1. The Company overview
Wipro Limited (“Wipro” or “Company”), is a leading India based provider of IT Services, including Business Process Services (“BPS”), globally.
Wipro is a public limited company incorporated and domiciled in India. The address of its registered office is Wipro Limited, Doddakannelli, Sarjapur Road, Bangalore - 560 035, Karnataka, India. Wipro has its primary listing with Bombay Stock Exchange and National Stock Exchange in India. The Company’s American Depository Shares representing equity shares are also listed on the New York Stock Exchange. These financial statements were authorized for issue by the Board of Directors on June 02, 2017.
2. Basis of preparation of financial statements
(i) Statement of compliance and basis of preparation
These financial statements are prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS), the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 (“the Companies Act”), as applicable and guidelines issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (“SEBI”). The Ind AS are prescribed under Section 133 of the Act read with Rule 3 of the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 and Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2016.
Up to the year ended March 31, 2016, the Company prepared its financial statements in accordance with the requirements of the Indian GAAP (“Previous GAAP”), which included Standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006. The date of transition to Ind AS is April 1, 2015.
Accounting policies have been applied consistently to all periods presented in these financial statements.
The financial statements correspond to the classification provisions contained in Ind AS 1, “Presentation of Financial Statements”. For clarity, various items are aggregated in the statements of profit and loss and balance sheet. These items are disaggregated separately in the notes to the financial statements, where applicable.
All amounts included in the financial statements are reported in millions of Indian rupees (in millions) except share and per share data, unless otherwise stated. Due to rounding off, the numbers presented throughout the document may not add up precisely to the totals and percentages may not precisely reflect the absolute figures.
(ii) Basis of measurement
These financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost convention and on an accrual basis, except for the following material items which have been measured at fair value as required by relevant Ind AS:-
a) Derivative financial instruments;
b) Financial instruments classified as fair value through other comprehensive income or fair value through profit or loss; and
c) The defined benefit asset/(liability) is recognized as the present value of defined benefit obligation less fair value of plan assets.
(iii) Use of estimates and judgment
The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Ind AS requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, income and expenses. Actual results may differ from those estimates.
Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimates are revised and in any future periods affected. In particular, information about significant areas of estimation, uncertainty and critical judgments in applying accounting policies that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognized in the financial statements are included in the following notes:
a) Revenue recognition: The Company uses the percentage of completion method using the input (cost expended) method to measure progress towards completion in respect of fixed price contracts. Percentage of completion method accounting relies on estimates of total expected contract revenue and costs. This method is followed when reasonably dependable estimates of the revenues and costs applicable to various elements of the contract can be made. Key factors that are reviewed in estimating the future costs to complete include estimates of future labor costs and productivity efficiencies. Because the financial reporting of these contracts depends on estimates that are assessed continually during the term of these contracts, recognized revenue and profit are
subject to revisions as the contract progresses to completion. When estimates indicate that a loss will be incurred, the loss is provided for in the period in which the loss becomes probable. Volume discounts are recorded as a reduction of revenue. When the amount of discount varies with the levels of revenue, volume discount is recorded based on estimate of future revenue from the customer.
b) Impairment testing: Investments in subsidiaries, goodwill and intangible assets are tested for impairment at least annually and when events occur or changes in circumstances indicate that the recoverable amount of the asset or cash generating units to which these pertain is less than its carrying value. The recoverable amount of cash generating units is higher of value-in-use and fair value less cost to dispose. The calculation of value in use of a cash generating unit involves use of significant estimates and assumptions which includes turnover and earnings multiples, growth rates and net margins used to calculate projected future cash flows, risk-adjusted discount rate, future economic and market conditions.
c) Income taxes: The major tax jurisdictions for the Company are India and the United States of America. Significant judgments are involved in determining the provision for income taxes including judgment on whether tax positions are probable of being sustained in tax assessments. A tax assessment can involve complex issues, which can only be resolved over extended time periods.
d) Deferred taxes: Deferred tax is recorded on temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts, at the rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable profits during the periods in which those temporary differences and tax loss carry forwards become deductible. The Company considers the expected reversal of deferred tax liabilities and projected future taxable income in making this assessment. The amount of the deferred tax assets considered realizable, however, could be reduced in the near term if estimates of future taxable income during the carry-forward period are reduced.
e) Business combination: In accounting for business combinations, judgment is required in identifying whether an identifiable intangible asset is to be recorded separately from goodwill. Additionally, estimating the acquisition date fair value of the identifiable assets acquired (including useful life estimates), liabilities acquired and contingent consideration assumed involves management judgment. These measurements are based on information available at the acquisition date and are based on expectations and assumptions that have been deemed reasonable by management. Changes in these judgments, estimates, and assumptions can materially affect the results of operations.
f) Defined benefit plans and compensated absences: The cost of the defined benefit plans, compensated absences and the present value of the defined benefit obligation are based on actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method. An actuarial valuation involves making various assumptions that may differ from actual developments in the future. These include the determination of the discount rate, future salary increases and mortality rates. Due to the complexities involved in the valuation and its long-term nature, a defined benefit obligation is highly sensitive to changes in these assumptions. All assumptions are reviewed at each reporting date.
g) Expected credit losses on financial assets: The impairment provisions of financial assets are based on assumptions about risk of default and expected timing of collection. The Company uses judgment in making these assumptions and selecting the inputs to the impairment calculation, based on the Company’s past history, customer’s creditworthiness, existing market conditions as well as forward looking estimates at the end of each reporting period.
h) Measurement of fair value of non-marketable equity investments: These instruments are initially recorded at cost and subsequently measured at fair value. Fair value of investments is determined using the market and income approaches. The market approach includes the use of financial metrics and ratios of comparable companies, such as revenue, earnings, comparable performance multiples, recent financial rounds and the level of marketability of the investments. The selection of comparable companies requires management judgment and is based on a number of factors, including comparable company sizes, growth rates, and development stages. The income approach includes the use of discounted cash flow model, which requires significant estimates regarding the investees’ revenue, costs, and discount rates based on the risk profile of comparable companies. Estimates of revenue and costs are developed using available historical and forecast data.
i) Other estimates: The share based compensation expense is determined based on the Company’s estimate of equity instruments that will eventually vest. Fair valuation of derivative hedging instruments designated as cash flow hedges involves significant estimates relating to the occurrence of forecast transaction
3. Significant accounting policies
(i) Functional and presentation currency
These financial statements are presented in Indian rupees, the national currency of India, which is the functional currency of the Company.
(ii) Foreign currency transactions and translation
Transactions in foreign currency are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates prevailing at the date of the transaction. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from translation at the exchange rates prevailing at the reporting date of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognized in the statement of profit and loss and reported within foreign exchange gains/(losses), net within results of operating activities except when deferred in other comprehensive income as qualifying cash flow hedges. Gains/(losses) relating to translation or settlement of borrowings denominated in foreign currency are reported within finance expense. Nonmonetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currency and measured at historical cost are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date of transaction. Translation differences on nonmonetary financial assets measured at fair value at the reporting date, such as equities classified as FVTOCI are included in other comprehensive income, net of taxes.
(iii) Financial instruments
a) Non-derivative financial instruments:
Non derivative financial instruments consist of:
- financial assets, which include cash and cash equivalents, trade receivables, unbilled revenues, finance lease receivables, employee and other advances, investments in equity and debt securities and eligible current and noncurrent assets;
- financial liabilities, which include long and short-term loans and borrowings, bank overdrafts, trade payables, eligible current and non-current liabilities.
Non derivative financial instruments are recognized initially at fair value. Financial assets are derecognized when substantial risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset have been transferred. In cases where substantial risks and rewards of ownership of the financial assets are neither transferred nor retained, financial assets are derecognized only when the Company has not retained control over the financial asset.
Subsequent to initial recognition, non-derivative financial instruments are measured as described below:
A. Cash and cash equivalents
The Company’s cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on hand and in banks and demand deposits with banks, which can be withdrawn at any time, without prior notice or penalty on the principal.
For the purposes of the cash flow statement, cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand, in banks and demand deposits with banks, net of outstanding bank overdrafts that are repayable on demand and are considered part of the Company’s cash management system. In the balance sheet, bank overdrafts are presented under borrowings within current liabilities.
Financial instruments measured at amortized cost:
Debt instruments that meet the following criteria are measured at amortized cost (except for debt instruments that are designated at fair value through Profit or Loss (FVTPL) on initial recognition):
- the asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets in order to collect contractual cash flows; and
- the contractual terms of the instrument give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payment of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
Financial instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI):
Debt instruments that meet the following criteria are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI) (except
for debt instruments that are designated at fair value through Profit or Loss (FVTPL) on initial recognition)
- the asset is held within a business model whose objective is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial asset; and
- the contractual terms of the instrument give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payment of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
Interest income is recognized in statement of profit and loss for FVTOCI debt instruments. Other changes in fair value of FVTOCI financial assets are recognized in other comprehensive income. When the investment is disposed of, the cumulative gain or loss previously accumulated in reserves is transferred to statement of profit and loss.
Financial instruments measured at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL):
Instruments that do not meet the amortized cost or FVTOCI criteria are measured at FVTPL. Financial assets at FVTPL are measured at fair value at the end of each reporting period, with any gains or losses arising on re-measurement recognized in statement of profit and loss. The gain or loss on disposal is recognized in statement of profit and loss.
Interest income is recognized in statement of profit and loss for FVTPL debt instruments. Dividend on financial assets at FVTPL is recognized when the Company’s right to receive dividend is established.
Investments in equity instruments designated to be classified as FVTOCI:
The Company carries certain equity instruments which are not held for trading. The Company has elected the FVTOCI irrevocable option for these instruments. Movements in fair value of these investments are recognized in other comprehensive income and the gain or loss is not reclassified to statement of profit and loss on disposal of these investments. Dividends from these investments are recognized in statement of profit and loss when the Company’s right to receive dividends is established.
Investments in subsidiaries:
Investment in subsidiaries are measured at cost less impairment.
C. Other financial assets:
Other financial assets are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market. They are presented as current assets, except for those maturing later than 12 months after the reporting date which are presented as non-current assets. These are initially recognized at fair value and subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method, less any impairment losses. These comprise trade receivables, unbilled revenues, cash and cash equivalents and other assets.
D. Trade and other payables
Trade and other payables are initially recognized at fair value, and subsequently carried at amortized cost using the effective interest method. For these financial instruments, the carrying amounts approximate fair value due to the short term maturity of these instruments.
b) Derivative financial instruments
The Company is exposed to foreign currency fluctuations on foreign currency assets, liabilities, net investment in foreign operations and forecasted cash flows denominated in foreign currency.
The Company limits the effect of foreign exchange rate fluctuations by following established risk management policies including the use of derivatives. The Company enters into derivative financial instruments where the counterparty is primarily a bank.
Derivatives are recognized and measured at fair value. Attributable transaction costs are recognized in statement of profit and loss as cost.
Subsequent to initial recognition, derivative financial instruments are measured as described below:
A. Cash flow hedges
Changes in the fair value of the derivative hedging instrument designated as a cash flow hedge are recognized in other comprehensive income and held in cash flow hedging reserve, net of taxes, a component of equity, to the extent that the hedge is effective. To the extent that the hedge is ineffective, changes in fair value are recognized in the statement of profit and loss and reported within foreign exchange gains/(losses), net within results from operating activities. If the hedging instrument no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, then hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively.
If the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, the cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognized in cash flow hedging reserve till the period the hedge was effective remains in cash flow hedging reserve until the forecasted transaction occurs. The cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in the cash flow hedging reserve is transferred to the statement of profit and loss upon the occurrence of the related forecasted transaction. If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, such cumulative balance is immediately recognized in the statement of profit and loss.
Changes in fair value of foreign currency derivative instruments not designated as cash flow hedges are recognized in the statement of profit and loss and reported within foreign exchange gains, net within results from operating activities.
Changes in fair value and gains/(losses) on settlement of foreign currency derivative instruments relating to borrowings, which have not been designated as hedges are recorded in finance expense.
c) Derecognition of financial instruments
The Company derecognizes a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expires or it transfers the financial asset and the transfer qualifies for derecognition under IFRS 9. If the Company retains substantially all the risks and rewards of a transferred financial asset, the Company continues to recognize the financial asset and also recognizes a borrowing for the proceeds received. A financial liability (or a part of a financial liability) is derecognized from the Company’s balance sheet when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged or cancelled or expires.
a) Share capital and share premium
The authorized share capital of the Company as of March 31, 2017, March 31, 2016 and April 1, 2015 is 6,100 million divided into 2,917,500,000 equity shares of '''' 2 each, 25,000,000 10.25% redeemable cumulative preference shares of '''' 10 each and 150,000, 10% optionally convertible cumulative preference shares of '''' 100 each. Par value of the equity shares is recorded as share capital and the amount received in excess of par value is classified as share premium.
Every holder of the equity shares, as reflected in the records of the Company as of the date of the shareholder meeting shall have one vote in respect of each share held for all matters submitted to vote in the shareholder meeting.
b) Capital Reserve
Capital reserve amounting to'''' 1,139 (March 31, 2016 and April 1, 2015: '''' 1,139, respectively) is not freely available for distribution.
c) Capital Redemption Reserve
Capital redemption reserve amounting '''' 94 (March 31, 2016 and April 1, 2015: '''' 14, respectively) is not freely available for distribution.
c) Retained earnings
Retained earnings comprises of the Company’s undistributed earnings after taxes.
e) Share based payment reserve
The share based payment reserve is used to record the value of equity-settled share based payment transactions with employees. The amounts recorded in share based payment reserve are transferred to share premium upon exercise of stock options and restricted stock unit options by employees.
f) Special Economic Zone Re-Investment reserve
The Special Economic Zone Re-Investment Reserve has been created out of profit of eligible SEZ units as per provisions of section 10AA (1)(ii) of the Income-tax Act, 1961 for acquiring new plant and machinery. The reserve has also been utilized for other business purposes of SEZ units as per provisions of section 10AA of the Income-tax Act, 1961 till the time the said reserve is utilized completely for the purposes of purchasing new plant and machinery.
g) Other comprehensive income
Changes in the fair value of financial instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income and actuarial gains and losses on defined benefit plans are recognized in other comprehensive income (net of taxes), and presented within equity as other comprehensive income.
h) Cash flow hedging reserve
Changes in fair value of derivative hedging instruments designated and effective as a cash flow hedge are recognized in other comprehensive income (net of taxes), and presented within equity as cash flow hedging reserve.
i) Foreign currency translation reserve (FCTR)
The exchange differences arising from the translation of financial statements of foreign operations with functional currency other than Indian rupees is recognized in other comprehensive income, net of taxes and is presented within equity in the FCTR.
A final dividend, including tax thereon, on equity shares is recorded as a liability on the date of approval by the shareholders. An interim dividend, including tax thereon, is recorded as a liability on the date of declaration by the board of directors.
(vi) Property, plant and equipment
a) Recognition and measurement
Property, plant and equipment are measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Cost includes expenditures directly attributable to the acquisition of the asset. General and specific borrowing costs directly attributable to the construction of a qualifying asset are capitalized as part of the cost.
(vii) Business combination, Goodwill and Intangible
a) Business combination
Business combinations are accounted for using the purchase (acquisition) method. The cost of an acquisition is measured as the fair value of the assets transferred, liabilities incurred or assumed and equity instruments issued at the date of exchange by the Company. Identifiable assets acquired and liabilities and contingent liabilities assumed in a business combination are measured initially at fair value at the date of acquisition. Transaction costs incurred in connection with a business acquisition are expensed as incurred.
The cost of an acquisition also includes the fair value of any contingent consideration measured as at the date of acquisition. Any subsequent changes to the fair value of contingent consideration classified as liabilities, other than measurement period adjustments, are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.
The excess of the cost of an acquisition over the Company’s share in the fair value of the acquirer’s identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities is recognized as goodwill. If the excess is negative, a bargain purchase gain is recognized in equity as capital reserve.
c) Intangible assets
Intangible assets acquired separately are measured at cost of acquisition. Intangible assets acquired in a business combination are measured at fair value as at the date of acquisition. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and impairment losses, if any.
The amortization of an intangible asset with a finite useful life reflects the manner in which the economic benefit is expected to be generated.
When parts of an item of property, plant and equipment have different useful lives, they are accounted for as separate items (major components) of property, plant and equipment. Subsequent expenditure relating to property, plant and equipment is capitalized only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with these will flow to the Company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably.
The cost of property, plant and equipment not available for use as at each reporting date is disclosed under capital work- in-progress.
The determination of whether an arrangement is, or contains, a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception date. The arrangement is, or contains a lease if, fulfillment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets or the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.
a) Arrangements where the Company is the lessee
Leases of property, plant and equipment, where the Company assumes substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. Finance leases are capitalized at lower of the fair value of the leased property and the present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charge and the outstanding liability. The finance charge is allocated to periods during the lease term at a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability.
Leases where the less or retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as operating leases. Payments made under operating leases are recognized in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
b) Arrangements where the Company is the less or
In certain arrangements, the Company recognizes revenue from the sale of products given under finance leases. The Company records gross finance receivables, unearned income and the estimated residual value of the leased equipment on consummation of such leases. Unearned income represents the excess of the gross finance lease receivable plus the estimated residual value over the sales price of the equipment. The Company recognizes unearned income as finance income over the lease term using the effective interest method.
Inventories are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value, including necessary provision for obsolescence. Cost is determined using the weighted average method.
A) Financial assets
The Company applies the expected credit loss model for recognizing impairment loss on financial assets measured at amortized cost, debt instruments at FVTOCI, lease receivables, trade receivables and other financial assets. Expected credit loss is the difference between the contractual cash flows and the cash flows that the entity expects to receive discounted using effective interest rate.
Loss allowances for trade receivables and lease receivables are measured at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses. Lifetime expected credit losses are the expected credit losses that result from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial instrument Lifetime expected credit loss is computed based on a provision matrix which takes in to the account historical credit loss experience adjusted for forward looking information. For other financial assets, expected credit loss is measured at the amount equal to twelve months expected credit loss unless there has been a significant increase in credit risk from initial recognition, in which case those are measured at lifetime expected credit loss. Refer note 2 (iii) (g) for further information.
B) Non - financial assets
The Company assesses long-lived assets such as property, plant, equipment and acquired intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset or group of assets may not be recoverable. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset or group of assets. The recoverable amount of an asset or cash generating unit is the higher of its fair value less cost of disposal (FVLCD) and its value-in-use (VIU). The VIU of long-lived assets is calculated using projected future cash flows. FVLCD of a cash generating unit is computed using turnover and earnings multiples. If the recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount. The reduction is treated as an impairment loss and is recognized in the statement of profit and loss. If at the reporting date, there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the impairment losses previously recognized are reversed such that the asset is recognized at its recoverable amount but not exceeding written down value which would have been reported if the impairment losses had not been recognized initially.
Goodwill is tested for impairment at least annually at the same time and when events occur or changes in circumstances indicate that the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit is less than its carrying value. The goodwill impairment test is performed at
the level of cash-generating unit or groups of cash-generating units which represent the lowest level at which goodwill is monitored for internal management purposes. An impairment in respect of goodwill is not reversed.
(xi) Employee benefits
a) Post-employment and pension plans
The Company participates in various employee benefit plans. Pensions and other post-employment benefits are classified as either defined contribution plans or defined benefit plans. Under a defined contribution plan, the Company’s only obligation is to pay a fixed amount with no obligation to pay further contributions if the fund does not hold sufficient assets to pay all employee benefits. The related actuarial and investment risks fall on the employee. The expenditure for defined contribution plans is recognized as an expense during the period when the employee provides service. Under a defined benefit plan, it is the Company’s obligation to provide agreed benefits to the employees. The related actuarial and investment risks fall on the Company. The present value of the defined benefit obligations is calculated by an independent actuary using the projected unit credit method.
All actuarial gains or losses are immediately recognized in other comprehensive income, net of taxes and permanently excluded from profit or loss. Further, the profit or loss will no longer include an expected return on plan assets. Instead net interest recognized in profit or loss is calculated by applying the discount rate used to measure the defined benefit obligation to the net defined benefit liability or asset. The actual return on the plan assets above or below the discount rate is recognized as part of remeasurement of net defined liability or asset through other comprehensive income, net of taxes.
The Company has the following employee benefit plans:
A. Provident fund
Employees receive benefits from a provident fund, which is a defined benefit plan. The employer and employees each make periodic contributions to the plan. A portion of the contribution is made to the approved provident fund trust managed by the Company while the remainder of the contribution is made to the government administered pension fund. The contributions to the trust managed by the Company is accounted for as a defined benefit plan as the Company is liable for any shortfall in the fund assets based on the government specified minimum rates of return.
Superannuation plan, a defined contribution scheme is administered by third party fund managers. The Company makes annual contributions based on a specified percentage of each eligible employee’s salary.
In accordance with the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972, applicable for Indian companies, the Company provides for a lump sum payment to eligible employees, at retirement or termination of employment based on the last drawn salary and years of employment with the Company. The gratuity fund is managed by the third party funds. The Company’s obligation in respect of the gratuity plan, which is a defined benefit plan, is provided for based on actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method. The Company recognizes actuarial gains and losses in other comprehensive income, net of taxes.
b) Termination benefits
Termination benefits are expensed when the Company can no longer withdraw the offer of those benefits.
c) Short-term benefits
Short-term employee benefit obligations are measured on an undiscounted basis and are recorded as expense as the related service is provided. A liability is recognized for the amount expected to be paid under short-term cash bonus or profit-sharing plans, if the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation to pay this amount as a result of past service provided by the employee and the obligation can be estimated reliably.
d) Compensated absences
The employees of the Company are entitled to compensated absences. The employees can carry forward a portion of the unutilized accumulating compensated absences and utilize it in future periods or receive cash at retirement or termination of employment. The Company records an obligation for compensated absences in the period in which the employee renders the services that increases this entitlement. The Company measures the expected cost of compensated absences as the additional amount that the Company expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the end of the reporting period. The Company recognizes accumulated compensated absences based on actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method. Non-accumulating compensated absences are recognized in the period in which the absences occur.
(xii) Share based payment transactions
Selected employees of the Company receive remuneration in the form of equity settled instruments, for rendering services over a defined vesting period. Equity instruments granted are measured by reference to the fair value of the instrument at the date of grant. In cases, where equity instruments are granted at a nominal exercise price, the intrinsic value on the date of grant approximates the fair value. The expense is recognized in the statement of profit and loss with a corresponding increase to the share based payment reserve, a component of equity.
The equity instruments generally vest in a graded manner over the vesting period. The fair value determined at the grant date is expensed over the vesting period of the respective tranches of such grants (accelerated amortization). The stock compensation expense is determined based on the Company’s estimate of equity instruments that will eventually vest.
Provisions are recognized when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.
The amount recognized as a provision is the best estimate of the consideration required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period, taking into account the risks and uncertainties surrounding the obligation.
When some or all of the economic benefits required to settle a provision are expected to be recovered from a third party, the receivable is recognized as an asset, if it is virtually certain that reimbursement will be received and the amount of the receivable can be measured reliably.
Provisions for onerous contracts are recognized when the expected benefits to be derived by the Company from a contract are lower than the unavoidable costs of meeting the future obligations under the contract. Provisions for onerous contracts are measured at the present value of lower of the expected net cost of fulfilling the contract and the expected cost of terminating the contract.
The Company derives revenue primarily from software development, maintenance of software/hardware and related services, business process services, sale of IT and other products.
The Company recognizes revenue when the significant terms of the arrangement are enforceable, services have been delivered and the collectability is reasonably assured. The method for recognizing revenues and costs depends on the nature of the services rendered:
A. Time and materials contracts
Revenues and costs relating to time and materials contracts are recognized as the related services are rendered.
B. Fixed-price contracts
Revenues from fixed-price contracts, including systems development and integration contracts are recognized using the “percentage-of-completion” method. Percentage of completion is determined based on project costs incurred to date as a percentage of total estimated project costs required to complete the project. The cost expended (or input) method has been used to measure progress towards completion as there is a direct relationship between input and productivity. If the Company does not have a sufficient basis to measure the progress of completion or to estimate the total contract revenues and costs, revenue is recognized only to the extent of contract cost incurred for which recoverability is probable. When total cost estimates exceed revenues in an arrangement, the estimated losses are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which such losses become probable based on the current contract estimates.
‘Unbilled revenues’ represent cost and earnings in excess of billings as at the end of the reporting period. ‘Unearned revenues’ represent billing in excess of revenue recognized. Advance payments received from customers for which no services have been rendered are presented as ‘Advance from customers’.
C. Maintenance contracts
Revenue from maintenance contracts is recognized ratably over the period of the contract using the percentage of completion method. When services are performed through an indefinite number of repetitive acts over a specified period of time, revenue is recognized on a straight-line basis over the specified period unless some other method better represents the stage of completion.
In certain projects, a fixed quantum of service or output units is agreed at a fixed price for a fixed term. In such contracts, revenue is recognized with respect to the actual output achieved till date as a percentage of total contractual output. Any residual service unutilized by the customer is recognized as revenue on completion of the term.
Revenue from products are recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer, continuing managerial involvement usually associated with ownership and effective control have ceased, the amount of revenue can be measured reliably, it is probable that economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the Company and the costs incurred or to be incurred in respect of the transaction can be measured reliably.
c) Multiple element arrangements
Revenue from contracts with multiple-element arrangements are recognized using the guidance in Ind AS 18, Revenue. The Company allocates the arrangement consideration to separately identifiable components based on their relative fair values or on the residual method. Fair values are determined based on sale prices for the components when it is regularly sold separately, third-party prices for similar components or cost plus an appropriate business-specific profit margin related to the relevant component.
- The Company accounts for volume discounts and pricing incentives to customers by reducing the amount of revenue recognized at the time of sale.
- Revenues are shown net of sales tax, value added tax, service tax and applicable discounts and allowances.
- The Company accrues the estimated cost of warranties at the time when the revenue is recognized. The accruals are based on the Company’s historical experience of material usage and service delivery costs.
- Costs that relate directly to a contract and incurred in securing a contract are recognized as an asset and amortized over the contract term as reduction in revenue
- Contract expenses are recognized as expenses by reference to the stage of completion of contract activity at the end of the reporting period.
(xv) Finance cost
Finance cost comprise interest cost on borrowings, gain or losses arising on re-measurement of financial assets at FVTPL, gains/ (losses) on translation or settlement of foreign currency borrowings and changes in fair value and gains/ (losses) on settlement of related derivative instruments. Borrowing costs that are not directly attributable to a qualifying asset are recognized in the statement of profit and loss using the effective interest method.
(xvi) Other income
Other income comprises interest income on deposits, dividend income and gains / (losses) on disposal of financial assets that are measured at FVTPL, and debt instruments classified as FVTOCI. Interest income is recognized using the effective interest method. Dividend income is recognized when the right to receive payment is established.
(xvii) Income tax
Income tax comprises current and deferred tax. Income tax expense is recognized in the statement of profit and loss except to the extent it relates to a business combination, or items directly recognized in equity or in other comprehensive income.
a) Current income tax
Current income tax for the current and prior periods are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities based on the taxable income for the period. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the current tax amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted as at the reporting date and applicable for the period. The Company offsets current tax assets and current tax liabilities, where it has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognized amounts and where it intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realize the asset and liability simultaneously.
b) Deferred income tax
Deferred income tax is recognized using the balance sheet approach. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for deductible and taxable temporary differences arising between the tax base of assets and liabilities and their carrying amount in financial statements, except when the deferred income tax arises from the initial recognition of goodwill or an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and affects neither accounting nor taxable profits or loss at the time of the transaction.
Deferred income tax assets are recognized to the extent it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilized.
Deferred income tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable temporary differences except in respect of taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, associates and foreign branches where the timing of the reversal of the temporary difference can be controlled and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.
The carrying amount of deferred income tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred income tax asset to be utilized.
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period when the asset is realized or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.
The Company offsets deferred income tax assets and liabilities, where it has a legally enforceable right to offset current tax assets against current tax liabilities, and they relate to taxes levied by the same taxation authority on either the same taxable entity, or on different taxable entities where there is an intention to settle the current tax liabilities and assets on a net basis or their tax assets and liabilities will be realized simultaneously.
(xviii) Earnings per share
Basic earnings per share is computed using the weighted average number of equity shares
outstanding during the period adjusted for treasury shares held. Diluted earnings per share is computed using the weighted-average number of equity and dilutive equivalent shares outstanding during the period, using the treasury stock method for options and warrants, except where the results would be anti-dilutive.
New accounting standards not yet adopted:
Certain amendments to accounting standards are not yet effective for annual periods beginning after 1 April 2015, and have not been applied in preparing these financial statements. The amendments to standards that could have potential impact on the financial statements of the Company are:
Amendment to Ind AS 7:
In March 2017, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs issued the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendments) Rules, 2017, notifying amendments to Ind AS 7, ‘Statement of cash flows’. These amendments are in accordance with the amendments made by International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) to IAS 7, ‘Statement of cash flows’ in January 2016, requiring the entities to provide disclosures that enable users of financial statements to evaluate changes in liabilities arising from financing activities, including both changes arising from cash flows and non-cash changes, suggesting inclusion of a reconciliation between the opening and closing balances in the balance sheet for liabilities arising from financing activities, to meet the disclosure requirement. The amendments are applicable to the Company for annual periods commencing on or after from April 1, 2017. The Company is assessing the disclosure requirements of the amendment and the effect on its financial statements.