1. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
The significant accounting policies applied by the Company in the preparation of its financial statements are listed below. Such accounting policies have been applied consistently to all the periods presented in these financial statements and in preparing the opening Ind AS Balance Sheet as at April 1, 2015 for the purpose of transition to Ind AS, unless otherwise indicated.
(a) Statement of compliance
In accordance with the notification issued by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, the Company has adopted Ind AS notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 with effect from April 1, 2016.
The transition from Previous GAAP to Ind AS has been accounted for in accordance with Ind AS 101 “First Time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standards’; with April 1, 2015 being the transition date.
in accordance with Ind As 101 “First time adoption of Indian Accounting Standard”, the Company has presented a reconciliation from the presentation of financial statements under accounting standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 (“Previous GAAP”) to Ind AS of total equity as at April 1, 2015 and March 31, 2016, total comprehensive income and cash flow for the year ended March 31, 2016.
(b) Basis of preparation
The financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention with the exception of certain assets and liabilities that are required to be carried at fair values by Ind AS.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
(c) Use of estimates and critical accounting judgements
In preparation of the financial statements, the Company makes judgements, estimates and assumptions about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. The estimates and the associated assumptions are based on historical experience and other factors that are considered to be relevant. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
The estimates and the underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised and future periods affected.
Significant judgements and estimates relating to the carrying values of assets and liabilities include useful lives of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets, impairment of property, plant and equipment, intangible assets and investments, provision for employee benefits and other provisions, recoverability of deferred tax assets, commitments and contingencies.
(d) Property, plant and equipment
An item of property, plant and equipment is recognised as an asset if it is probable that the future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Company and its cost can be measured reliably. This recognition principle is applied to the costs incurred initially to acquire an item of property, plant and equipment and also to costs incurred subsequently to add to, replace part of, or service it. All other repair and maintenance costs, including regular servicing, are recognised in the statement of profit and loss as incurred. When a replacement occurs, the carrying value of the replaced part is de-recognised. Where an item of property, plant and equipment comprises major components having different useful lives, these components are accounted for as separate items.
Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and impairment. Cost includes all direct costs and expenditures incurred to bring the asset to its working condition and location for its intended use. Trial run expenses (net of revenue) are capitalised. Borrowing costs incurred during the period of construction is capitalised as part of cost of the qualifying assets.
The gain or loss arising on disposal of an asset is determined as the difference between the sale proceeds and the carrying value of the asset, and is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.
(e) Exploration for and evaluation of mineral resources
Expenditures associated with search for specific mineral resources are recognised as exploration and evaluation assets. The following expenditure comprises cost of exploration and evaluation assets:
- obtaining of the rights to explore and evaluate mineral reserves and resources including costs directly related to this acquisition
- researching and analysing existing exploration data
- conducting geological studies, exploratory drilling and sampling
- examining and testing extraction and treatment methods
- compiling pre-feasibility and feasibility studies
- activities in relation to evaluating the technical feasibility and commercial viability of extracting a mineral resource.
Administration and other overhead costs are charged to the cost of exploration and evaluation assets only if directly related to an exploration and evaluation project.
If a project does not prove viable, all irrecoverable exploration and evaluation expenditure associated with the project net of any related impairment allowances is written off to the statement of profit and loss.
The Company measures its exploration and evaluation assets at cost and classifies as property, plant and equipment or intangible assets according to the nature of the assets acquired and applies the classification consistently. To the extent that tangible asset is consumed in developing an intangible asset, the amount reflecting that consumption is capitalised as a part of the cost of the intangible asset.
As the asset is not available for use, it is not depreciated. All exploration and evaluation assets are monitored for indications of impairment. An exploration and evaluation asset is no longer classified as such when the technical feasibility and commercial viability of extracting a mineral resource are demonstrable and the development of the deposit is sanctioned by the management. The carrying value of such exploration and evaluation asset is reclassified to mining assets.
(f) Development expenditure for mineral reserves
Development is the establishment of access to mineral reserves and other preparations for commercial production. Development activities often continue during production and include:
- sinking shafts and underground drifts (often called mine development)
- making permanent excavations
- developing passageways and rooms or galleries
- building roads and tunnels and
- advance removal of overburden and waste rock.
Development (or construction) also includes the installation of infrastructure (e.g., roads, utilities and housing), machinery, equipment and facilities.
Development expenditure is capitalised and presented as part of mining assets. No depreciation is charged on the development expenditure before the start of commercial production.
(g) Provision for restoration and environmental costs
The Company has liabilities related to restoration of soil and other related works, which are due upon the closure of certain of its production sites.
Such liabilities are estimated case-by-case based on available information, taking into account applicable local legal requirements. The estimation is made using existing technology, at current prices, and discounted using a discount rate where the effect of time value of money is material. Future restoration and environmental costs, discounted to net present value, are capitalised and the corresponding restoration liability is raised as soon as the obligation to incur such costs arises. Future restoration and environmental costs are capitalised in property, plant and equipment or mining assets as appropriate and are depreciated over the life of the related asset. The effect of the time value of money on the restoration and environmental costs liability is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.
(h) Intangible assets (excluding goodwill)
Patents, trademarks and software costs are included in the balance sheet as intangible assets where they are clearly linked to long term economic benefits for the Company. In this case they are measured initially at purchase cost and then amortised on a straight line basis over their estimated useful lives. All other costs on patents, trademarks and software are expensed in the statement of profit and loss as and when incurred.
Expenditure on research activities is recognised as an expense in the period in which it is incurred. Costs incurred on individual development projects are recognised as intangible assets from the date when all of the following conditions are met:
(i) completion of the development is technically feasible.
(ii) it is the intention to complete the intangible asset and use or sell it.
(iii) it is clear that the intangible asset will generate probable future economic benefits.
(iv) adequate technical, financial and other resources to complete the development and to use or sell the intangible asset are available and;
(v) it is possible to reliably measure the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset during its development.
Recognition of costs as an asset is ceased when the project is complete and available for its intended use, or if these criteria no longer applicable.
Where development activities do not meet the conditions for recognition as an asset, any associated expenditure is treated as an expense in the period in which it is incurred.
Subsequent to initial recognition, intangible assets with definite useful lives are reported at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses.
(i) Depreciation and amortisation of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets
Depreciation or amortisation is provided so as to write off, on a straight line basis, the cost of property, plant and equipment and other intangible assets, including those held under finance leases to their residual value. These charges are commenced from the dates the assets are available for their intended use and are spread over their estimated useful economic lives or, in the case of leased assets, over the lease period, if shorter. The estimated useful lives of assets and residual values are reviewed regularly and, when necessary, revised. No further charge is provided in respect of assets that are fully written down but are still in use.
Depreciation on assets under construction commences only when the assets are ready for their intended use.
The estimated useful lives for the main categories of property, plant and equipment and other intangible assets are:
Mining assets are amortised over the useful life of the mine or lease period whichever is lower.
Major furnace relining expenses are depreciated over a period of 10 years (average expected life).
Freehold land is not depreciated.
Assets value upto Rs.25,000 are fully depreciated in the year of acquisition.
*For these class of assets, based on internal assessment and independent technical evaluation carried out by chartered engineers, the Company believes that the useful lives as given above best represent the period over which Company expects to use these assets. Hence the useful lives for these assets are different from the useful lives as prescribed under Part C of Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013.
At each balance sheet date, the Company reviews the carrying values of its property, plant and equipment and intangible assets to determine whether there is any indication that the carrying value of those assets may not be recoverable through continuing use. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is reviewed in order to determine the extent of impairment loss (if any). Where the asset does not generate cash flows that are independent from other assets, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs.
Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs to sell and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted. An impairment loss is recognised in the statement of profit and loss as and when the carrying value of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount.
Where an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying value of the asset (or cash generating unit) is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount so that the increased carrying value does not exceed the carrying value that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset (or cash generating unit) in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognised in the statement of profit and loss immediately.
The Company determines whether an arrangement contains a lease by assessing whether the fulfillment of a transaction is dependent on the use of a specific asset and whether the transaction conveys the right to use that asset to the Company in return for payment. Where this occurs, the arrangement is deemed to include a lease and is accounted for either as finance or operating lease.
Leases are classified as finance leases where the terms of the lease transfers substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee. All other leases are classified as operating leases.
The Company as lessee
(i) Operating lease - Rentals payable under operating leases are charged to the statement of profit and loss on a straight line basis over the term of the relevant lease unless another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which economic benefits from the leased asset are consumed. Contingent rentals arising under operating leases are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.
In the event that lease incentives are received to enter into operating leases, such incentives are recognised as a liability. The aggregate benefit of incentives is recognised as a reduction of rental expense on a straight line basis, except where another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which economic benefits from the leased asset are consumed.
(ii) Finance lease - Finance leases are capitalised at the commencement of lease, at the lower of the fair value of the property or the present value of the minimum lease payments. The corresponding liability to the lessor is included in the balance sheet as a finance lease obligation. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease obligation so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognised in the statement of profit and loss over the period of the lease.
The Company as lessor
(i) Operating lease - Rental income from operating leases is recognised in the statement of profit and loss on a straight line basis over the term of the relevant lease unless another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which economic benefits from the leased asset is diminished. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating and arranging an operating lease are added to the carrying value of the leased asset and recognised on a straight line basis over the lease term.
(ii) Finance lease - When assets are leased out under a finance lease, the present value of the minimum lease payments is recognised as a receivable. The difference between the gross receivable and the present value of the receivable is recognised as unearned finance income. Lease income is recognised over the term of the lease using the net investment method before tax, which reflects a constant periodic rate of return.
(l) Stripping costs
The Company separates two different types of stripping costs that are incurred in surface mining activity:
- developmental stripping costs and
- production stripping costs
Developmental stripping costs which are incurred in order to obtain access to quantities of mineral reserves that will be mined in future periods are capitalised as part of mining assets. Capitalisation of developmental stripping costs ends when the commercial production of the mineral reserves begins.
A mine can operate several open pits that are regarded as separate operations for the purpose of mine planning and production. In this case, stripping costs are accounted for separately, by reference to the ore extracted from each separate pit. If, however, the pits are highly integrated for the purpose of mine planning and production, stripping costs are aggregated too.
The determination of whether multiple pit mines are considered separate or integrated operations depends on each mine’s specific circumstances. The following factors normally point towards the stripping costs for the individual pits being accounted for separately:
- mining of the second and subsequent pits is conducted consecutively with that of the first pit, rather than concurrently
- separate investment decisions are made to develop each pit, rather than a single investment decision being made at the outset
- the pits are operated as separate units in terms of mine planning and the sequencing of overburden and ore mining, rather than as an integrated unit
- expenditures for additional infrastructure to support the second and subsequent pits are relatively large
- the pits extract ore from separate and distinct ore bodies, rather than from a single ore body.
The relative importance of each factor is considered by the management to determine whether, on balance, the stripping costs should be attributed to the individual pit or to the combined output from the several pits.
Production stripping costs are incurred to extract the ore in the form of inventories and/or to improve access to an additional component of an ore body or deeper levels of material. Production stripping costs are accounted for as inventories to the extent the benefit from production stripping activity is realised in the form of inventories.
The Company recognises a stripping activity asset in the production phase if, and only if, all of the following are met:
- it is probable that the future economic benefit (improved access to the ore body) associated with the stripping activity will flow to the Company
- the entity can identify the component of the ore body for which access has been improved and
- the costs relating to the improved access to that component can be measured reliably.
Such costs are presented within mining assets. After initial recognition, stripping activity assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and impairment. The expected useful life of the identified component of the ore body is used to depreciate or amortise the stripping asset.
(m) Financial Instruments
Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. Financial assets and liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit and loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value measured on initial recognition of financial asset or financial liability. The transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit and loss are immediately recognised in the statement of profit and loss.
Effective interest method
The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a financial instrument and of allocating interest income or expense over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts future cash receipts or payments through the expected life of the financial instrument, or where appropriate, a shorter period.
(a) Financial assets Cash and bank balances
Cash and bank balances consist of:
(i) Cash and cash equivalents - which includes cash in hand, deposits held at call with banks and other short term deposits which are readily convertible into known amounts of cash, are subject to an insignificant risk of change in value and have maturities of less than one year from the date of such deposits. These balances with banks are unrestricted for withdrawal and usage.
(ii) Other bank balances - which includes balances and deposits with banks that are restricted for withdrawal and usage.
Financial assets at amortised cost
Financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost if these financial assets are held within a business model whose objective is to hold these assets in order to collect contractual cash flows and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
Financial assets measured at fair value
Financial assets are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income if these financial assets are held within a business model whose objective is to hold these assets in order to collect contractual cash flows or to sell these financial assets and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
The Company in respect of equity investments (other than in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures) which are not held for trading has made an irrevocable election to present in other comprehensive income subsequent changes in the fair value of such equity instruments. Such an election is made by the Company on an instrument by instrument basis at the time of initial recognition of such equity investments.
Financial asset not measured at amortised cost or at fair value through other comprehensive income is carried at fair value through the statement of profit and loss.
Impairment of financial assets
Loss allowance for expected credit losses is recognised for financial assets measured at amortised cost and fair value through other comprehensive income.
The Company recognises life time expected credit losses for all trade receivables that do not constitute a financing transaction.
For financial assets whose credit risk has not significantly increased since initial recognition, loss allowance equal to twelve months expected credit losses is recognised. Loss allowance equal to the lifetime expected credit losses is recognised if the credit risk on the financial instruments has significantly increased since initial recognition.
De-recognition of financial assets
The Company de-recognises a financial asset only when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire, or it transfers the financial asset and substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of the asset to another entity.
If the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership and continues to control the transferred asset, the Company recognises its retained interest in the assets and an associated liability for amounts it may have to pay.
If the Company retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of a transferred financial asset, the Company continues to recognise the financial asset and also recognises a collateralised borrowing for the proceeds received.
(b) Financial liabilities and equity instruments Classification as debt or equity
Financial liabilities and equity instruments issued by the Company are classified according to the substance of the contractual arrangements entered into and the definitions of a financial liability and an equity instrument.
An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of the Company after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments are recorded at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs.
Trade and other payables are initially measured at fair value, net of transaction costs, and are subsequently measured at amortised cost, using the effective interest rate method where the time value of money is significant.
Interest bearing bank loans, overdrafts and issued debt are initially measured at fair value and are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method. Any difference between the proceeds (net of transaction costs) and the settlement or redemption of borrowings is recognised over the term of the borrowings in the statement of profit and loss.
De-recognition of financial liabilities
The Company de-recognises financial liabilities when, and only when, the Company’s obligations are discharged, cancelled or they expire.
Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting
In the ordinary course of business, the Company uses certain derivative financial instruments to reduce business risks which arise from its exposure to foreign exchange and interest rate fluctuations. The instruments are confined principally to forward foreign exchange contracts, cross currency swaps, interest rate swaps and collars. The instruments are employed as hedges of transactions included in the financial statements or for highly probable forecast transactions/firm contractual commitments. These derivatives contracts do not generally extend beyond six months, except for certain currency swaps and interest rate derivatives.
Derivatives are initially accounted for and measured at fair value from the date the derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period.
The Company adopts hedge accounting for forward and interest rate contracts wherever possible. At the inception of each hedge, there is a formal, documented designation of the hedging relationship. This documentation includes, inter alia, items such as identification of the hedged item or transaction and the nature of the risk being hedged. At inception each hedge is expected to be highly effective in achieving an offset of changes in fair value or cash flows attributable to the hedged risk. The effectiveness of hedge instruments to reduce the risk associated with the exposure being hedged is assessed and measured at the inception and on an ongoing basis. The ineffective portion of designated hedges is recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss.
When hedge accounting is applied:
- for fair value hedges of recognised assets and liabilities, changes in fair value of the hedged assets and liabilities attributable to the risk being hedged, are recognised in the statement of profit and loss and compensate for the effective portion of symmetrical changes in the fair value of the derivatives
- for cash flow hedges, the effective portion of the change in the fair value of the derivative is recognised directly in equity and the ineffective portion is taken to the statement of profit and loss. If the cash flow hedge of a firm commitment or forecasted transaction results in the recognition of a non-financial asset or liability, then, at the time the asset or liability is recognised, the associated gains or losses on the derivative that had previously been recognised in equity are included in the initial measurement of the asset or liability. For hedges that do not result in the recognition of a non-financial asset or a liability, amounts deferred in equity are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the same period in which the hedged item affects the statement of profit and loss.
In cases where hedge accounting is not applied, changes in the fair value of derivatives are recognised in the statement of profit and loss as and when they arise.
Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. At that time, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in equity is retained in equity until the forecasted transaction occurs. If a hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in equity is transferred to the statement of profit and loss for the period.
(n) Employee benefits
Defined contribution plans
Payments to defined contribution plans are charged as an expense as they fall due. Payments made to state managed retirement benefit schemes are dealt with as payments to defined contribution schemes where the Company’s obligations under the schemes are equivalent to those arising in a defined contribution retirement benefit scheme.
Defined benefit plans
For defined benefit retirement schemes the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit Method, with actuarial valuation being carried out at each balance sheet date. Re-measurement gains and losses of the net defined benefit liability/(asset) are recognised immediately in other comprehensive income. The service cost and net interest on the net defined benefit liability/(asset) is treated as a net expense within employment costs.
Past service cost is recognised as an expense when the plan amendment or curtailment occurs or when any related restructuring costs or termination benefits are recognised, whichever is earlier.
The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the balance sheet represents the present value of the defined-benefit obligation as reduced by the fair value plan assets.
Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related service are recognised based on actuarial valuation at the present value of the obligation as on the reporting date.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Costs comprise direct materials and, where applicable, direct labour costs and those overheads that have been incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Net realisable value is the price at which the inventories can be realised in the normal course of business after allowing for the cost of conversion from their existing state to a finished condition and for the cost of marketing, selling and distribution.
Stores and spare parts are carried at lower of cost and net realisable value.
Provisions are made to cover slow moving and obsolete items based on historical experience of utilisation on a product category basis, which involves individual businesses considering their product lines and market conditions.
Provisions are recognised in the balance sheet when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, which is expected to result in an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits which can be reliably estimated. Each provision is based on the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the balance sheet date. Where the time value of money is material, provisions are measured on a discounted basis.
Constructive obligation is an obligation that derives from an entity’s actions where:
(a) by an established pattern of past practice, published policies or a sufficiently specific current statement, the entity has indicated to other parties that it will accept certain responsibilities and;
(b) as a result, the entity has created a valid expectation on the part of those other parties that it will discharge those responsibilities.
(q) Onerous contracts
A provision for onerous contracts is recognised when the expected benefits to be derived by the Company from a contract are lower than the unavoidable cost of meeting its obligations under the contract. The provision is measured at the present value of the lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of continuing with the contract. Before a provision is established, the Company recognises any impairment loss on the assets associated with that contract.
(r) Government grants
Government grants related to expenditure on property, plant and equipment are credited to the statement of profit and loss over the useful lives of qualifying assets or other systematic basis representative of the pattern of fulfilment of obligations associated with the grant received. Total grants received less the amounts credited to the statement of profit and loss at the balance sheet date are included in the balance sheet as deferred income.
(s) Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations
Non-current assets and disposal groups classified as held for sale are measured at the lower of their carrying value and fair value less costs to sell.
Assets and disposal groups are classified as held for sale if their carrying value will be recovered through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use. This condition is only met when the sale is highly probable and the asset, or disposal group, is available for immediate sale in its present condition and is marketed for sale at a price that is reasonable in relation to its current fair value. The Company must also be committed to the sale, which should be expected to qualify for recognition as a completed sale within one year from the date of classification.
Where a disposal group represents a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations, or is part of a single coordinated plan to dispose of a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations, then it is treated as a discontinued operation. The post-tax profit or loss of the discontinued operation together with the gain or loss recognised on its disposal are disclosed as a single amount in the statement of profit and loss, with all prior periods being presented on this basis.
(t) Income taxes
Tax expense for the year comprises current and deferred tax. The tax currently payable is based on taxable profit for the year. Taxable profit differs from net profit as reported in the statement of profit and loss because it excludes items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and it further excludes items that are never taxable or deductible. The Company’s liability for current tax is calculated using tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.
Deferred tax is the tax expected to be payable or recoverable on differences between the carrying values of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit and is accounted for using the balance sheet liability method. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences. In contrast, deferred tax assets are only recognised to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which the temporary differences can be utilised.
The carrying value of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.
Deferred tax is calculated at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period when the liability is settled or the asset is realised based on the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the end of the reporting period. The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and assets reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the end of the reporting period, to cover or settle the carrying value of its assets and liabilities.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset to the extent that they relate to taxes levied by the same tax authority and there are legally enforceable rights to set off current tax assets and current tax liabilities within that jurisdiction.
Current and deferred tax are recognised as an expense or income in the statement of profit and loss, except when they relate to items credited or debited either in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case the tax is also recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity.
Deferred tax assets include Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws in India, which is likely to give future economic benefits in the form of availability of set off against future income tax liability. MAT is recognised as deferred tax assets in the Balance Sheet when the asset can be measured reliably and it is probable that the future economic benefit associated with the asset will be realised.
Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured, regardless of when the payment is being made. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable net of discounts, taking into account contractually defined terms and excluding taxes or duties collected on behalf of the government.
Sale of goods
Revenue from the sale of goods is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer. No revenue is recognised if there are significant uncertainties regarding recovery of the amount due, associated costs or the possible return of goods.
Interest income is accrued on a time proportion basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and the effective interest rate applicable.
Dividend income from investments is recognised when the shareholder’s rights to receive payment have been established.
Rental income from investment properties and subletting of properties is recognised on a straight line basis over the term of the relevant leases.
Commission income is recognised when the services are rendered.
(v) Foreign currency transactions and translations
The financial statements of the Company are presented in Indian rupees (‘), which is the functional currency of the Company and the presentation currency for the financial statements.
In preparing the financial statements, transactions in currencies other than the Company’s functional currency are recorded at the rates of exchange prevailing on the date of the transaction. At the end of each reporting period, monetary items denominated in foreign currencies are re-translated at the rates prevailing at the end of the reporting period. Nonmonetary items carried at fair value that are denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rates prevailing on the date when the fair value was determined. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are not translated.
Exchange differences arising on translation of long term foreign currency monetary items recognised in the financial statements before the beginning of the first Ind AS financial reporting period in respect of which the Company has elected to recognise such exchange differences in equity or as part of cost of assets as allowed under Ind AS 101-”First time adoption of Indian Accounting Standard” are recognised directly in equity or added/deducted to/ from the cost of assets as the case may be. Such exchange differences recognised in equity or as part of cost of assets is recognised in the statement of profit and loss on a systematic basis.
Exchange differences arising on the retranslation or settlement of other monetary items are included in the statement of profit and loss for the period.
(w) Borrowing costs
Borrowings costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, which are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale, are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for the intended use or sale.
Investment income earned on the temporary investment of specific borrowings pending their expenditure on qualifying assets is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.
Discounts or premiums and expenses on the issue of debt securities are amortised over the term of the related securities and included within borrowing costs. Premiums payable on early redemptions of debt securities, in lieu of future finance costs, are written off as borrowing costs when paid.