a. Basis of preparation
The financial statements of the company have been prepared in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India (Indian GAAP). The company has prepared these financial statements to comply in all material respects with the accounting standards notified under section 133 of the Companies Act 2013, read together with paragraph 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules 2014. The financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis except in case of assets for which provision for impairment is made and revaluation is carried out. The accounting policies have been consistently applied by the Company and except for the changes in accounting policy discussed more fully below, are consistent with those used in the previous year.
b. Use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period end. Although these estimates are based upon management’s best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates.
c. Fixed Assets
Fixed assets are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Borrowing costs relating to acquisition of fixed assets which takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use.
d. Depreciation and Amortisation :
i. Leasehold land is amortized over the period of lease.
ii. Intangible assets are amortized over the estimated useful life of 4 years.
iii. Depreciation on Plant & Equipments, Furniture, Office Equipments, Buildings and Vehicles is provided on straight line basis based on the revised remaining useful life of the assets as per Part-C of Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013.
e. Impairment of Assets
The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset’s net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value at the weighted average cost of capital.
After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.
Investments that are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as longterm investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.
Inventories are valued as follows:
Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
h. Revenue Recognition :
Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.
Sale of Goods
Revenue is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer. Excise Duty deducted from turnover (gross) is the amount that is included in the amount of turnover (gross) and not the entire amount of liability arised during the year.
Revenue is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.
Revenue is recognized when the shareholders’ right to receive payment is established by the balance sheet date.
i. Foreign Currency Transaction
i. Initial Recognition
Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.
Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing rate. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction and non-monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.
iii. Exchange Differences
Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting company’s monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year or reported in previous financial statements, are recognized as income or as expenses in the year in which they arise except in case of long term liabilities, where they relate to acquisition of fixed assets, in which case they are adjusted to the carrying cost of such assets.
iv. Forward Exchange Contracts not intended for trading or speculation purposes
The premium or discount arising at the inception of forward exchange contracts is amortized as expense or income over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the year in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of forward exchange contract is recognized as income or as expense for the year.
j. Retirement and other employee benefits
i. Retirement benefits in the form of Provident Fund, in case of certain employees, are a defined contribution scheme and the contributions are charged to the Profit and Loss Account of the year when the contributions to the respective funds are due. There are no other obligations other than the contribution payable to the respective trusts.
ii. Gratuity liability and Provident Fund, in case of other employees not covered under defined contribution scheme, are defined benefit obligations. Gratuity liability is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year. Provident Fund contribution to the Trust is charged to Profit and Loss Account of the year when the contribution to the fund is due. Any deficit in the fund is provided for and funded.
iii. Short term compensated absences are provided for based on estimates. Long term compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation. The actuarial valuation is done as per projected unit credit method
iv. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the Statement of profit and loss account and are not deferred.
k. Income taxes
Tax expense comprises of current income tax and is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act.
Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. In situations where the company has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realized against future taxable profits.
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date. The company writes-down the carrying amount of deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realized. Any such write-down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available.
At each balance sheet date the Company re-assesses unrecognized deferred tax assets. It recognizes unrecognized deferred tax assets to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.
Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT):
MAT credit is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing Evidence that the Company will pay normal Income tax during the specified period. In the year ,in which the MAT credit becomes eligible to be recognised as an asset in accordance with the recommendations contained in the Guidance note issued by ICAI, the said asset is created by way of credit to the statement of Profit and Loss and is shown as MAT credit entitlement. The Company reviews the same at each Balance sheet and writes down the carrying amount of MAT credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that the Company will pay normal Income Tax during the specified period.
l. Earnings Per Share
Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. Partly paid equity shares are treated as a fraction of an equity share to the extent that they were entitled to participate in dividends relative to a fully paid equity share during the reporting period.
For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.
m. Provisions, Contingent Liabilities & Contingent Assets:
A provision is recognized when an enterprise has a present obligation as a result of past event it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Provision for expenditure relating to voluntary retirement is made when the employee accepts the offer of early retirement.
n. Cash and Cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents in the balance sheet comprise cash at bank and in hand and short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less.
o. Derivative Instruments
The Company uses derivative financial instruments such as forward exchange contracts to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations. Accounting policy for forward exchange contracts is given in note i (iv) above