1.1 Basis of Measurement
The standalone financial statements have been prepared on accrual basis and under the historical cost convention except following which have been measured at fair value:
- certain financial assets and liabilities,
- assets held for sale - measured at fair value less cost of disposal,
- defined benefit plans - plan assets measured at fair value,
- derivative financial instruments,
The standalone financial statements are presented in Indian Rupees [ Rs.], which is the Company’s functional and presentation currency and all amounts are rounded to the nearest lakhs [Rs.00,000] and two decimals thereof, except as stated otherwise.
1.2 Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, Plant and Equipment are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Cost includes expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition of the items.
Subsequent costs are included in the asset’s carrying amount or recognised as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. The carrying amount of any component accounted for as a separate asset is derecognised when replaced. All other repairs and maintenance are charged to profit or loss during the reporting period in which they are incurred.
Cost of mine development is capitalised as property, plant and equipment under the heading “Mine development” in the year in which they are incurred.
Assets are depreciated to the residual values on a straight line basis over the estimated useful lives based on technical estimates, except, moulds which are depreciated based on units of production. Assets residual values and useful lives are reviewed at each financial year end considering the physical condition of the assets and benchmarking analysis or whenever there are indicators for review of residual value and useful life. Freehold land is not depreciated. Estimated useful lives of the assets are as follows:
The gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an item of property, plant and equipment is determined as the difference between the sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on the date of disposal or retirement.
1.3 Intangible Assets
Identifiable intangible assets are recognised a] when the Company controls the asset, b] it is probable that future economic benefits attributed to the asset will flow to the Company and c] the cost of the asset can be reliably measured.
Computer software’s are capitalised at the amounts paid to acquire the respective license for use and are amortised over the period of license, generally not exceeding six years on straight line basis. The assets’ useful lives are reviewed at each financial year end.
1.4 Impairment of non-current assets
An asset is considered as impaired when at the date of Balance Sheet there are indications of impairment and the carrying amount of the asset, or where applicable the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs exceeds its recoverable amount [i.e. the higher of the net asset selling price and value in use].The carrying amount is reduced to the recoverable amount and the reduction is recognized as an impairment loss in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The impairment loss recognized in the prior accounting period is reversed if there has been a change in the estimate of recoverable amount. Post impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying value of the impaired asset over its remaining useful life.
1.5 Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents includes cash on hand and at bank, deposits held at call with banks, other short-term highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less that are readily convertible to a known amount of cash and are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value and are held for the purpose of meeting short-term cash commitments.
For the purpose of the Statement of Cash Flows, cash and cash equivalents consists of cash and short term deposits, as defined above, net of outstanding bank overdraft as they being considered as integral part of the Company’s cash management.
Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value except scrap, which is valued at net realizable value. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale. The cost of inventories comprises of cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their respective present location and condition. Cost is computed on the weighted average basis.
The determination of whether an arrangement is [or contains] a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfilment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.
A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease,
a) Finance lease
A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Company is classified as a finance lease.
Assets given by lessor under finance lease are recorded as receivable at the lower of the fair value of the leased property and the present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease receipts are apportioned between the reduction of lease receivable and finance income so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the receivable for each period. The corresponding rent receivables, net of finance charges, are included in current and non-current other financial asset. The interest element of lease is accounted in the Statement of Profit and Loss over the lease period.
Assets taken on leases are capitalised at the commencement of the lease at the inception date at lower of fair value of the leased property or present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognised in finance costs in the Statement of Profit or Loss. A leased asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset.
b) Operating lease
An operating lease is a lease other than a finance lease. Leases in which a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are retained by the lessor are classified as operating leases. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating and arranging an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognised over the lease term on the same basis as rental income. Contingent rents are recognised as revenue in the period in which they are earned. Payments/receipts under operating lease are recorded in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight line basis over the period of the lease unless the payments are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the expected inflationary cost increases.
1.8 Employee benefits
a] Short term employee benefits are recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss of the year in which the related services are rendered. Liabilities for wages and salaries, including non-monetary benefits that are expected to be settled wholly within 12 months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service are recognised in respect of employees’ services up to the end of the reporting period and are measured at the amounts expected to be paid when the liabilities are settled. The liabilities are presented as current employee benefit obligations in the balance sheet.
b] Leave encashment being a short term benefit is accounted for using the projected unit credit method, on the basis of actuarial valuations carried out by third party actuaries at each Balance Sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are charged or credited to profit and loss in the period in which they arise.
c] Contribution to Provident Fund, a defined contribution plan, is made in accordance with the statute, and is recognised as an expense in the year in which employees have rendered services.
d] Contribution to Superannuation fund, a defined contribution plan, is made in accordance with the Company policy, and is recognised as an expense in the year in which employees have rendered services.
e] The liability or asset recognised in the balance sheet in respect of gratuity plans is the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the end of the reporting period less the fair value of plan assets. The defined benefit obligation is calculated annually by actuaries using the projected unit credit method.
The present value of the defined benefit obligation denominated in INR is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows by reference to market yields at the end of the reporting period on government bonds that have terms approximating to the terms of the related obligation.
The net interest cost is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net balance of the defined benefit obligation and the fair value of plan assets. This cost is included in employee benefit expense in the statement of profit and loss. Remeasurement gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognised in the period in which they occur, directly in other comprehensive income. They are included in retained earnings in the statement of changes in equity and in the balance sheet.
Changes in the present value of the defined benefit obligation resulting from plan amendments or curtailments are recognised immediately in profit or loss as past service cost.
The Company operates defined benefit plans for gratuity, which requires contributions to be made to a separately administered fund. Funds are managed by two trusts. These trusts have policies from an insurance company. These benefits are partially funded.
1.9 Discontinued operation and non-current assets (or disposal groups) held for sale or distribution.
a) Discontinued operation
A component of the Company comprises operations and cash flows that can be clearly distinguished, operationally and for financial reporting purposes, from the rest of the Company. Profit and loss of the discontinued operations [disposal group] till disposal or distribution will be separately presented as discontinued operation in Statement of Profit and Loss.
b) Held for Sale
Non-current assets are classified as held for sale if their carrying amount will be recovered principally through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use. This condition is regarded as met only when a sale is highly probable from the date of classification, management are committed to the sale and the asset is available for immediate sale in its present condition. Non-current assets are classified as held for sale from the date these conditions are met and are measured at the lower of carrying amount and fair value less cost to sell. Any resulting impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss as a special item. A gain or loss, not previously recognised by the date of sale of the non-current asset, is recognised at the date of de-recognition. On classification as held for sale the assets are no longer depreciated. Assets and liabilities classified as held for sale are presented separately as current items in the Balance Sheet.
c) Held for distribution
Non-current assets are classified as held for distribution when the Company is committed to distribute an asset [disposal group] to its owners. To meet the condition, the asset must be available for immediate distribution in their present condition and the distribution must be highly probable. Held for distribution criteria are met when board of directors of the Company identify those assets and approve distribution of those assets to its owners. Once held for distribution criteria are met at balance sheet date, the Company will separately present the assets and liabilities (disposal group] as current items in the Balance Sheet. Profit and loss of the disposal group will be separately presented as discontinued operation in Statement of Profit and Loss. Previously done Inter-unit elimination between rest of the operation and disposal group are grossed up for balance sheet items and profit and loss items.
1.10 Foreign currency reinstatement and translation
a) Functional and presentation currency
Standalone financial statements have been presented in Indian Rupees [Rs.], which is the Company’s functional and presentation currency.
b] Transactions and balances
Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded by the Company at rates prevailing at the date of the transaction. Subsequently monetary items are translated at closing exchange rates of balance sheet date and the resulting exchange difference recognised in profit or loss. Differences arising on settlement of monetary items are also recognised in profit or loss.
Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the dates of the transaction. Non-monetary items carried at fair value that are denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the exchange rates prevailing at the date when the fair value was determined. Exchange component of the gain or loss arising on fair valuation of non-monetary items is recognised in line with the gain or loss of the item that gave rise to such exchange difference.
1.11 Financial instruments - initial recognition, subsequent measurement and impairment
A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.
a] Financial Assets
Financial Assets are classified at amortised cost or fair value through Other Comprehensive Income or fair value through Profit or Loss, depending on its business model for managing those financial assets and the assets contractual cash flow characteristics.
For assets measured at fair value, gains and losses will either be recorded in profit or loss or other comprehensive income. For investments in debt instruments, this will depend on the business model in which the investment is held. For investments in equity instruments, this will depend on whether the company has made an irrevocable election at the time of initial recognition to account for the equity investment at fair value through other comprehensive income.
The company reclassifies debt investments when and only when its business model for managing these assets changes.
For impairment purposes significant financial assets are tested on an individual basis, other financial assets are assessed collectively in groups that share similar credit risk characteristics.
At initial recognition, the Company measures a financial asset at its fair value plus, in the case of a financial asset not at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Transaction costs of financial assets carried at fair value through profit or loss are expensed in profit or loss.
Investment in Debt instruments
Subsequent measurement of debt instruments depends on the Company’s business model for managing the asset and the cash flow characteristics of the asset. There are three measurement categories into which the Company classifies its debt instruments:
- Amortised cost: Assets that are held for collection of contractual cash flows where those cash flows represent solely payments of principal and interest are measured at amortised cost. Financial assets classified at amortised cost are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate [EIR] method. Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. Interest income from these financial assets is included in finance income using the effective interest rate method.
- Fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI): Assets that are held for collection of contractual cash flows and for selling the financial assets, where the assets’ cash flows represent solely payments of principal and interest, are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income [FVOCI], Movements in the carrying amount are taken through OCI, except for the recognition of impairment gains or losses, interest revenue and foreign exchange gains and losses which are recognised in profit and loss. When the financial asset is derecognised, the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI is reclassified from equity to profit or loss and recognised in other gains/ [losses]. Interest income from these financial assets is included in other income using the effective interest rate method.
- Fair value through profit or loss (FVPL): Any financial asset that does not meet the criteria for classification as at amortized cost or as financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income, is classified as at financial assets at fair value through profit or loss. Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss are at each reporting date fair valued with all the changes recognized in the statement of profit or loss.
A receivable is classified as a ‘trade receivable’ if it is in respect to the amount due from customers on account of goods sold or services rendered in the ordinary course of business. Trade receivables are recognised initially at fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, less provision for impairment. For some trade receivables the Company may obtain security in the form of guarantee, security deposit or letter of credit which can be called upon if the counterparty is in default under the terms of the agreement.
Impairment is made on the expected credit losses, which are the present value of the cash shortfalls over the expected life of financial assets. The impairment methodology applied depends on whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk. The estimated impairment losses are recognised in a separate provision for impairment and the impairment losses are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss within other expenses.
Subsequent changes in assessment of impairment are recognised in provision for impairment and the change in impairment losses are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss within other expenses.
For foreign currency trade receivable, impairment is assessed after reinstatement at closing rates.
Individual receivables which are known to be uncollectible are written off by reducing the carrying amount of trade receivable and the amount of the loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss within other expenses.
Subsequent recoveries of amounts previously written off are credited to other Income
Investment in equity instruments
Investment in equity securities are initially measured at fair value. Any subsequent fair value gain or loss is recognized through Profit or Loss if such investments in equity securities are held for trading purposes. The fair value gains or losses of all other equity securities are recognized in Other Comprehensive Income. Where the company’s management has elected to present fair value gains and losses on equity investments in other comprehensive income, there is no subsequent reclassification of fair value gains and losses to profit and loss. Dividends from such investments are recognised in profit and loss as other income when the company’s right to receive payments is established. Impairment losses [and reversal of impairment losses) on equity investments measured at FVOCI are not reported separately from other changes in fair value.
De-recognition of financial asset
A financial asset is derecognised only when
- The company has transferred the rights to receive cash flows from the financial asset or
- Retains the contractual rights to receive the cash flows of the financial asset, but assumes a contractual obligation to pay the cash flows to one or more recipients.
Where the entity has transferred an asset, the company evaluates whether it has transferred substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset. In such cases, the financial asset is derecognised. Where the entity has not transferred substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, the financial asset is not derecognised.
Where the entity has neither transferred a financial asset nor retains substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, the financial asset is derecognised if the company has not retained control of the financial asset. Where the company retains control of the financial asset, the asset is continued to be recognised to the extent of continuing involvement in the financial asset.
b) Financial liabilities
At initial recognition, all financial liabilities other than fair valued through profit and loss are recognised initially at fair value less transaction costs that are attributable to the issue of financial liability. Transaction costs of financial liability carried at fair value through profit or loss is expensed in profit or loss.
i) Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities held for trading. The Company has not designated any financial liabilities upon initial measurement recognition at fair value through profit or loss. Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are at each reporting date at fair value with all the changes recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
ii) Financial liabilities measured at amortised cost
After initial recognition, interest bearing loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method [“EIR”] except for those designated in an effective hedging relationship. The carrying value of borrowings that are designated as hedged items in fair value hedges that would otherwise be carried at amortised cost are adjusted to record changes in fair values attributable to the risks that are hedged in effective hedging relationship.
Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fee or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included in finance costs in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
After initial recognition, interest-bearing borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. Any difference between the proceeds (net of transaction costs] and the redemption amount is recognised in profit or loss over the period of the borrowings using the effective interest method. Fees paid on the establishment of loan facilities are recognised as transaction costs of the loan to the extent that it is probable that some or all of the facility will be drawn down.
Borrowings are classified as current liabilities unless the Company has an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.
Trade and other payables
A payable is classified as ‘trade payable’ if it is in respect of the amount due on account of goods purchased or services received in the normal course of business. These amounts represent liabilities for goods and services provided to the Company prior to the end of financial year which are unpaid. Trade and other payables are presented as current liabilities unless payment is not due within 12 months after the reporting period. They are recognised initially at their fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method.
De-recognition of financial liability
A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. The difference between the carrying amount of a financial liability that has been extinguished or transferred to another party and the consideration paid, including any non-cash assets transferred or liabilities assumed, is recognised in profit or loss as other income or finance costs.
1.12 Derivative financial instruments
The Company uses derivative financial instruments, such as forward currency contracts and interest rate swaps to hedge its foreign currency risks and interest rate risks. Derivative financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value on the date a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at their fair value at the end of each period. The method of recognizing the resulting gain or loss depends on whether the derivative is designated as a hedging instrument, and if so, on the nature of the item being hedged. Any gains or losses arising from changes in the fair value of derivatives are taken directly to profit or loss.
1.13 Compound financial instruments
The liability component of a compound financial instrument is recognised initially at fair value of a similar liability that does not have an equity component. The equity component is recognised initially as the difference between the fair value of the compound financial instrument as a whole and the fair value of the liability component. Any directly attributable transaction costs are allocated to the liability and the equity components, if material, in proportion to their initial carrying amounts.
Subsequent to the initial recognition, the liability component of a compound financial instrument is measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method. The equity component of a compound financial instrument is not re-measured subsequent to initial recognition except on conversion or expiry.
1.14 Equity share capital
Ordinary shares are classified as equity. Incremental costs net of taxes directly attributable to the issue of new equity shares are reduced from retained earnings, net of taxes.
1.15 Borrowing costs
Borrowing costs specifically relating to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are capitalized [net of income on temporarily deployment of funds] as part of the cost of such assets. Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs that the Company incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds.
For general borrowing used for the purpose of obtaining a qualifying asset, the amount of borrowing costs eligible for capitalization is determined by applying a capitalization rate to the expenditures on that asset. The capitalization rate is the weighted average of the borrowing costs applicable to the borrowings of the Company that are outstanding during the period, other than borrowings made specifically for the purpose of obtaining a qualifying asset. The amount of borrowing costs capitalized during a period does not exceed the amount of borrowing cost incurred during that period.
All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they occur.
Income tax expense represents the sum of current and deferred tax [including MAT], Tax is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss, except to the extent that it relates to items recognised directly in equity or other comprehensive income, in such cases the tax is also recognised directly in equity or in other comprehensive income. Any subsequent change in direct tax on items initially recognised in equity or other comprehensive income is also recognised in equity or other comprehensive income, such change could be for change in tax rate.
Current tax provision is computed for Income calculated after considering allowances and exemptions under the provisions of the applicable Income Tax Laws. Current tax assets and current tax liabilities are off set, and presented as net.
Deferred tax is recognised on differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the Balance sheet and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit and are accounted for using the liability method. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences, and deferred tax assets are generally recognised for all deductible temporary differences, carry forward tax losses and allowances to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which those deductible temporary differences, carry forward tax losses and allowances can be utilised. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the applicable tax rates. Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are off set, and presented as net.
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each balance sheet date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available against which the temporary differences can be utilised.
Minimum Alternative Tax [MAT] is applicable to the Company. Credit of MAT is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period, i.e., the period for which MAT credit is allowed to be carried forward. In the year in which the MAT credit becomes eligible to be recognised as an asset, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the profit and loss account and shown as MAT credit entitlement. The Company reviews the same at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT credit entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period.
1.17 Revenue recognition and other income
a) Sale of goods
Revenue is recognized at the fair value of consideration received or receivable and represents the net invoice value of goods supplied to third parties after deducting discounts, volume rebates and outgoing sales tax and are recognized either on delivery or on transfer of significant risk and rewards of ownership of the goods. Revenue is inclusive of excise duty.
Revenue from the sale of power is recognised when the electricity is supplied and measured based on contractually agreed tariff rates.
b) Sale of services-job work and construction services
Revenue from job work charges and construction services are recognised on percentage completion method on invoicing of services and transfer of goods. Percentage of completion is determined as a proportion of cost incurred to date to the total estimated contract cost. Estimated loss on project activity to be undertaken in future years is provided for.
c) Ocean waterways business
Freight and demurrage earnings are recognized on completed voyage basis/ upon loading of the Vessel depending upon the risk and rewards transferred. Time Charter earning are recognized on accrual basis except where the charter party agreements have not been renewed/ finalized, in which case it is recognized on provisional basis.
d) Other Operating Income
Incentives on exports and other Government incentives related to operations are recognised in books after due consideration of certainty of utilization/receipt of such incentives. For Government grant refer Para 3.18.
e) Other Income Interest
Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.
Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive dividend is established.
1.18 Government grants / Assistance
Government grants with a condition to purchase, construct or otherwise acquire long-term assets are initially measured based on grant receivable under the scheme. Such grants are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a systematic basis over the useful life of the asset. Amount of benefits receivable in excess of grant income accrued based on usage of the assets is accounted as Government grant received in advance. Changes in estimates are recognised prospectively over the remaining life of the assets.
Grants from the government are recognised at their fair value where there is a reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and the company will comply with all attached condition.
Government revenue grants relating to income are deferred and recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss over the period necessary to match them with the costs that they are intended to compensate.
1.19 Dividend / Distribution
Annual dividend distribution to the shareholders is recognised as a liability in the period in which the dividends are approved by the shareholders. Any interim dividend paid is recognised on approval by Board of Directors. Dividend payable and corresponding tax on dividend distribution is recognised directly in equity.
1.20 Earnings per share
Basic earnings per share is computed using the net profit for the year attributable to the shareholders’ and weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year. The weighted average numbers of shares also includes fixed number of equity shares that are issuable on conversion of compulsorily convertible preference shares, debentures or any other instrument, from the date consideration is receivable [generally the date of their issue] of such instruments.
Diluted earnings per share is computed using the net profit for the year attributable to the shareholder’ and weighted average number of equity and potential equity shares outstanding during the year including share options, convertible preference shares and debentures, except where the result would be anti-dilutive. Potential equity shares that are converted during the year are included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share, from the beginning of the year or date of issuance of such potential equity shares, to the date of conversion.
1.21 Provisions and contingencies
Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation [legal or constructive] as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using equivalent period government securities interest rate. Unwinding of the discount is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss as a finance cost. Provisions are reviewed at each balance sheet date and are adjusted to reflect the current best estimate.
i) Gratuity and leave encashment provision
Refer Note no 3.8 for provision relating to gratuity and leave encashment.
ii) Mine restoration or assets retirement obligation
Mine restoration expenditure is provided for in the Statement of Profit and Loss based on present value of estimated expenditure required to be made towards restoration and rehabilitation at the time of vacation of mine. The cost estimates are reviewed periodically and are adjusted to reflect known developments which may have an impact on the cost estimates or life of operations. The unwinding of the discount on provision is shown as a finance cost in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Contingent liabilities are disclosed when there is a possible obligation arising from past events, the existence of which will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company or a present obligation that arises from past events where it is either not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle or a reliable estimate of the amount cannot be made. Information on contingent liability is disclosed in the Notes to the Financial Statements. Contingent assets are not recognised. However, when the realisation of income is virtually certain, then the related asset is no longer a contingent asset, but it is recognised as an asset.
1.22 Investment in Subsidiaries
A subsidiary is an entity controlled by the Company. Control exists when the Company has power over the entity, is exposed, or has rights to variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns by using its power over entity.
Power is demonstrated through existing rights that give the ability to direct relevant activities, those which significantly affect the entity’s returns.
Investments in subsidiaries are carried at cost. The cost comprises price paid to acquire investment and directly attributable cost.
1.23 Investment in joint ventures and associates
A joint venture is a type of joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the net assets of the joint venture. Joint control is the contractually agreed sharing of control of an arrangement, which exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require unanimous consent of the parties sharing control.
An associate is an entity over which the Company has significant influence. Significant influence is the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the investee but is not control or joint control over those policies.
The investment in joint ventures and associates are carried at cost. The cost comprises price paid to acquire investment and directly attributable cost.
1.24 Current versus non-current classification
The Company presents assets and liabilities in statement of financial position based on current/non-current classification.
The Company has presented non-current assets and current assets before equity, non-current liabilities and current liabilities in accordance with Schedule III, Division II of Companies Act, 2013 notified by MCA.
An asset is classified as current when it is:
a] Expected to be realised or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle,
b] Held primarily for the purpose of trading,
c] Expected to be realised within twelve months after the reporting period, or
d] Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.
All other assets are classified as non-current.
A liability is classified as current when it is:
a] Expected to be settled in normal operating cycle,
b] Held primarily for the purpose of trading,
c] Due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or
d] There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period. All other liabilities are classified as non-current.
The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash or cash equivalents. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.
1.25 Recent accounting pronouncements
Standards issued but not yet effective
In March 2017, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs issued the Companies [Indian Accounting Standards] [Amendments] Rules, 2017, notifying amendments to Ind AS 7, ‘Statement of cash flows’. These amendments are in accordance with the recent amendments made by International Accounting Standards Board [IASB] to IAS 7, ‘Statement of cash flows’. The amendments are applicable to the company from April 1,2017.
Amendment to Ind AS 7:
The amendment to Ind AS 7 requires the entities to provide disclosures that enable users of financial statements to evaluate changes in liabilities arising from financing activities, including both changes arising from cash flows and non-cash changes, suggesting inclusion of a reconciliation between the opening and closing balances in the balance sheet for liabilities arising from financing activities, to meet the disclosure requirement.
The company is evaluating the requirements of the amendment and the effect on the financial statements is being evaluated.