a) Revenue Recognition Sale of Goods
(i) Graphite Electrodes
Revenue from the sale of goods shall be recognized when all the following conditions have been satisfied:
(a) the entity has transferred to the buyer the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods;
(b) the entity retains neither continuing managerial involvement to the degree usually associated with ownership nor effective control over the goods sold;
(c) the amount of revenue can be measured reliably;
(d) it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the entity; and
(e) The costs incurred or to be incurred in respect of the transaction can be measured reliably.
Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of returns and allowances, trade discounts and volume rebates. Excise duty is the liability of the manufacturer which forms part of cost of production. Recovery of excise duty flows to the entity on its own account and the same has been included in the amount of domestic sales.
Revenue from power generation has been recognized on transmission of electricity to SEB or third parties
(i) Power generated at the power plants is primarily consumed by the manufacturing units and excess power is sold to SEBs/IEX which is included in the sales as below:
- Power transferred to Graphite unit at MPEB rate.
- Excess power generated is sold to SEB’s at rate stipulated by SEB’s and/or IEX at market rate equivalent.
(ii) Inter-divisional sales comprising of sale of power from power plants to Graphite unit is reduced from revenue from operations in deriving net revenue.
(i) Income and Export Incentives / benefits are accounted for on accrual basis and as per principles given under IndAS-18 - Revenue Recognition.
(ii) Entitlement to Renewal Energy Certificates owing to generation of power at TAWA Hydel Plant are recognized to the extent sold at actual rate of net realization.
Dividend income is recognized when the shareholders’ right to receive payment is established.
(i) Finished goods and work-in-progress are valued at lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost of inventories comprises of cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing them to their respective present location and condition. By products are valued at net realizable value.
(ii) Stores, spares and raw materials are valued at lower of cost or net realizable value. However materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost.
(iii) Cost of finished goods, work-in-process and stores, spares and raw material are determined on the basis of weighted average method.
(iv) Obsolete stocks are identified every year on the basis of technical evaluation and are charged off to revenue.
(v) Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
c) Property, Plant and Equipment
On transition to Ind AS, the Company has adopted optional exemption under Ind AS-101 and elected to continue with the carrying value of all its property, plant and equipment as recognized in the financial statement at the date of transition i.e. at 1st April, 2015, measured as per the previous GAAP and use that as its deemed cost as at the transition date, refer note no. 54(a). Subsequently property, plant and equipment are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Cost includes its purchase price (net of CENVAT / duty credits wherever applicable), after deducting trade discounts and rebates. It includes other costs directly attributable to bringing the asset to the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management and the borrowing costs for qualifying assets and the initial estimate of restoration cost if the recognition criteria is met.
Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. When significant parts of plant and equipment are required to be replaced at intervals, the Company depreciates them separately based on their specific useful lives.
Subsequent expenditures relating to property, plant and equipment is capitalized only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with these will flow to the company and the costs of the item can be measured reliably. Repairs and maintenance costs are charged to the statement of profit and loss when incurred.
An item of property, plant and equipment and any significant part initially recognised is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Any gain or loss arising on derecognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset) is included in the income statement when the asset is derecognised.
The residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation of property, plant and equipment are reviewed at each financial year end and adjusted prospectively.
d) Investment property
Investment Properties comprises freehold land and building (including property under construction) that are held for long term rental yields and/or for capital appreciation. Investment properties are measured initially at cost, including transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, investment properties are measured in accordance with Ind AS 16’s requirements for cost model.
An investment property is derecognized upon disposal or when the investment property is permanently withdrawn from use and no future economic benefits are expected from the disposal. Any gain or loss arising on derecognition of property (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset) is included in profit or loss in the period in which the property is derecognized.
e) Intangible Assets
An Intangible Assets is recognised when it is probable that the expected future economic benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to the entity; and the cost of the asset can be measured reliably.
Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Intangible assets are amortized on a straight line basis over the estimated useful economic life of 3 to 5 years.
The intangible assets are assessed for impairment whenever there is indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortization period and the amortization method are reviewed at least at each financial year end.
Gains or losses arising from recognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.
f) Research and Development
Revenue expenditure on research and development including salaries, consumables and power & fuel is charged to Statement of Profit and Loss under respective heads of expenditure. Capital expenditure is shown as addition to property, plant and equipment.
g) Expenses Incurred During Construction Period
Preliminary project expenditure, capital expenditure, indirect expenditure incidental and related to construction / implementation, interest on borrowings to finance fixed assets and expenditure on start-up / commissioning of assets forming part of a composite project are capitalized upto the date of commissioning of the project as the cost of respective assets.
Based on internal assessment and independent technical evaluation carried out by external valuer, the management believes that the useful lives as given below best represent the period over which management expects to use these assets. The useful lives for these assets is different from the useful lives as prescribed under Part C of Schedule II of the Companies Act 2013.
And depreciation is charged on the following basis:-
(i) On Plant and Machinery and other assets of Hydel Power Project at Tawa, depreciation rates are as follows:
(ii) (a) On Plant and Machinery other than those mentioned at (i) above, on straight line method;
(b) On other fixed assets, on written down value method, in the manner as prescribed in Companies Act 2013 and rate as per prescribed useful life above;
(c) On assets classified as investment property, on written down value method, over the useful life prescribed in Schedule II. However, if the management’s estimate (based on technical evaluation) of useful life is different from that envisaged in Schedule II, then the assets are depreciated over the useful life estimated by the management.
(iii) Cost of acquisition and improvement of lease hold land is amortized over the lease period.
(iv) Assets costing upto Rs.5,000 are fully depreciated in the year of purchase.
(v) Intangible assets are amortized over a period of 3-5 years on a straight line basis.
Depreciation methods, useful lives and residual values are reviewed periodically, including at each financial year end.
i) Impairment of Non Financial Assets
Intangible assets, investment property and property, plant and equipment are evaluated for recoverability whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable. For the purpose of impairment testing, the recoverable amount (i.e. the higher of the fair value less cost to sell and the value-in-use) is determined on an individual asset basis unless the asset does not generate cash flows that are largely independent of those from other assets. In such cases, the recoverable amount is determined for the Cash Generating Unit (CGU) to which the asset belongs. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized in the statement of profit and loss is measured by the amount by which the carrying value of the assets exceeds the estimated recoverable amount of the asset. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pretax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset.
In determining fair value less costs of disposal, recent market transactions are taken into account. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used. These calculations are corroborated by valuation multiples, quoted share prices for publicly traded companies or other available fair value indicators.
An impairment loss is reversed in the statement of profit and loss if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. The carrying amount of the asset is increased to its revised recoverable amount, provided that this amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of any accumulated amortization or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years.
The company has the policy to assess at each reporting date for impairment required for each of its non-financial assets.
j) Foreign Exchange Transactions/Translation
(i) Functional Currency
Financial statements are presented in INR, which is company’s functional currency.
Transactions in currencies other than the entity’s functional currency (foreign currencies) are recognized at the rates of exchange prevailing at the dates of the transactions. At the end of each reporting period, monetary items denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rates prevailing at that date. Non monetary items are measured in terms of historical cost in foreign currencies and are therefore not retranslated.
The gain or loss arising on translation of non-monetary items measured at fair value is treated in line with the recognition of the gain or loss on the change in fair value of the item (i.e., translation differences on items whose fair value gain or loss is recognised in OCI or profit or loss are also recognised in OCI or profit or loss, respectively) except the exchange differences arising on reporting of long term foreign currency monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded, in so far as they relate to the acquisition of depreciable capital assets, are shown by addition to/deduction from the cost of the assets as per exemption provided under Ind AS 21 read along with Clause-D13AA, Appendix ‘D’ of IndAS-101.
(ii) Company designates certain foreign exchange forward contracts as cash flow hedges to mitigate the risk of foreign exchange exposure on highly probable forecast cash transactions.
When a derivative is designated as a cash flow hedging instrument, the effective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative is recognized in other comprehensive income and accumulated in the cash flow hedging reserve. Any ineffective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative is recognized immediately in the net profit in the statement of profit and loss. If the hedging instrument no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, then hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively. If the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, the cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognized in cash flow hedging reserve till the period the hedge was effective remains in cash flow hedging reserve until the forecasted transaction occurs. The cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in the cash flow hedging reserve is transferred to the net profit in the statement of profit and loss upon the occurrence of the related forecasted transaction. If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, then the amount accumulated in cash flow hedging reserve is reclassified to net profit in the statement of profit and loss.
k) Employee Benefits
Expenses and liabilities in respect of employee benefits are recorded in accordance with Indian Accounting Standard 19 - Employee Benefits.
(i) Provident Fund and ESI
The Company makes contribution to statutory Provident Fund and Employee State Insurance in accordance with
Employees Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 and Employee State Insurance Act, 1948 which is a defined contribution plan and contribution paid or payable is recognized as an expense in the period in which services are rendered by the employee.
Gratuity is a post employment benefit and is in the nature of a defined benefit plan. The liability recognised in the balance sheet in respect of gratuity is the present value of the defined benefit/obligation at the balance sheet date less the fair value of plan assets, together with adjustment for unrecognized actuarial gains or losses and past service costs. The defined benefit/obligation is calculated at or near the balance sheet date by an independent actuary using the projected unit credit method.
Gains and losses through re-measurements of the net defined benefit liability/(asset) are recognized in other comprehensive income. The actual return of the portfolio of plan assets, in excess of the yields computed by applying the discount rate used to measure the defined benefit obligations recognized in Other Comprehensive Income. The effect of any plan amendments are recognized in net profits in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
(iii) Compensated Absences
The expected cost of accumulating compensated absences is determined by actuarial valuation performed by an independent actuary at each balance sheet date using projected unit credit method on the additional amount expected to be paid/ availed as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the balance sheet date. Gains and losses through re-measurements of the net defined benefit liability/(asset) are recognized in other comprehensive income.
(iv) Superannuation Benefit
The Company makes contribution to superannuation fund which is a post employment benefit in the nature of a defined contribution plan and contribution paid or payable is recognized as an expense in the period in which services are rendered by the employee.
(v) Other Short Term Benefits
Expense in respect of other short term benefits is recognized on the basis of the amount paid or payable for the period during which services are rendered by the employee.
The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfilment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.
For arrangements entered into prior to 1 April 2015, the company has determined whether the arrangement contain lease on the basis of facts and circumstances existing on the date of transition.
Where the Company is the lessee
Finance leases are capitalized as assets at the commencement of the lease, at an amount equal to the fair value of leased asset or present value of the minimum lease payments, whichever is lower, valued at the inception date. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognized as finance costs in the statement of profit and loss, unless they are directly attributable to qualifying assets, in which case they are capitalized in accordance with the company’s general policy on borrowing cost. A leased asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term.
Operating lease payments are recognized as an operating expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Where the Company is the lessor
Rental Income from operating leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease, Costs including depreciation are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating and arranging an operating lease are recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
m) Segment Accounting and Reporting
The chief operational decision maker monitors the operating results of its business segments separately for the purpose of making decisions about resource allocation and performance assessment. Segment performance is evaluated based on profit and loss and is measured consistently with profit and loss in the financial statements.
The Operating Segments have been identified on the basis of the nature of products/ services.
(1) Segment Revenue includes sales and other income directly identifiable with/ allocable to the segment including inter- segment revenue.
(2) Expenses that are directly identifiable with/ allocable to the segments are considered for determining the segment result. Expenses not allocable to segments are included under unallocable expenditure.
(3) Income not allocable to the segments is included in unallocable income
(4) Segment results includes margin on inter segment and sales which are reduced in arriving at the profit before tax of the company.
(5) Segment assets and Liabilities include those directly identifiable with the respective segments. Assets and liabilities not allocable to any segment are classified under unallocable category.
n) Taxes on Income
Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date.
Current income tax
Current income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities. Current income tax relating to items recognised directly in equity is recognised in equity and not in the statement of profit and loss. Management periodically evaluates positions taken in the tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulations are subject to interpretation and establishes provisions where appropriate.
MAT credit is recognized as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. In the year in which the Minimum Alternative tax (MAT) credit becomes eligible to be recognized as an asset in accordance with the recommendations contained in Guidance Note issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the Statement of Profit and Loss and shown as MAT Credit Entitlement. The Company reviews the same at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that Company will pay normal Income Tax during the specified period.
Deferred tax is provided using the balance sheet approach on temporary differences at the reporting date between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purpose at reporting date.
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured using tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date and are expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect of changes in tax rates on deferred income tax assets and liabilities is recognized as income or expense in the period that includes the enactment or the substantive enactment date. A deferred income tax asset is recognized to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences and tax losses can be utilized.
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax assets to be utilised. Unrecognised deferred tax assets are reassessed at each reporting date and are recognised to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will allow deferred tax assets to be recovered.
The company offsets current tax assets and current tax liabilities, where it has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognized amounts and where it intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.
o) Government grants and subsidies
Government grants are recognized where there is reasonable assurance that the company will comply with the conditions attaching to them and the grants will be received.
Government grants shall be recognized in profit or loss on a systematic basis over the periods in which the entity recognizes as expenses the related costs for which the grants are intended to compensate. When the grant relates to an expense item, it is recognized as income on a systematic basis over the periods that the related costs, for which it is intended to compensate, are expensed. When the grant relates to an asset, it is recognized as income in equal amounts over the expected useful life of the related asset.
When the company receives grants of non-monetary assets, the asset and the grant are recorded at fair value and recognize to statement of profit and loss on a systematic basis over the useful life of the asset.
The benefit of a government loan at a below-market rate of interest is treated as a government grant, measured as the difference between proceeds received and the fair value of the loan based on prevailing market interest rates.
p) Borrowing Cost
Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized as part of the cost of the asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they occur. Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs that an entity incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds.
Interest bearing loans and borrowings has been restated to amortized cost using effective interest rate method with the discount accreted through the statement of profit and loss.
q) Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets
Provisions are recognized when the company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and are liable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.
If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognized as a finance cost.
r) Earning Per Share
Basic earnings per equity share is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity holders of the company by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per equity share is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity holders of the company by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per equity share and also the weighted average number of equity shares that could have been issued upon conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. Dilutive potential equity shares are deemed converted as of the beginning of the period, unless issued at a later date. Dilutive potential equity shares are determined independently for each period presented.
The number of equity shares and potentially dilutive equity shares are adjusted retrospectively for all periods presented for any share splits and bonus shares issues including for changes effected prior to the approval of the financial statements by the Board of Directors.
s) Financial instruments Initial recognition
The company recognizes financial assets and financial liabilities when it becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. All financial assets and liabilities are recognized at fair value on initial recognition. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities, that are not at fair value through profit or loss, are added to the fair value on initial recognition.
For the purpose of subsequent measurement financial assets are classifies in three broad categories:
A. Non-derivative financial instruments
(i) Debt instrument carried at amortized cost
A debt instrument is subsequently measured at amortized cost if it is held within a business model whose objective is to hold the asset in order to collect contractual cash flows and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
(ii) Financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income
A financial asset is subsequently measured at fair value through other comprehensive income if it is held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding. The Company has made an irrevocable election for its investments which are classified as equity instruments to present the subsequent changes in fair value in other comprehensive income based on its business model. Further, in cases where the company has made an irrevocable election based on its business model, for its investments which are classified as equity instruments, the subsequent changes in fair value are recognized in other comprehensive income.
(iii) Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss
A financial asset which is not classified in any of the above categories are subsequently fair valued through profit or loss.
(iv) Financial liabilities
Financial liabilities are subsequently carried at amortized cost using the effective interest method, except for contingent consideration recognized in a business combination which is subsequently measured at fair value through profit and loss. For trade and other payables maturing within one year from the balance sheet date, the carrying amounts approximate fair value due to the short maturity of these instruments.
(v) Investment in Subsidiaries, Associates and Joint Ventures
Investment in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures is carried at cost in the separate financial statements.
(vi) Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and short-term deposits in the statement of financial position comprise cash at banks and on hand and short-term deposits with a maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value. Cash and cash equivalents consist of balances with banks which are unrestricted for withdrawal and usage.
(vii) Impairment of Financial Assets
The company recognizes loss allowances using the expected credit loss (ECL) model for the financial assets which are not fair valued through profit or loss. Loss allowance for trade receivables with no significant financing component is measured at an amount equal to lifetime ECL. For all other financial assets, expected credit losses are measured at an amount equal to the 12-month ECL, unless there has been a significant increase in credit risk from initial recognition in which case those are measured at lifetime ECL. The amount of expected credit losses (or reversal) that is required to adjust the loss allowance at the reporting date to the amount that is required to be recognised is recognized as an impairment gain or loss in profit or loss.
B. Derivative financial instruments
The company holds derivative financial instruments such as foreign exchange forward and option contracts to mitigate the risk of changes in exchange rates on foreign currency exposures. The counterparty for these contracts is generally a bank.
(i) Financial assets or financial liabilities, at fair value through profit or loss.
This category has derivative financial assets or liabilities which are not designated as hedges. Although the company believes that these derivatives constitute hedges from an economic perspective, they may not qualify for hedge accounting under Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments. Any derivative that is either not designated a hedge, or is so designated but is ineffective as per Ind AS 109, is categorized as a financial asset or financial liability, at fair value through profit or loss.
ii) Cash flow hedge
The company designates certain foreign exchange forward contracts as cash flow hedges to mitigate the risk of foreign exchange exposure on highly probable forecast cash transactions. When a derivative is designated as a cash flow hedging instrument, the effective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative is recognized in other comprehensive income and accumulated in the cash flow hedging reserve. Any ineffective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative is recognized immediately in the net profit in the statement of profit and loss. If the hedging instrument no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, then hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively. If the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, the cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognized in cash flow hedging reserve till the period the hedge was effective remains in cash flow hedging reserve until the forecasted transaction occurs. The cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in the cash flow hedging reserve is transferred to the net profit in the statement of profit and loss upon the occurrence of the related forecasted transaction. If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, then the amount accumulated in cash flow hedging reserve is reclassified to net profit in the statement of profit and loss.
A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset) is primarily derecognized when:
(i) The contractual right to receive cash flows from the assets have expired, or
(ii) The company has transferred its right to receive cash flow from the financial assets and substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the asset to another party.
Reclassification of financial assets
The company determines classification of financial assets and liabilities on initial recognition. After initial recognition, no reclassification is made for financial assets which are equity instruments and financial liabilities. For financial assets which are debt instruments, a reclassification is made only if there is a change in the business model for managing those assets. Changes to the business model are expected to be infrequent. The company’s senior management determines change in the business model as a result of external or internal changes which are significant to the Company’s operations. Such changes are evident to external parties. A change in the business model occurs when the company either begins or ceases to perform an activity that is significant to its operations. If the company reclassifies financial assets, it applies the reclassification prospectively from the reclassification date which is the first day of the immediately next reporting period following the change in business model. The company does not restate any previously recognised gains, losses (including impairment gains or losses) or interest.
t) Fair Value Measurement
The Company measures financial instruments such as derivatives and certain investments, at the fair value at each balance sheet date.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:
(i) In the principal market for the asset or liability. Or
(ii) In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the assets or liability.
The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the Company.
The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.
A fair value measurement of a non-financial assets takes into account a market participant’s ability to generate economic benefits by using the assets in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use.
The company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximizing the use of relevant observable inputs and minimizing the use of unobservable inputs.
All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorized within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as whole:
Level 1 - Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
Level 2 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable
Level 3 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable
For assets and liabilities that are recognized in the balance sheet on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by reassessing categorization (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.
For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the company has determined classes of assets and liabilities on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy as explained above. Use of Estimates