1. corporate information
United Breweries Limited ("UBL" or "the Company") is a public limited company domiciled in India and incorporated under the provisions of the Indian Companies Act. Its shares are listed on Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and National Stock Exchange (NSE). The registered office of the Company is located at UB Tower, UB city, 24, Vittal Mallya Road, Bengaluru 560001, Karnataka, India. The Company is primarily engaged in the manufacture and sale of beer. The Company has manufacturing facilities in India.
2. Basis of preparation of standalone Ind AS financial statements
The standalone Ind AS financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015.
For all periods up to and including the year ended March 31, 2016, the Company prepared its standalone financial statements in accordance accounting standards notified under the section 133 of the Companies Act 2013, read together with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 ("Previous GAAP"). These standalone Ind AS financial statements for the year ended March 31, 2017 are the first, the Company has prepared in accordance with Ind AS. Refer to Note 43 for details on first time adoption of Ind AS.
The standalone Ind AS financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis, except for assets and liabilities which have been measured at fair value. The standalone Ind AS financial statements are presented in Indian Rupees ("INR") and all values are rounded to the nearest lakhs (INR 00,000), except when otherwise indicated.
2.1 Summary of significant accounting policies
(a) current versus non-current classification
The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current/non-current classification. An asset is treated as current when it is:
- expected to be realized or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle;
- held primarily for the purpose of trading;
- expected to be realized within twelve months after the reporting period; or
- cash or cash equivalents unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.
All other assets are classified as non-current. A liability is current when:
- expected to be settled in normal operating cycle;
- held primarily for the purpose of trading;
- due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period; or
- there is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.
The Company classifies all other liabilities as non-current. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities. The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash and cash equivalents. The Company has identified twelve months as its operating cycle.
(b) Foreign currencies
The standalone Ind AS financial statements are presented in INR, which is also the Company''''s functional currency. Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded by the Company at their respective functional currency spot rates at the date, the transaction first qualifies for recognition. However, for practical reasons, the Company uses an average rate, if the average approximates the actual rate at the date of the transaction.
Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the functional currency spot rates of exchange at the reporting date. Exchange differences arising on settlement or translation of monetary items are recognized in profit or loss.
Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the dates of the initial transactions. Non-monetary items measured at fair value in foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value is determined. The gain or loss arising on translation of non-monetary items measured at fair value is treated in line with the recognition of the gain or loss on the change in fair value of the item (i.e., translation differences on items whose fair value gain or loss is recognized in other comprehensive income ("OCI") or profit or loss are also recognized in OCI or profit or loss, respectively).
(c) Fair value measurement
The Company measures financial instruments, such as, derivatives at fair value at each balance sheet date. Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either in the principal market for the asset or liability, or in the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability. The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the Company.
The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest. A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant''''s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use.
The Company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximizing the use of relevant observable inputs and minimizing the use of unobservable inputs. All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the standalone Ind AS financial statements are categorized within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:
- Level 1 — Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
- Level 2 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable
- Level 3 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable
For assets and liabilities that are recognized in the standalone Ind AS financial statements on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorization (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.
The Company''''s management determines the policies and procedures for both recurring fair value measurement, such as derivative instruments and unquoted financial assets measured at fair value, and for non-recurring measurement, such as assets held for distribution in discontinued operations. External valuers are involved, wherever considered necessary.
For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the Company has determined classes of assets and liabilities on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy, as explained above. This note summarizes accounting policy for fair value and the other fair value related disclosures are given in the relevant notes.
(d) Revenue recognition
Revenue is recognized to the extent it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured, regardless of when the payment is being made. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes or duties collected on behalf of the government. The Company has concluded that it is the principal in all of its revenue arrangements since it is the primary obligor in all the revenue arrangements as it has pricing latitude and is also exposed to inventory and credit risks.
Based on the Educational Material on Ind AS 18 issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India ("ICAI"), the Company has assumed that recovery of excise duty flows to the Company on its own account and hence is a liability of the manufacturer which forms part of the cost of production, irrespective of whether the goods are sold or not. Since the recovery of excise duty flows to the Company on its own account, revenue includes excise duty. However, sales tax/value added tax (VAT) is not received by the Company on its own account and is tax collected on value added to the commodity by the seller on behalf of the government. Accordingly, it is excluded from revenue.
The following specific recognition criteria must also be met before revenue is recognized:
Sale of products
Revenue from the sale of products is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer. Revenue from the sale of products is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of returns and allowances, trade discounts and volume rebates.
Sale of services
Royalty income is recognized, on an accrual basis, at agreed rate on sale of branded products by the licensee, in accordance with the terms of the agreement.
Income from contract manufacturing units
The Company evaluates its revenue arrangements with Contract Manufacturing Units ("CMUs") to identify agency relationship. The CMU is regarded as a principal when it has exposure to significant risks and rewards associated with the sale of products or rendering of services i.e., it has the primary responsibility for providing goods or services to the customer, has pricing latitude and is also exposed to inventory and credit risks. In all other cases, the CMU is regarded as an agent.
Where CMU is regarded as a principal, net surplus from sale of UBL brand products by CMU is recognized as income, as per the terms of respective agreement and on the basis of information provided by respective CMU. Such income is included under the head "Other operating revenues" in the statement of profit and loss.
Where CMU is regarded as an agent, revenue is recognized on sale of products by CMU to its customers. The related cost of sales is also recognized by the Company, as and when incurred by the CMU.
Interest income is recognized using the effective interest rate method. The effective interest rate is the rate that discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to the gross carrying amount of the financial asset. Interest income is included under the head "Other income" in the statement of profit and loss.
Dividend income is recognized when the Company''''s right to receive the payment is established, which is generally when the shareholders approve the dividend.
(e) Government grants
Government grants are recognized where there is reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and all attached conditions will be complied with. When the grant relates to an expense item, it is recognized as income on a systematic basis over the periods that the related costs, for which it is intended to compensate, are expensed. When the grant relates to an asset, it is recognized as income in equal amounts over the expected useful life of the related asset.
When loans or similar assistance are provided by governments or related institutions, with an interest rate below the current applicable market rate, the effect of this favorable interest is regarded as a government grant. The loan or assistance is initially recognized and measured at fair value and the government grant is measured as the difference between the initial carrying value of the loan and the proceeds received. The loan is subsequently measured as per the accounting policy applicable to financial liabilities.
Current income tax
Current income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date.
Current income tax relating to items recognized outside profit or loss is recognized outside profit or loss (either in OCI or in equity in correlation to the underlying transaction). Management periodically evaluates positions taken in the tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulations are subject to interpretation and establishes provisions, where appropriate.
Deferred tax is provided using the liability method on temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes at the reporting date. Deferred tax liabilities and assets are recognized for all taxable temporary differences and deductible temporary differences, except:
- when the deferred tax liability or asset arises from the initial recognition of goodwill or an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss; and
- in respect of taxable temporary differences and deductible temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiary and associate, when the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences can be controlled and it is probable that the temporary differences will not reverse in the foreseeable future.
Deferred tax assets are recognized to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilized. The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be utilized. Unrecognized deferred tax assets are re-assessed at each reporting date and are recognized to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the year when the asset is realized or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Deferred tax relating to items recognized outside profit or loss is recognized outside profit or loss (either in OCI or in equity in correlation to the underlying transaction).
Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.
Sales/value added taxes paid on acquisition of assets or on incurring expenses
When the tax incurred on purchase of assets or services is not recoverable from the taxation authority, the tax paid is recognized as part of the cost of acquisition of the asset or as part of the expense item, as applicable. Otherwise, expenses and assets are recognized net of the amount of sales/ value added taxes paid. The net amount of tax recoverable from, or payable to, the taxation authority is included as part of receivables or payables in the balance sheet.
(g) Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment, capital work in progress is stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Such cost includes the cost of replacing part of the plant and equipment and borrowing costs for long-term construction projects, if the recognition criteria are met.
When significant parts of plant and equipment are required to be replaced at intervals, the Company depreciates them separately based on their specific useful lives. Likewise, when a major inspection is performed, its cost is recognized in the carrying amount of the plant and equipment as a replacement, if the recognition criteria are satisfied. All other repair and maintenance costs are recognized in profit or loss as incurred.
*In respect of assets (excluding pipelines) used at any time during the year on double shift or triple shift basis, the depreciation for that period is increased by 50% or 100%, respectively.
For the purpose of depreciation calculation, residual value is determined as 5% of the original cost for all the assets, as estimated by the management basis independent assessment by an expert. The Company, based on technical assessment made by technical expert and management estimate, depreciates following assets, not included above, over the estimated useful lives which are different from the useful life prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013. The management believes that these estimated useful lives are realistic and reflect fair approximation of the period over which the assets are likely to be used.
(i) Assets acquired on amalgamation, etc. (where original dates of acquisition are not readily available), are depreciated over the remaining useful life of the assets, as certified by an expert.
(ii) Beer dispensers (included under furniture and fixtures) and Kegs (included under plant and equipment) are depreciated on a straight-line basis over a period of 3 years being useful life, as estimated by the management considering nature of these assets.
(iii) Assets individually costing Rs. 5,000 or less and coolers (included under furniture and fixtures) are depreciated on a straight-line basis over a period of 1 year being useful life, as estimated by the management considering such assets do not have enduring benefits.
Leasehold land is amortized on a straight-line basis over the period of lease i.e. 90-99 years. Leasehold improvements are amortized on straight-line basis over the lower of useful life of the asset and the remaining period of the lease.
An item of property, plant and equipment and any significant part initially recognized is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Any gain or loss arising on de-recognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset) is included in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.
The residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation of property, plant and equipment are reviewed at each financial year end and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.
(h) Intangible assets
Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. The cost of intangible assets acquired in a business combination is their fair value at the date of acquisition. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less any accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses. Internally generated intangibles, excluding capitalized development costs, are not capitalized and the related expenditure is reflected in profit or loss in the period in which the expenditure is incurred. The useful lives of intangible assets are assessed as finite.
Intangible assets are amortized over the useful economic life and assessed for impairment, whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortization period and the amortization method for an intangible asset are reviewed at least at the end of each reporting period. Changes in the expected useful life or the expected pattern of consumption of future economic benefits embodied in the asset are considered to modify the amortization period or method, as appropriate, and are treated as changes in accounting estimates. The amortization expense on intangible assets is recognized in the statement of profit and loss, unless such expenditure forms part of carrying value of another asset.
Gains or losses arising from de-recognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit or loss when the asset is derecognized.
(i) Borrowing costs
Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized as part of the cost of the asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they occur.
Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs that an entity incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing cost also includes exchange differences to the extent regarded as an adjustment to the borrowing costs.
The determination of whether an arrangement is or contains a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is or contains a lease if fulfillment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.
For arrangements entered into prior to April 1, 2015, the Company has determined whether the arrangement contain lease on the basis of facts and circumstances existing on the date of transition.
The company as a lessee
A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Company is classified as a finance lease. Finance leases are capitalized at the commencement of the lease at the inception date fair value of the leased property or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognized in finance costs in the statement of profit and loss, unless they are directly attributable to qualifying assets, in which case they are capitalized in accordance with the Company''''s general policy on the borrowing costs. A leased asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term.
Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Costs incurred in bringing each product to its present location and condition are accounted for as follows:
Raw materials, Packing materials and bottles, Stores and spares: Cost includes cost of purchase and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.
Finished goods and Work-in-progress: Cost includes cost of direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on the normal operating capacity, but excluding borrowing costs.
Stock-in-trade: Cost includes cost of purchase and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.
Cost is determined on a weighted average basis. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
(l) Impairment of non-financial assets
The Company assesses, at each reporting date, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset''''s recoverable amount. An asset''''s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset''''s or cash-generating units ("CGU") fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. Recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. When the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount.
In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining fair value less costs of disposal, recent market transactions are taken into account. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used. These calculations are corroborated by valuation multiples, quoted share prices for publicly traded companies or other available fair value indicators.
The Company bases its impairment calculation on detailed budgets and forecast calculations, which are prepared separately for each of the Company''''s CGUs to which the individual assets are allocated. These budgets and forecast calculations generally cover a period of five years. For longer periods, a long-term growth rate is calculated and applied to project future cash flows after the fifth year. To estimate cash flow projections beyond periods covered by the most recent budgets/forecasts, the Company extrapolates cash flow projections in the budget using a steady or declining growth rate for subsequent years, unless an increasing rate can be justified. In any case, this growth rate does not exceed the long-term average growth rate for the products, industries, or country in which the entity operates, or for the market in which the asset is used.
Impairment losses of continuing operations, including impairment on inventories, are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.
For assets excluding goodwill, an assessment is made at each reporting date to determine whether there is an indication that previously recognized impairment losses no longer exist or have decreased. If such indication exists, the Company estimates the asset''''s or CGU''''s recoverable amount. A previously recognized impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset''''s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognized in the statement of profit or loss, unless the asset is carried at a revalued amount, in which case, the reversal is treated as a revaluation increase.
Goodwill is tested for impairment annually as at year end and when circumstances indicate that the carrying value may be impaired. Impairment is determined for goodwill by assessing the recoverable amount of each CGU (or group of CGUs) to which the goodwill relates. When the recoverable amount of the CGU is less than its carrying amount, an impairment loss is recognized. Impairment losses relating to goodwill cannot be reversed in future periods.
Provisions are recognized when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. When the Company expects some or all of a provision to be reimbursed, the reimbursement is recognized as a separate asset, but only when the reimbursement is virtually certain. The expense relating to a provision is presented in the statement of profit and loss, net of any reimbursement.
If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognized as a finance cost.
(n) Retirement and other employee benefits
Retirement benefit in the form of provident fund is a defined contribution scheme. The Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the provident fund. The Company recognizes contribution payable to the provident fund scheme as an expense, when an employee renders the related service. If the contribution payable to the scheme for service received before the balance sheet date exceeds the contribution already paid, the deficit payable to the scheme is recognized as a liability after deducting the contribution already paid. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for services received before the balance sheet date, then excess is recognized as an asset to the extent that the pre-payment will lead to a reduction in future payment or a cash refund.
In respect of certain employees, the Company has established a Provident Fund Trust, which is a defined benefit plan, to which contributions towards provident fund are made each month. The Provident Fund Trust guarantees a specified rate of return on such contributions on a periodical basis. The Company will meet the shortfall in the return, if any, which is determined based on an actuarial valuation carried out, as per projected unit credit method, as at the date of balance sheet. The contributions to provident fund are charged to the statement of profit and loss on an accrual basis.
Retirement benefit in the form of superannuation fund is a defined contribution scheme. The Company has established a Superannuation Fund Trust to which contributions are made each month. The Company recognizes contribution payable to the superannuation fund scheme as expenditure, when an employee renders the related service. The Company has no other obligations beyond its monthly contributions.
The Company operates a defined benefit gratuity plan in India, which requires contributions to be made to a separately administered fund. The cost of providing benefits under the defined benefit plan is determined using the projected unit credit method. Re-measurements, comprising of actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the asset ceiling, excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability and the return on plan assets (excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability), are recognized immediately in the balance sheet with a corresponding debit or credit to retained earnings through OCI in the period in which they occur. Re-measurements are not reclassified to profit or loss in subsequent periods.
Past service costs are recognized in profit or loss on the earlier of the date of the plan amendment or curtailment, and the date that the Company recognizes related restructuring costs. Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net defined benefit liability or asset. The Company recognizes changes in the net defined benefit obligation which includes service costs comprising current service costs, past-service costs, gains and losses on curtailments and non-routine settlements; and net interest expense or income, as an expense in the statement of profit and loss.
Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next twelve months, is treated as short-term employee benefit. The Company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date. The Company treats accumulated leave expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long-term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the year-end. The Company presents the leave as a current liability in the balance sheet, to the extent it does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement for twelve months after the reporting date. Where the Company has the unconditional legal and contractual right to defer the settlement for a period beyond twelve months, the same is presented as non-current liability.
(o) Financial instruments
A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.
Initial recognition and measurement
All financial assets are recognized initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within a time frame established by regulation or convention in the market place (regular way trades) are recognized on the trade date, i.e. the date that the Company commits to purchase or sell the asset.
For purposes of subsequent measurement, financial assets are classified in four categories:
- Debt instruments at amortized cost
- Debt instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)
- Debt instruments, derivatives and equity instruments at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)
- Equity instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)
A ''''debt instrument'''' is measured at the amortized cost, if both the following conditions are met:
(i) The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows; and
(ii) Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.
After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortized cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortization is included in finance income in the profit or loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognized in the profit or loss. This category generally applies to trade and other receivables.
A ''''debt instrument'''' is classified as FVTOCI, if both of the following criteria are met:
(i) The objective of the business model is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling the financial assets; and
(ii) The asset''''s contractual cash flows represent SPPI.
Debt instruments included within the FVTOCI category are measured initially as well as at each reporting date at fair value. Fair value movements are recognized in OCI. However, the Company recognizes interest income, impairment losses and foreign exchange gain or loss in the profit or loss. On de-recognition of the asset, cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in OCI is reclassified from the equity to profit or loss. Interest earned whilst holding FVTOCI debt instrument is reported as interest income using the EIR method.
FVTPL is a residual category for debt instruments. Any debt instrument, which does not meet the criteria for categorization as at amortized cost or as FVTOCI, is classified as at FVTPL. Debt instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the profit or loss.
All equity investments in scope of Ind AS 109 are measured at fair value. Equity instruments which are held for trading are classified as at FVTPL. If the Company decides to classify an equity instrument as at FVTOCI, then all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognized in the OCI. Equity instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the profit or loss.
Investment in subsidiary and associate
Investments in subsidiary and associate are carried at cost less provision for impairment, if any.
A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a group of similar financial assets) is primarily derecognized (i.e. removed from the balance sheet) when:
- The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired; or
- The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ''''pass-through'''' arrangement; and either (a) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.
The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained. Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured at the lower of the original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration that the Company could be required to repay.
Impairment of financial assets
In accordance with Ind AS 109, the Company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the financial assets and credit risk exposure. The Company follows ''''simplified approach'''' for recognition of impairment loss allowance on Trade receivables. The application of simplified approach does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognizes impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition.
For recognition of impairment loss on other financial assets and risk exposure, the Company determines that whether there has been a significant increase in the credit risk since initial recognition. If credit risk has not increased significantly, twelve month ECL is used to provide for impairment loss. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, lifetime ECL is used. If, in a subsequent period, credit quality of the instrument improves such that there is no longer a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, then the entity reverts to recognizing impairment loss allowance based on twelve-month ECL.
Lifetime ECL are the expected credit losses resulting from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial instrument. The twelve-month ECL is a portion of the lifetime ECL which results from default events that are possible within twelve months after the reporting date. ECL is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the Company expects to receive (i.e., all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original EIR. ECL impairment loss allowance (or reversal) recognized during the period is recognized as income/ expense in the statement of profit and loss. This amount is reflected under the head ''''other expenses'''' in the profit or loss.
For assessing increase in credit risk and impairment loss, the Company combines financial instruments on the basis of shared credit risk characteristics with the objective of facilitating an analysis that is designed to enable significant increases in credit risk to be identified on a timely basis.
Initial recognition and measurement
Financial liabilities are classified, at initial recognition, as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, loans and borrowings, payables, or as derivatives designated as hedging instruments in an effective hedge, as appropriate.
All financial liabilities are recognized initially at fair value and, in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs. The Company''''s financial liabilities include borrowings, trade and other payables, and derivative financial instruments.
The measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification. Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as fair value through profit or loss. Financial liabilities are classified as held for trading if they are incurred for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term. This category also includes derivative financial instruments entered into by the Company that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as defined by Ind AS 109. Separated embedded derivatives are also classified as held for trading, unless they are designated as effective hedging instruments. Gains or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognized in the profit or loss.
Financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition at fair value through profit or loss are designated as such at the initial date of recognition, and only if the criteria in Ind AS 109 are satisfied. For liabilities designated as FVTPL, fair value gains/losses attributable to changes in own credit risk are recognized in OCI. These gains/loss are not subsequently transferred to profit or loss. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity. All other changes in fair value of such liability are recognized in the statement of profit or loss.
Borrowings is the category most relevant to the Company. After initial recognition, interest-bearing borrowings are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the EIR method. Gains and losses are recognized in profit or loss when the liabilities are derecognized as well as through the EIR amortization process. Amortized cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortization is included as finance costs in the statement of profit and loss.
A financial liability is derecognized when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expired. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the de-recognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognized in the statement of profit or loss.
An embedded derivative is a component of a hybrid (combined) instrument that also includes a non-derivative host contract with the effect that some of the cash flows of the combined instrument vary in a way similar to a standalone derivative. If the hybrid contract contains a host that is a financial asset within the scope of Ind AS 109, the Company does not separate embedded derivatives. Rather, it applies the classification requirements contained in Ind AS 109 to the entire hybrid contract. Derivatives embedded in all other host contracts are accounted for as separate derivatives and recorded at fair value if their economic characteristics and risks are not closely related to those of the host contracts and the host contracts are not held for trading or designated at fair value though profit or loss. These embedded derivatives are measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in profit or loss, unless designated as effective hedging instruments.
Reclassification of financial assets and liabilities
The Company determines classification of financial assets and liabilities on initial recognition. After initial recognition, no re-classification is made for financial assets which are equity instruments and financial liabilities. For financial assets which are debt instruments, a re-classification is made only if there is a change in the business model for managing those assets. A change in the business model occurs when the Company either begins or ceases to perform an activity that is significant to its operations. If the Company reclassifies financial assets, it applies the re-classification prospectively from the re-classification date, which is the first day of the immediately next reporting period following the change in business model. The Company does not restate any previously recognized gains, losses (including impairment gains or losses) or interest.
Offsetting of financial instruments
Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet, if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognized amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realize the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.
(p) Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting
The Company uses derivative financial instruments, such as forward currency contracts, currency and interest rate swaps, to hedge its foreign currency risks and interest rate risks. Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognized at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at fair value. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.
Any gains or losses arising from changes in the fair value of derivatives are taken directly to profit or loss, except for the effective portion of cash flow hedges, which is recognized in OCI and later reclassified to profit or loss when the hedge item affects profit or loss. For the purpose of hedge accounting, hedges are classified as:
- Fair value hedges when hedging the exposure to changes in the fair value of a recognized asset or liability or an unrecognized firm commitment.
- Cash flow hedges when hedging the exposure to variability in cash flows that is either attributable to a particular risk associated with a recognized asset or liability or a highly probable forecast transaction or the foreign currency risk in an unrecognized firm commitment.
At the inception of a hedge relationship, the Company formally designates and documents the hedge relationship to which the Company wishes to apply hedge accounting and the risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge. Such hedges are expected to be highly effective in achieving offsetting changes in fair value or cash flows and are assessed on an ongoing basis to determine that they actually have been highly effective throughout the financial reporting periods for which they were designated.
The hedges that meet the criteria for hedge accounting are accounted for, as described below:
- Fair value hedges - The change in the fair value of a hedging instrument is recognized in the statement of profit and loss as finance costs. The change in the fair value of the hedged item attributable to the risk hedged is recorded as part of the carrying value of the hedged item and is also recognized in the statement of profit and loss as finance costs. If the hedged item is derecognized, the unamortized fair value is recognized immediately in profit or loss.
- Cash flow hedges - The effective portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument is recognized in OCI in the cash flow hedge reserve, while any ineffective portion is recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss. The amounts recognized as OCI are transferred to profit or loss when the hedged transaction affects profit or loss, such as when the hedged financial income or financial expense is recognized. If the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised without replacement or rollover (as part of the hedging strategy), or if its designation as a hedge is revoked, or when the hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, any cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in OCI remains separately in equity until the foreign currency firm commitment is met.
(q) Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents in the balance sheet and cash flow statement comprise cash at banks and on hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.
(r) Cash dividend to equity holders
The Company recognizes a liability to make cash distributions to equity holders when the distribution is authorized and the distribution is no longer at the discretion of the Company. As per the corporate laws in India, a distribution is authorized when it is approved by the shareholders. A corresponding amount is recognized directly in equity.
(s) Contingent liabilities
A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events and whose existence will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company; or a present obligation that arises from past events but is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation; or the amount of the obligation cannot be measured with sufficient reliability. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the standalone Ind AS financial statements.
(t) Earnings per share
Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting preference dividends and attributable taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events such as bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue, share split, and reverse share split (consolidation of shares) that have changed the number of equity shares outstanding, without a corresponding change in resources.
For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.
(u) Significant accounting judgments, estimates and assumptions
The preparation of the standalone Ind AS financial statements requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities, and the accompanying disclosures, and the disclosure of contingent liabilities. Uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in outcomes that require a material adjustment to the carrying amount of assets or liabilities affected in future periods.
The judgments, estimates and assumptions management has made which have the most significant effect on the amounts recognized in the standalone Ind AS financial statements are explained in relevant notes in the financial statements.
a) Freehold land measuring 9.04 acres at Kuthambakkum (Tamilnadu) is pending registration in the name of the Company and titles of freehold lands measuring 1.78 acres and 0.02 acres at Nanjangud (Karnataka) and Mallepally (Telangana), respectively, are in dispute and pending resolution in the Civil Courts as at March 31, 2017. Further, titles of freehold lands measuring 63.07 acres and 54.54 acres at Kothlapur (Telangana) and Srikakulam (Andhra Pradesh), respectively, are held in the name of erstwhile merged entities.