are the first standalone financial statements prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS). For all periods upto and including the year ended March 31, 2016, the Company reported its Financial statements in accordance with the accounting standards notified under the section 133 of the Companies Act 2013, read together with paragraph 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 (hereinafter referred to as ‘IGAAP’). The Financial statements for the year ended March 31, 2016 and the opening Balance Sheet as at April 1, 2015 have been restated in accordance with Ind AS for comparative information. Reconciliations and explanations of the effect of the transition from IGAAP to Ind AS on the Company’s Balance Sheet, Statement of Profit and Loss and Statement of Cash Flows are provided in note 56.
Functional and Presentation Currency
iii) These standalone financial statements are presented in Indian rupees, which is the functional currency of the Company. All financial information presented in Indian rupees has been rounded to the nearest million, except otherwise indicated.
Basis of measurement
iv) These standalone financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention unless otherwise indicated.
Use of Estimates and Judgements
v) The preparation of the Standalone Financial Statements in conformity with Ind AS requires the Management to make estimates and assumptions considered in the reported amounts of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) and the reported income and expenses during the year. The Management believes that the estimates used in preparation of the Standalone Financial Statements are prudent and reasonable. Future results could differ due to these estimates and the differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognised in the periods in which the results are known/ materialize. Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis.
Information about critical judgments in applying accounting policies, as well as estimates and assumptions that have the most significant effect to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year, are included in the accounting policies.
- Measurement of defined benefit obligations (Refer note k)
- Measurement and likelihood of occurrence of provisions and contingencies (Refer note n)
- Recognition of deferred tax assets (Refer note h)
- Useful lives of property, plant, equipment and Intangibles (Refer note b & c)
- Impairment of Intangibles (Refer note e)
- Impairment of financial assets (Refer note g)
b) Property, Plant and Equipment & Depreciation:
I. Recognition and Measurement
Items of property, plant and equipment are measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment comprises:
- its purchase price, including import duties and non-refundable purchase taxes, after deducting trade discounts and rebates.
- any costs directly attributable to bringing the asset to the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management.
- the initial estimate of the costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located, the obligation for which the Company incurs either when the item is acquired or as a consequence of having used the item during a particular period for purposes other than to produce inventories during that period.
- income and expenses related to the incidental operations, not necessary to bring the item to the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management, are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss. If significant parts of an item of property, plant and equipment have different useful lives, then they are accounted for as separate items (major components) of property, plant and equipment.
The Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all its property, plant and equipment as recognized in the standalone financial statements as at the date of transition to Ind AS, measured as per the previous GAAP and use that as the deemed cost as at the transition date pursuant to the exemption under Ind AS 101.
Any gain or loss on disposal of an item of property, plant and equipment is recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss.
Capital work-in-progress in respect of assets which are not ready for their intended use are carried at cost, comprising of direct costs, related incidental expenses and attributable interest.
II. Subsequent Expenditure
Subsequent expenditure is capitalised only if it is probable that the future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the Group.
Depreciable amount for assets is the cost of an asset, or other amount substituted for cost, less its estimated residual value.
Depreciation on property, plant and equipment of the Company has been provided on the straight-line method as per the useful life prescribed in Schedule II to the Act, except in respect of the following categories of assets, in whose case the life of the assets has been assessed as under based on independent technical evaluation and management’s assessment thereof, taking into account the nature of the asset, the estimated usage of the asset, the operating conditions of the asset, past history of replacement, anticipated technological changes, manufacturers warranties and maintenance support, etc.:
Depreciation method, useful live and residual values are reviewed at each financial year end and adjusted if appropriate.
Depreciation on additions (disposals) is provided on a pro-rata basis i.e from (upto) the date on which asset is ready for use (disposed of).
c) Intangible Assets:
I. Recognition and Measurement
Intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and impairment losses, if any. The cost of an intangible asset comprises of its purchase price, including any import duties and other taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from the taxing authorities), and any directly attributable expenditure on making the asset ready for its intended use.
Expenditure on research and development eligible for capitalisation are carried as Intangible assets under development where such assets are not yet ready for their intended use.
The Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all its intangible assets as recognized in the standalone financial statements as at the date of transition to Ind AS, measured as per the previous GAAP and use that as the deemed cost as at the transition date pursuant to the exemption under Ind AS 101.
II. Subsequent Expenditure
Subsequent expenditure is capitalised only if it is probable that the future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the Company.
Intangible assets are amortised over their estimated useful life on Straight Line Method as follows:
The estimated useful lives of intangible assets and the amortisation period are reviewed at the end of each financial year and the amortisation method is revised to reflect the changed pattern, if any.
d) Research and Development:
Revenue expenditure pertaining to research is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Development costs of products are also charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year it is incurred, unless a product’s technological feasibility has been established, in which case such expenditure is capitalised. These costs are charged to the respective heads in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year it is incurred. The amount capitalised comprises of expenditure that can be directly attributed or allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis for creating, producing and making the asset ready for its intended use. Fixed assets utilised for research and development are capitalised and depreciated in accordance with the policies stated for Tangible Fixed Assets and Intangible Assets.
Expenditure on in-licensed development activities, whereby research findings are applied to a plan or design for the production of new or substantially improved products and processes, is capitalised, if the cost can be reliably measured, the product or process is technically and commercially feasible and the Company has sufficient resources to complete the development and to use and sell the asset.
e) Impairment of Assets:
The carrying values of assets / cash generating units at each balance sheet date are reviewed for impairment if any indication of impairment exists. The following intangible assets are tested for impairment each financial year even if there is no indication that the asset is impaired:
i) an intangible asset that is not yet available for use; and
ii) an intangible asset that is amortised over a period exceeding ten years from the date when the asset is available for use.
If the carrying amount of the assets exceed the estimated recoverable amount, an impairment is recognised for such excess amount. The impairment loss is recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss, unless the asset is carried at revalued amount, in which case any impairment loss of the revalued asset is treated as a revaluation decrease to the extent a revaluation reserve is available for that asset.
The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor.
When there is indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset (other than a revalued asset) in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss, to the extent the amount was previously charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. In case of revalued assets, such reversal is not recognised.
f) Foreign Currency Transactions / Translations:
i) Transactions denominated in foreign currency are recorded at exchange rates prevailing at the date of transaction or at rates that closely approximate the rate at the date of the transaction.
ii) Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at the reporting date are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rate at the reporting date. Non-monetary assets and liabilities that are measured based on historical cost in a foreign currency are translated at the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.
iii) Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on translating monetary items at rates different from those at which they were translated on initial recognition during the period or in previous standalone financial statements are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they arise.
iv) In case of long term monetary items outstanding as at March 31, 2016, exchange differences arising on settlement / restatement thereof are capitalised as part of the depreciable fixed assets to which the monetary item relates and depreciated over the remaining useful life of such assets. If such monetary items do not relate to acquisition of depreciable fixed assets, the exchange difference is amortised over the maturity period / upto the date of settlement of such monetary items, whichever is earlier, and charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss .
g) Financial Instruments:
I. Financial Assets Classification
On initial recognition the Company classifies financial assets as subsequently measured at amortised cost, fair value through other comprehensive income or fair value through profit or loss on the basis of its business model for managing the financial assets and the contractual cash flow characteristics of the financial asset.
Initial recognition and measurement
All financial assets (not measured subsequently at fair value through profit or loss) are recognised initially at fair value plus transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within a time frame established by regulation or convention in the market place (regular way trades) are recognised on the trade date, i.e., the date that the Company commits to purchase or sell the asset.
Financial assets at amortised cost
A ‘financial asset’ is measured at the amortised cost if both the following conditions are met:
i) the asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and
ii) contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.
After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included in finance income in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. This category generally applies to trade and other receivables.
Financial assets included within the fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL) category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
All equity investments in scope of Ind AS 109 are measured at fair value. Equity instruments which are held for trading are classified as at FVTPL. For all other equity instruments, the Company decides to classify the same either as at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI) or FVTPL. The Company makes such election on an instrument-by-instrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable.
If the Company decides to classify an equity instrument as at FVTOCI, then all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognized in other comprehensive income (OCI). There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to Statement of Profit and Loss, even on sale of such investments.
Equity instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
The Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all its equity investments as recognized in the standalone financial statements as at the date of transition to Ind AS, measured as per the previous GAAP and use that as the deemed cost as at the transition date pursuant to the exemption under Ind AS 101.
A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a Company of similar financial assets) is primarily derecognised (i.e. removed from the Company’s balance sheet) when:
- The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or
- The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ‘pass-through’ arrangement; and either:
i) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or
ii) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.
When the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into a pass-through arrangement, it evaluates if and to what extent it has retained the risks and rewards of ownership. When it has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the asset, nor transferred control of the asset, the Company continues to recognise the transferred asset to the extent of the Company’s continuing involvement. In that case, the Company also recognises an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained.
Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured at the lower of the original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration that the Company could be required to repay.
Impairment of financial assets
In accordance with Ind AS 109, the Company applies Expected Credit Loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the following financial assets and credit risk exposure:
i) financial assets that are debt instruments, and are measured at amortised cost e.g., loans, debt securities, deposits, and bank balance.
ii) trade receivables.
The Company follows ‘simplified approach’ for recognition of impairment loss allowance on trade receivables which do not contain a significant financing component.
The application of simplified approach does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognises impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition.
II. Financial Liabilities Classification
The Company classifies all financial liabilities as subsequently measured at amortised cost, except for financial liabilities measured at fair value through profit or loss. Such liabilities, including derivatives that are liabilities, are subsequently measured at fair value with changes in fair value being recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Initial recognition and measurement
Financial liabilities are classified, at initial recognition, as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, at amortised cost (loans, borrowings and payables) or as derivatives designated as hedging instruments in an effective hedge, as appropriate.
All financial liabilities are recognised initially at fair value and, in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs.
The Company’s financial liabilities include trade and other payables, loans and borrowings including bank overdrafts, financial guarantee contracts and derivative financial instruments.
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss. Financial liabilities are classified as held for trading if they are incurred for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term. This category also includes derivative financial instruments entered into by the Company that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as defined by Ind AS 109. Separated embedded derivatives are also classified as held for trading unless they are designated as effective hedging instruments.
Gains or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition at fair value through profit or loss are designated at the initial date of recognition, and only if the criteria in Ind AS 109 are satisfied. For liabilities designated as FVTPL, fair value gains/ losses attributable to changes in own credit risk are recognized in OCI. These gains/loss are not subsequently transferred to Statement of Profit and Loss. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity. All other changes in fair value of such liability are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Loans and borrowings
After initial recognition, interest-bearing loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the EIR method. Gains and losses are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss when the liabilities are derecognised.
Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included as finance costs in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
This category generally applies to interest-bearing loans and borrowings.
A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
If the hybrid contract contains a host that is a financial asset within the scope Ind AS 109, the Company does not separate embedded derivatives. Rather, it applies the classification requirements contained in Ind AS 109 to the entire hybrid contract. Derivatives embedded in all other host contracts are accounted for as separate derivatives and recorded at fair value if their economic characteristics and risks are not closely related to those of the host contracts and the host contracts are not held for trading or designated at fair value through profit or loss. These embedded derivatives are measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss, unless designated as effective hedging instruments. Reassessment only occurs if there is either a change in the terms of the contract that significantly modifies the cash flows.
Offsetting of financial instruments
Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.
Derivative financial instruments
The Company uses derivative financial instruments, such as foreign exchange forward contracts, interest rate swaps and currency options to manage its exposure to interest rate and foreign exchange risks. Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at fair value. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.
The Company uses foreign currency forward contracts to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations relating to highly probable forecast transactions. The Company designates such forward contracts in a cash flow hedging relationship by applying the hedge accounting principles. These forward contracts are stated at fair value at each reporting date. Changes in the fair value of these forward contracts that are designated and effective as hedges of future cash flows are recognised directly in Other Comprehensive Income (OCI) and accumulated in “Cash Flow Hedge Reserve Account” under Reserves and Surplus, net of applicable deferred income taxes and the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Amounts accumulated in the “Cash Flow Hedge Reserve Account” are reclassified to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the same period during which the forecasted transaction affects Statement of Profit and Loss. Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. For forecasted transactions, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in “Cash Flow Hedge Reserve Account” is retained until the forecasted transaction occurs. If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in “Cash Flow Hedge Reserve Account” is immediately transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss.
h) Income tax:
Income tax expense comprises current and deferred tax. It is recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss except to the extent that it relates items recognised directly in equity or in OCI.
Current tax comprises the expected tax payable or receivable on the taxable income or loss for the year and any adjustment to the tax payable or receivable in respect of previous years. It is measured using tax rates enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Current tax also includes any tax arising from dividends.
Current tax assets and liabilities are offset only if, the Company:
i) has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognised amounts; and
ii) intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.
Deferred tax is recognised in respect of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for taxation purposes.
Deferred tax assets are recognised for unused tax losses, unused tax credits and deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which they can be used. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realised; such reductions are reversed when the probability of future taxable profits improves.
Unrecognised deferred tax assets are reassessed at each reporting date and recognised to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will be available against which they can be used.
Deferred tax is measured at the tax rates that are expected to be applied to temporary differences when they reverse, using tax rates enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.
The measurement of deferred tax reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the reporting date, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset only if:
i) the Company has a legally enforceable right to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities; and
ii) the deferred tax assets and the deferred tax liabilities relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority on the same taxable entity.
Inventories of all procured materials and Stock-in-Trade are valued at the lower of cost (on moving weighted average basis) and the net realisable value after providing for obsolescence and other losses, where considered necessary. Cost includes all charges in bringing the goods to their present location and condition, including octroi and other levies, transit insurance and receiving charges. Work-in-process and finished goods include appropriate proportion of overheads and, where applicable, excise duty.
j) Revenue Recognition:
Revenue is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer, recovery of the consideration is probable, the associated costs and possible return of goods can be estimated reliably, there is no continuing management involvement with the goods and the amount of revenue can be measured reliably.
Revenue from the sale of goods includes excise duty and is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable (after including fair value allocations related to multiple deliverable and/or linked arrangements), net of returns, sales tax and applicable trade discounts and allowances. Revenue includes shipping and handling costs billed to the customer. The timing of the transfer of risks and rewards varies depending on the individual terms of the sales agreements.
Income from research services including sale of technology / know-how (rights, licenses and other intangibles) is recognised in accordance with the terms of the contract with customers when the related performance obligation is completed, or when risks and rewards of ownership are transferred, as applicable.
Interest income is recognised with reference to the Effective Interest Rate method.
Dividend from investments is recognised as revenue when right to receive is established.
k) Employee Benefits:
Short term employee benefits
Short-term employee benefits are expensed as the related service is provided. A liability is recognised for the amount expected to be paid if the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation to pay this amount as a result of past service provided by the employee and the obligation can be estimated reliably.
Defined contribution plans
Obligations for contributions to defined contribution plans are expensed as the related service is provided and the Company will have no legal or constructive obligation to pay further amounts. Prepaid contributions are recognised as an asset to the extent that a cash refund or a reduction in future payments is available.
Defined benefit plans
The Company’s net obligation in respect of defined benefit plans is calculated separately for each plan by estimating the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in the current and prior periods, discounting that amount and deducting the fair value of any plan assets.
The calculation of defined benefit obligations is performed periodically by an independent qualified actuary using the projected unit credit method. When the calculation results in a potential asset for the Company , the recognised asset is limited to the present value of economic benefits available in the form of any future refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan. To calculate the present value of economic benefits, consideration is given to any applicable minimum funding requirements.
Remeasurement of the net defined benefit liability, which comprise actuarial gains and losses and the return on plan assets (excluding interest) and the effect of the asset ceiling (if any, excluding interest), are recognised immediately in other comprehensive income (OCI). Net interest expense (income) on the net defined liability (assets) is computed by applying the discount rate, used to measure the net defined liability (asset). Net interest expense and other expenses related to defined benefit plans are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss.
When the benefits of a plan are changed or when a plan is curtailed, the resulting change in benefit that relates to past service or the gain or loss on curtailment is recognised immediately in Statement of Profit and Loss. The Company recognises gains and losses on the settlement of a defined benefit plan when the settlement occurs.
Other long-term employee benefits
The Company’s s net obligation in respect of long-term employee benefits is the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior periods. The obligation is measured on the basis of a periodical independent actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method. Remeasurement are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they arise.
l) Share-based payment transactions:
Employees Stock Options Plans (“ESOPs”): The grant date fair value of options granted to employees is recognized as an employee expense, with a corresponding increase in equity, over the period that the employees become unconditionally entitled to the options. The expense is recorded for each separately vesting portion of the award as if the award was, in substance, multiple awards. The increase in equity recognized in connection with share based payment transaction is presented as a separate component in equity under “Employee Stock Options Outstanding Reserve”. The amount recognized as an expense is adjusted to reflect the actual number of stock options that vest.
Stock Appreciation Rights (“SARs”): The compensation cost of SARs granted to employees is measured at the fair value of the liability. Until the liability is settled, the Company shall remeasure the fair value of the liability at the end of each reporting period and at the date of settlement, with any changes in fair value recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss for the period.
The Company has elected to apply Ind AS 102 Share based payment to equity instruments that vested after the date of transition to Ind AS pursuant to the exemption under Ind AS 101.
Determining whether an arrangement contains a lease
An arrangement, which is not in the legal form of a lease, should be accounted for as a lease, if:
i) fulfilment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets (the asset); and
ii) the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset.
At inception of an arrangement, the Company determines whether the arrangement is or contains a lease.
At inception or on reassessment of an arrangement that contains a lease, the Company separates payments and other consideration required by the arrangement into those for the lease and those for other elements on the basis of their relative fair values. If it is impracticable to separate the payments reliably, then a finance lease receivable is recognised at an amount equal to the fair value of the underlying asset; subsequently, the receivable is reduced as payments are made and a finance income is recognised using the interest rate implicit in the lease.
Agreements which are not classified as finance leases are considered as operating lease.
Payments made under operating leases are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss. Lease incentives received are recognised as an integral part of the total lease expense, over the term of the lease.
n) Provisions and Contingent Liabilities:
A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. If effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using an appropriate discount rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as a finance cost.
Contingent liabilities are disclosed in the Notes to the Standalone Financial Statements. Contingent liabilities are disclosed for:
i) possible obligations which will be confirmed only by future events not wholly within the control of the Company, or
ii) present obligations arising from past events where it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation or a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation cannot be made.
o) Borrowing costs:
Borrowing costs are interest and other costs that the Company incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds and is measured with reference to the effective interest rate (EIR) applicable to the respective borrowing. Borrowing costs include interest costs measured at EIR and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.
Borrowing costs, allocated to qualifying assets, pertaining to the period from commencement of activities relating to construction / development of the qualifying asset up to the date of capitalisation of such asset are added to the cost of the assets. Capitalisation of borrowing costs is suspended and charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss during extended periods when active development activity on the qualifying assets is interrupted.
All other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period which they are incurred.
p) Government Grants:
Government grants are initially recognised as deferred income at fair value if there is reasonable assurance that they will be received and the Company will comply with the conditions associated with the grant;
- In case of capital grants, they are then recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss as other income on a systematic basis over the useful life of the asset.
- In case of grants that compensate the Company for expenses incurred are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss on a systematic basis in the periods in which the expenses are recognised.
- Pursuant to Ind AS 101 “First-time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standards”, the Company has opted the exemption to use the carrying amount of the Government Loan at a rate below market rate of interest at the date of transition to Ind AS, as the carrying amount of the Loan in the standalone financial statements.
Export benefits available under prevalent schemes are accrued in the year in which the goods are exported and there is no uncertainty in receiving the same.
q) Earnings per share:
Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit / (loss) after tax by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year is adjusted for the events for bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split and reverse share split (consolidation of shares). Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit / (loss) after tax as adjusted for dividend, interest and other charges to expense or income (net of any attributable taxes) relating to the dilutive potential equity shares, by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share and the weighted average number of equity shares which could have been issued on conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares.
r) Insurance claims:
Insurance claims are accounted for on the basis of claims admitted / expected to be admitted and to the extent that the amount recoverable can be measured reliably and it is reasonable to expect the ultimate collection.
s) Service tax input credit:
Service tax input credit is accounted for in the books in the period in which the underlying service received is accounted and when there is reasonable certainty in availing / utilising the credits.
t) Segment reporting:
The Company operates in one reportable business segment i.e. “Pharmaceuticals”.
u) Operating cycle:
Based on the nature of products / activities of the Company and the normal time between acquisition of assets and their realisation in cash or cash equivalents, the Company has determined its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of classification of its assets and liabilities as current and non-current.