NOTE 1 : CORPORATE INFORMATION
The Great Eastern Shipping Company Ltd. (the Company) is a public limited company registered in India under the provisions of the Companies Act, 1913. Its shares are listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange and the National Stock Exchange of India and on the Luxembourg Stock Exchange. The Company is a major player in the Indian Shipping industry.
NOTE 2 : SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
a) Basis of Preparation :
These financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India under the historical cost convention (except for certain financial instruments that are measured at fair values at the end of each reporting period) on accrual basis to comply in all material aspects with the Indian Accounting Standards (hereinafter referred to as the ''''Ind AS'''') as notified by Ministry of Corporate Affairs pursuant to section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 read with Rule 3 of the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 and Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2016.
The Company prepared its financial statements up to the year ended March 31, 2016 in accordance with the requirements of previous GAAP, which includes Standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006. These are the Company''''s first Ind AS financial statements. The date of transition to Ind AS is April 1, 2015. The financial statements for the year ended March 31, 2016 and the opening Balance Sheet as at April 1, 2015 have been restated in accordance with Ind AS for comparative information. The details of First-time adoption exemptions availed by the Company are given in Note 3. Reconciliations and explanations of the effect of the transition from Previous GAAP to Ind AS on the Company''''s Equity, Total Comprehensive Income and Statement of Cash Flows are provided in Note 3.
The financial statements have been prepared on accrual and going concern basis. The accounting policies are applied consistently to all the periods presented in the financial statements, including the preparation of the opening Ind AS Balance Sheet as at April 1, 2015 being the ''''date of transition to Ind AS''''. All assets and liabilities have been classified as Current and Non-Current as per the Company''''s normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013. Based on the nature of services rendered and the time between the rendering of the services and their realization in cash and cash equivalent, the Company has ascertained its operating cycle as twelve months for the purpose of Current and Non-Current classification of assets and liabilities.
The financial statements for the year ended March 31, 2017 were approved by the Board of Directors and authorized for issue on May 5, 2017.
b) Basis of Measurement :
These financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention unless otherwise indicated.
c) Use of Estimates :
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with the recognition and measurement principles of Ind AS requires management of the Company to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosures of contingent assets and contingent liabilities as at the date of financial statements and the reported amounts of income and expenses during the period. Actual results may differ from these estimates. Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimates are revised and in future periods which are affected.
Key sources of estimation of uncertainty at the date of the financial statements, which may cause a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year, is in respect of impairment of property, plant and equipment, useful lives of property, plant and equipment, provision and contingent liabilities.
Impairment of property, plant and equipment :
The Company reviews the carrying value of property, plant and equipment annually or more frequently when there is indication of impairment. If the recoverable amount is less than its carrying amount, the impairment loss is accounted for.
Useful lives of property, plant and equipment :
The Company reviews the useful life of property, plant and equipment at the end of each reporting period. This assessment may result in change in depreciation expense in future periods.
Provisions and Contingent Liabilities :
A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions other than retirement benefits and compensated absences are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Contingent liabilities are not recognized in the financial statements.
d) Property, plant and equipment :
Property, plant and equipment (PPE) are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Cost includes expenses related to acquisition and installation of the concerned assets, borrowing costs during construction period (net off capital subsidy / grant received) and excludes any duties / taxes recoverable.
Advances paid towards the acquisition of PPE outstanding at each reporting date is classified as capital advances under Other Non-Current Assets and the cost of assets not put to use before such date are disclosed under capital work in progress.
Subsequent expenditure relating to PPE are capitalized only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with these will flow to the Company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. All other expenses on maintaining property, plant and equipment, including day to day repair and maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred except for dry dock expenditure.
Grabs and Dry docks are considered as components of Fleet with estimated useful lives different than the main component of Fleet. Cost relating to Dry dock which is mandatorily required to be carried out as per the Classification Rules and Regulations is recognized in the carrying amount of the Ship and is amortized from the completion of survey till the estimated date for next special survey.
Losses arising from the retirement of, and gains or losses arising from disposal of property, plant and equipment are recognized in the Statement of Profit And Loss.
Exchange differences on repayment and year end translation of foreign currency loans availed upto March 31, 2016 and fair value gains or losses on qualifying cash flow hedges that are transferred from Hedging Reserve relating to acquisition of depreciable capital assets are adjusted to the carrying cost of the assets.
e) Intangible Assets :
Intangible assets are stated at acquisition cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Intangible assets are amortized on a straight line basis over the estimated useful lives.
f) Non-current asset held for sale :
An item of Property, plant and equipment is classified as non-current asset held for sale at the time when the Management is committed to sell / dispose off the asset as per Memorandum of Agreement entered into and the asset is expected to be sold / disposed off within one year from the date of classification.
Non-current assets classified as held for sale are measured at the lower of their carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell.
g) Investments in subsidiaries :
Non-current Investments in equity shares in subsidiaries are carried at cost less accumulated impairment losses, if any. Where an indication of impairment exists, the carrying amount of the investment is assessed and written down immediately to its recoverable amount. On disposal of investments in subsidiaries, the difference between net disposal proceeds and the carrying amounts are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Non-current Investments in Preference Shares in subsidiaries are valued using effective interest rate method.
h) Inventories :
Inventories of fuel oil are carried at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost is ascertained on first—in—first out basis. The cost includes all costs of purchase and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.
i) Borrowing Costs :
Borrowing costs include interest, ancillary cost incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings availed on or after April 1, 2016, to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost. Borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition / construction of the qualifying assets are capitalized as part of the cost of the asset, up to the date of acquisition/completion of construction. Other borrowing costs are recognized in the period in which they occur except for transaction costs which are amortized over the period of the loan.
j) Revenue Recognition :
Income from services : In case of completed voyages, freight and demurrage earnings are recognized fully and in case of incomplete voyages, freight and demurrage earnings are recognized prorata on the basis of direct operating expenses incurred as compared to total estimated direct operating expenses for the voyage. Charter hire earnings are accrued on time proportion basis except where the charter party agreements have not been renewed / finalized, in which case it is recognized on provisional basis.
Interest : Interest income is recognized on a time proportion basis taking into account the principal amount outstanding and the applicable effective interest rate.
Dividends : Dividend income is recognized when the Company''''s right to receive dividend is established.
k) Operating Expenses :
i) Fleet direct operating expenses are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss on accrual basis.
ii) Bunker consumption cost, which is part of direct operating expenses, is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss on consumption.
iii) Stores and spares delivered on board the ships are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.
iv) Expenses on account of general average claims / damages to ships are written off in the year in which they are incurred. Claims against the underwriters are accounted for on acceptance of average adjustment by the adjustors.
l) Employee Benefits :
(i) Short-Term Employee Benefits :
All employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short-term employee benefits. Benefits such as salaries, performance incentives, etc., are recognized as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the Statement of Profit and Loss of the year in which the employee renders the related service.
(ii) Post Employment Benefits :
Liability is provided for retirement benefits of Provident Fund, Superannuation, Gratuity and Leave Encashment in respect of all eligible employees and for pension benefit to Whole-time Directors of the Company.
a) Defined Contribution Plan
Employee benefits in the form of Superannuation Fund, Provident Fund and other Seamen''''s Welfare Contributions are considered as defined contribution plans and the contributions are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss of the period when the contributions to the respective funds are due.
b) Defined Benefit Plan
Retirement benefits in the form of Gratuity and Pension plan for Whole-time Directors are considered as defined benefit obligations and are provided for on the basis of actuarial valuations, using the projected unit credit method, as at the date of the Balance Sheet.
c) Other Long-Term Benefits
Long-term compensated absences are provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation, using the projected unit credit method, as at the date of the Balance Sheet.
Actuarial gain / loss, comprising of experience adjustments and the effects of changes in actuarial assumptions is recognized in the Statement of Other Comprehensive Income except for Long-term compensated absences where the same is immediately recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
m) Depreciation on Property, Plant and Equipment and Amortization of Intangible Asset :
(i) Depreciation or amortization is provided on Straight Line Method basis so as to write off the original cost of the asset less its estimated residual value over the estimated useful life. The estimated useful life of the assets are as under :
* For these class of assets, based on internal technical assessment and past experience, the Management believes that the useful lives as given above, best represent the period over which the Management expects the use of the assets. The useful lives of these assets are different from the useful lives as prescribed under Part C of Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013.
(ii) Estimated useful life of the Fleet and Ownership Flats and Buildings is considered from the year of built. Estimated useful life in case of all other assets is considered from the date of acquisition by the Company.
(iii)Residual value in case of Fleet is estimated initially as amount equal to product of long tonnes and estimated scrap value per long tonne based on previous ten years moving average of scrap rates. In case of other assets, the residual value, being negligible, has been considered as NIL.
(iv)The estimated useful lives and residual values are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate being accounted for on a prospective basis.
n) Asset Impairment :
The carrying amounts of the Company''''s property plant and equipment are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, the asset''''s recoverable amounts are estimated in order to determine the extent of impairment loss, if any. An impairment loss is recognized whenever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The impairment loss, if any, is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which impairment takes place. Recoverable amount is higher of an asset''''s net selling price and its value in use. Value in use is the present value of estimated future cash flows expected to arise from the continuing use of an asset and from its disposal at the end of its useful life.
Where an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, however subject to the increased carrying amount not exceeding the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of amortization or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior accounting periods.
o) Foreign Exchange Transactions :
(i) Items included in the financial statements of the Company are recorded using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the Company operates (the ''''functional currency''''). The financial statements are presented in INR, the functional currency of the Company.
(ii) Transactions in foreign currency are recorded at standard exchange rates determined monthly. Non monetary items, which are measured in terms of historical costs denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currency, remaining unsettled at the year end are translated at closing rates. The difference in translation of long term monetary assets acquired and liabilities incurred prior to April 1, 2016 and realized gains and losses on foreign currency transactions relating to acquisition of depreciable capital assets are added to or deducted from the cost of the asset and depreciated over the balance life of the asset; and in other cases, accumulated in a Foreign Currency Monetary Item Translation Difference Account and amortized over the balance period of such long term asset / liability, by recognition as income or expense but not beyond March 31, 2020. The difference in translation of all other monetary assets and liabilities and realized gains and losses on other foreign currency transactions are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
p) Financial Instruments :
Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognized when a Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instruments.
Financial assets and financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value of the financial assets or financial liabilities, as appropriate, on initial recognition. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Subsequent measurement Financial Assets
All recognized financial assets are subsequently measured in their entirety at either amortized cost or fair value through Profit or Loss (FVTPL) or fair value through Other Comprehensive Income (FVOCI), depending on the classification of the financial assets. The purchase and sale of financial assets are accounted for at trade date.
Cash and Cash Equivalents :
Cash and cash equivalents include cash in hand, demand deposits with banks, other short term highly liquid financial instruments which are readily convertible into known amounts of cash that are subject to an insignificant risk of change in value and having original maturities of three months or less.
Fixed deposit having residual maturity up to twelve months from the reporting period is considered as part of bank balances other than cash and cash equivalent. Fixed deposit with residual maturity more than twelve months from reporting period is classified under other non current assets.
Trade Receivables and Loans :
These assets are held at amortized cost, using the effective interest rate (EIR) method net of any expected credit losses. The EIR is the rate that discounts estimated future cash income through the expected life of financial instrument.
a) Measured at amortized cost :
Financial assets that are held within a business model whose objective is to hold financial assets in order to collect contractual cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest, are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest rate (''''EIR'''') method less impairment, if any. The amortization using EIR and loss arising from impairment, if any is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
b) Measured at fair value through Other Comprehensive Income (FVOCI) :
Financial assets that are held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both, selling financial assets and collecting contractual cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest, are subsequently measured at fair value through Other Comprehensive Income. Fair value movements are recognized in the Other Comprehensive Income (OCI). Interest income measured using the EIR method and impairment losses, if any are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss. On derecognition, cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in OCI is reclassified from the equity to ''''other income'''' in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
c) Measured at fair value through Profit or Loss (FVTPL) :
A financial asset not classified as either amortized cost or FVOCI, is classified as FVTPL. Such financial assets are measured at fair value with all changes in fair value, including interest income and dividend income if any, recognized as ''''Other Income'''' in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Debt Instruments :
Debt instruments are initially measured at amortized cost, fair value through Other Comprehensive Income (''''FVOCI'''') or fair value through Profit or Loss (''''FVTPL'''') till derecognition on the basis of (i) the entity''''s business model for managing the financial assets and (ii) the contractual cash flow characteristics of the financial asset.
Equity Instruments :
All investments in equity instruments classified under financial assets are initially measured at fair value, the Company may, on initial recognition, irrevocably elect to measure the same either at FVOCI or FVTPL.
The Company makes such election on an instrument-by-instrument basis. Fair value changes on an equity instrument is recognized as Other Income in the Statement of Profit and Loss unless the Company has elected to measure such instrument at FVOCI. Fair value changes excluding dividends, on an equity instrument measured at FVOCI are recognized in OCI. Amounts recognized in OCI are not subsequently reclassified to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Dividend income on the investments in equity instruments are recognized as ''''Other Income'''' in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Impairment of financial assets
Expected credit losses are recognized for all financial assets subsequent to initial recognition other than financials assets in FVTPL category. The Company''''s trade receivables do not contain significant financing component and loss allowance on trade receivables is measured at an amount equal to life time expected losses i.e. expected cash shortfall. The impairment losses and reversals are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss.
Derecognition of financial assets
The Company derecognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire, or when it transfers the financial asset and substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the asset to another party.
All financial liabilities are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method or at FVTPL.
Financial liabilities are classified as at FVTPL when the financial liability is held for trading or it is designated as at FVTPL.
Financial liabilities that are not held-for-trading and are not designated as at FVTPL are measured at amortized cost at the end of subsequent accounting periods. The carrying amounts of financial liabilities that are subsequently measured at amortized cost are determined based on the effective interest method. Interest expense that is not capitalized as part of costs of an asset is included in ''''Finance Costs''''.
The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortized cost of a financial liability and of allocating interest expense over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash payments (including all fees and points paid or received that form an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and other premiums or discounts) through the expected life of the financial liability, or (where appropriate) a shorter period, to the net carrying amount on initial recognition.
Derecognition of financial liabilities
The Company derecognizes financial liabilities when, and only when, the Company''''s obligations are discharged, cancelled or have expired. A substantial modification of the terms of an existing financial liability (whether or not attributable to the financial difficulty of the debtor) is accounted for as an extinguishment of the original financial liability and the recognition of a new financial liability. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability derecognized and the consideration paid and payable is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Offsetting financial instruments
Financial assets and liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet where there is a legally enforceable right to offset the recognized amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis or realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously. The legally enforceable right must not be contingent on future events and must be enforceable in the normal course of business and in the event of default, insolvency or bankruptcy of the Company or the counterparty.
Derivative financial instruments
The Company enters into a variety of derivative financial instruments to manage its exposure to interest rate and foreign exchange rate risks, including foreign exchange forward contracts, interest rate swaps, currency swaps, commodity swaps etc. Further details of derivative financial instruments are disclosed in Note 35.
Derivatives are initially recognized at fair value at the date the derivative contracts are entered into and are subsequently premeasured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period. The resulting gain or loss is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss immediately unless the derivative is designated and effective as a hedging instrument, in which event the timing of the recognition in the Statement of Profit and Loss depends on the nature of the hedging relationship and the nature of the hedged item. The gains or losses on derivative contracts related to the acquisition of depreciable capital assets are added to or deducted from the cost of the assets and not recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss.
Derivatives embedded in non-derivative host contracts that are not financial assets within the scope of Ind AS 109 are treated as separate derivatives when their risks and characteristics are not closely related to those of the host contracts and the host contracts are not measured at FVTPL.
The Company designates certain hedging instruments, which include derivatives and non-derivatives in respect of foreign currency risk, as either fair value hedges or cash flow hedges.
At the inception of the hedge relationship, the entity documents the relationship between the hedging instrument and the hedged item, along with its risk management objectives and its strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions. Furthermore, at the inception of the hedge and on an ongoing basis, the Company documents whether the hedging instrument is highly effective in offsetting changes in fair values or cash flows of the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk. Note 35 sets out details of the fair values of the derivative instruments used for hedging purposes.
Fair value hedges
Changes in fair value of the designated portion of derivatives that qualify as fair value hedges are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss immediately, together with any changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that are attributable to the hedged risk. The change in the fair value of the designated portion of hedging instrument and the change in the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the line item relating to the hedged item.
Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or when it no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. The fair value adjustment to the carrying amount of the hedged item arising from the hedged risk is amortized to the Statement of Profit and Loss from that date.
Cash flow hedges
The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges is recognized in Other Comprehensive Income and accumulated under the heading of Cash Flow Hedging Reserve. The gain or loss relating to the ineffective portion is recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Amounts previously recognized in Other Comprehensive Income and accumulated in equity (relating to effective portion as described above) are reclassified to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the periods when the hedged item affects profit or loss, in the same line as the recognized hedged item. However, when the hedged forecast transaction results in the recognition of a non-financial asset or a non-financial liability, such gains and losses are transferred from equity (but not as a reclassification adjustment) and included in the initial measurement of the cost of the non-financial asset or non-financial liability.
Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or when it no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. Any gain or loss recognized in Other Comprehensive Income and accumulated in equity at that time remains in equity and is recognized when the forecast transaction is ultimately recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss. When a forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the gain or loss accumulated in equity is recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss .
q) Taxation :
(i) Provision for current income-tax is made on the basis of the assessable income under the Income-tax Act, 1961.
(ii) Deferred income-tax is recognized on timing differences, between taxable income and accounting income which originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods only in respect of the non-tonnage activities of the Company. Deferred income tax assets are recognized to the extent it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilized. The tax effect is calculated on the accumulated timing differences at the year end based on tax rates and laws, enacted or substantially enacted as of the Balance Sheet date. Deferred income taxes are not provided on the undistributed earnings of the subsidiaries where it is expected that the earnings of the subsidiary will not be distributed in the foreseeable future.
(iii)The Company offsets current tax assets and current tax liabilities, where it has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognized amounts and where it intends either to settle on a net basis or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously. Deferred tax assets include Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws which is likely to give future economic benefits in the form of availability of set off against future income tax liability. Accordingly, MAT is recognized as deferred tax asset when the asset can be measured reliably and it is probable that the future economic benefit associated with the asset will be realized.
(iv)Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) credit is recognized as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income-tax during the specified period.
r) Provisions and Contingent Liabilities :
Provisions are recognized when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are measured at the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the Balance Sheet date.
Contingent liabilities are disclosed when there is a possible obligation arising from past events, the existence of which will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company or a present obligation that arises from past events where it is either not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation or a reliable estimate of the amount cannot be made.
s) Earnings per share :
Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to the equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events, such as bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue and shares split that have changed the number of equity shares outstanding, without a corresponding change in resources. For the purpose of calculating Diluted Earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to the equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.
t) Government Grants :
Government grants are not recognized until there is a reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with the conditions attached to them and that the grants will be received. Government grants are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a systematic basis over the periods in which the Company recognizes as expenses the related costs for which the grants are intended to compensate. Government grants used to acquire non-current asset are recognized as deferred revenue in the Balance Sheet and transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss on a systematic basis over the useful lives of the related assets.