FUTURE TATA CHEMICALS Accounting Policy

1. CORPORATE INFORMATION


Tata Chemicals Limited (the ''''Company'''') is a public limited company domiciled in India. Its shares are listed on two stock exchanges in India viz, the Bombay Stock Exchange (''''BSE'''') and the National Stock Exchange (''''NSE''''). The Company is engaged in diversified businesses dealing in inorganic chemicals, fertilizers, other agri inputs, consumer and nutritional solutions business. The Company has a global presence with key subsidiaries in United States of America (USA), United Kingdom (UK) and Kenya that are engaged in the manufacture and sale of soda ash, industrial salt and related products.


2. SUMMARY OF BASIS OF COMPLIANCE, BASIS OF PREPARATION AND PRESENTATION, CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES, ASSUMPTIONS AND JUDGMENTS AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES


2.1. Basis of compliance


The financial statements comply in all material aspects with Indian Accounting Standards (''''Ind AS'''') notified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 (''''the 2013 Act'''') read with Rule 3 of the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 and other relevant provisions of the Act.


Until the adoption ofInd AS, for all periods up to and including the year ended 31 March, 2016, the Company prepared its financial statements in accordance with Section 133 of the 2013 Act, read with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 (''''Previous GAAP'''').


Reconciliation and description of the effects of the transition has been summarized in note 4.


2.2. Basis of preparation and presentation


The financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention using the accrual method of accounting basis, except for certain financial instruments that are measured at fair values at the end of each reporting period as explained in the significant accounting polices below.


All assets and liabilities have been classified as current or non-current as per the Company''''s normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in the Schedule III to the 2013 Act.


2.3. Critical accounting estimates, assumptions and judgments


The preparation of the financial statements requires management to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that affect the reported balances of assets and liabilities and disclosures as at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of income and expense for the periods presented.


The estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and other factors that are considered to be relevant. Actual results may differ from these estimates considering different assumptions and conditions.


Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Impact on account of revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimates are revised and future periods are affected.


The estimates and assumptions that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying values of assets and liabilities within the next financial year are discussed below.


2.3.1. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities


Significant management judgment is required to determine the amount of deferred tax assets that can be recognized, based upon the likely timing and the level of future taxable profits.


The amount of total deferred tax assets could change if estimates of projected future taxable income or if tax regulations undergo a change.


2.3.2. Useful lives of Property, plant and equipment (''''PPE'''')


The Management reviews the estimated useful lives and residual value of PPE at the end of each reporting period. The factors such as changes in the expected level of usage, number of shifts of production, technological developments and product life-cycle, could significantly impact the economic useful lives and the residual values of these assets. Consequently, the future depreciation charge could be revised and thereby could have an impact on the profit of the future years.


2.3.3. Impairment of investments


The Company reviews its carrying value of investments carried at amortized cost annually, or more frequently when there is an indication for impairment. If the recoverable amount is less than its carrying amount, the impairment loss is accounted for.


2.3.4. Employee benefit obligations


Employee benefit obligations are determined using actuarial valuations. An actuarial valuation involves making various assumptions that may differ from actual developments in the future. These include the determination of the discount rate, future salary increases and mortality rates. Due to the complexities involved in the valuation and its long-term nature, employee benefit obligation is highly sensitive to changes in these assumptions. All assumptions are reviewed at each reporting date.


2.3.5. Litigation


From time to time, the Company is subject to legal proceedings, the ultimate outcome of each being always subject to many uncertainties inherent in litigation. A provision for litigation is made when it is considered probable that a payment will be made and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. Significant judgment is made when evaluating, among other factors, the probability of unfavorable outcome and the ability to make a reasonable estimate of the amount of potential loss. Litigation provisions are reviewed at each accounting period and revisions made for the changes in facts and circumstances.


2.4. Foreign currency translation


The functional currency of Tata Chemicals Limited (i.e. the currency of the primary economic environment in which the Company operates) is Indian Rupee (Rs,).


On initial recognition, all foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction. As at the reporting date, foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities are translated at the exchange rate prevailing on the Balance Sheet date and the exchange gains or losses are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.


2.5. Property, plant and equipment


PPE is measured on initial recognition at cost net of taxes / duties, credits availed, if any, and subsequently carried at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. The cost of PPE includes interest on borrowings directly attributable to acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets. Qualifying assets are assets which necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready. Borrowing cost and other directly attributable cost are added to the cost of those assets until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use which generally coincides with the commissioning date of those assets.


The present value of the expected cost for the decommissioning of an asset after its use is included in the cost of the respective asset if the recognition criteria for a provision is met.


Machinery spares that meet the definition of PPE are capitalized and depreciated over the useful life of the principal item of asset.


PPE acquired and put to use for projects are capitalized and depreciation thereon is included in the project cost till the project is ready for commissioning.


Depreciation methods, estimated useful lives and residual value


Depreciation on PPE (except leasehold improvements and PPE acquired under finance lease) is calculated using the straight-line method to allocate their cost, net of their residual values, over their estimated useful lives. However, leasehold improvements and PPE acquired under finance lease are depreciated on a straight-line method over the shorter of their respective useful lives or the tenure of the lease arrangement. Freehold land is not depreciated.


Useful lives and residual values of assets are reviewed at the end of each reporting period.


Losses arising from the retirement of, and gains or losses arising from disposal of PPE are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.


2.6. Intangible assets


Intangibles generally comprise of software license and rights to use railway wagon.


Intangible assets are measured on initial recognition at cost and subsequently are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any.


The estimated useful life is reviewed annually by the management.


2.7. Capital work-in-progress and intangible assets under development


Projects under commissioning and other capital work-in-progress/intangible assets under development are carried at cost, comprising direct cost, related incidental expenses and attributable borrowing cost.


2.8. Research and development expenses


Research expenses are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss as expenses in the year in which they are incurred. Development costs are capitalized as an intangible asset under development when the following criteria are met:


- the project is clearly defined, and the costs are separately identified and reliably measured;


- the technical feasibility of the project is demonstrated;


- the ability to use or sell the products created during the project is demonstrated;


- the intention exists to finish the project and use or sell the products created during the project;


- a potential market for the products created during the project exists or their usefulness, in case of internal use, is demonstrated, leading one to believe that the project will generate probable future economic benefits; and


- adequate resources are available to complete the project.


These development costs are amortized over the estimated useful life of the projects or the products they are incorporated within. The amortization of capitalized development costs begins as soon as the related product is released.


2.9. Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operation


Non-current assets (or disposal groups) are classified as held for sale if their carrying amount will be recovered principally through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use and a sale is considered highly probable.


Non-current assets and disposal group classified as held for sale are measured at lower of their carrying amount and fair value less cost to sell.


Non-current assets classified as held for sale are not depreciated or amortized from the date when they are classified as held for sale.


Non-current assets classified as held for sale and the assets and liabilities of a disposal group classified as held for sale are presented separately from the other assets and liabilities in the Balance Sheet.


A discontinued operation is a component of the entity that has been disposed of or is classified as held for sale and that represents a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations and is part of a single co-ordinate plan to dispose of such a line of business or area of operations.


The results of discontinued operation are presented separately in the Statement of Profit and Loss from continuing operations.


2.10 Financial instruments


2.10.1 Investments and other financial assets:


Classification


The Company classifies its financial assets in the following measurement categories:


- those to be measured subsequently at fair value (either through OCI, or through profit or loss), and


- those measured at amortized cost.


The classification depends on the Company''''s business model for managing the financial assets and the contractual terms of the cash flows. For assets measured at fair value, gains and losses will either be recorded in profit or loss or OCI. For investments in debt instruments, this will depend on the business model in which the investment is held. For investments in equity instruments, this will depend on whether the Company has made an irrevocable election at the time of initial recognition to account for the equity investment at fair value through OCI.


The Company reclassifies debt investments when and only when its business model for managing those assets changes.


Debt instruments Measurement


At initial recognition, the Company measures a financial asset at its fair value plus, in the case of a financial asset not at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Transaction costs of financial assets carried at fair value through profit or loss are expensed in profit or loss.


Subsequent measurement of debt instruments depends on the Company''''s business model for managing the asset and the cash flow characteristics of the asset. There are three measurement categories into which the Company classifies its debt instruments:


Amortized cost


Assets that are held for collection of contractual cash flows where those cash flows represent solely payments of principal and interest are measured at amortized cost. A gain or loss on a debt investment that is subsequently measured at amortized cost and is not part of a hedging relationship is recognized in profit or loss when the asset is derecognized or impaired. Interest income from these financial assets is included in finance income using the effective interest rate method.


Fair value through other comprehensive income (''''FVTOCI'''')


Assets that are held for collection of contractual cash flows and for selling the financial assets, where the assets'''' cash flows represent solely payments of principal and interest, are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (''''FVTOCI''''). Movements in the carrying amount are taken through OCI, except for the recognition of impairment gains or losses, interest revenue


and foreign exchange gains or losses which are recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss. When the financial asset is derecognized, the cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in OCI is reclassified from equity to profit or loss and recognized as gains/ (losses) within other income or other expense. Interest income from these financial assets is included in other income using the effective interest rate method.


Fair value through profit or loss (''''FVTPL'''')


Assets that do not meet the criteria for amortized cost or FVTOCI are measured at fair value through profit or loss. A gain or loss on a debt investment that is subsequently measured at FVTPL and is not part of a hedging relationship is recognized in profit or loss and presented net in the Statement of Profit and Loss as gains/(losses) within other income or other expense in the period in which it arises. Interest income from these financial assets is included in other income.


Equity instruments


The Company subsequently measures all equity investments at fair value. Where the Company''''s management has elected to present fair value gains and losses on equity investments in OCI, there is no subsequent reclassification of fair value gains and losses to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Dividends from such investments are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss as Other Income when the Company''''s right to receive payments is established. Changes in the fair value of financial assets at FVTPL are recognized as gains/(losses) within other income or other expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Impairment losses (and reversal of impairment losses) on equity investments measured at FVTOCI are not reported separately from other changes in fair value.


Cash and cash equivalents


The Company considers all highly liquid financial instruments, which are readily convertible into known amounts of cash that are subject to an insignificant risk of change in value and having original maturities of three months or less from the date of purchase, to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents consist of balances with banks which are unrestricted for withdrawal and usage.


De-recognition of financial assets


A financial asset is derecognized only when the Company


- has transferred the rights to receive cash flows from the financial asset; or


- retains the contractual rights to receive the cash flows of the financial asset, but assumes a contractual obligation to pay the cash flows to one or more recipients.


Where the Company transfers an asset, it evaluates whether it has transferred substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset. Where the Company has transferred substantially all risks and rewards of ownership, the financial asset is derecognized. Where the Company has not transferred substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, the financial asset is not derecognized. Where the Company has neither transferred a financial asset nor retained substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, the financial asset is derecognized if the Company has not retained control of the financial asset. Where the Company retains control of the financial asset, the asset is continued to be recognized to the extent of continuing involvement in the financial asset.


2.10.2 Debt and equity instruments


Debt and equity instruments are classified as either financial liabilities or as equity in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangement.


An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments issued by the Company are recorded at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs.


2.10.3 Financial liabilities


The Company''''s financial liabilities comprise borrowings, trade payables and other liabilities. These are initially measured at fair value, net of transaction costs, and are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method.


The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortized cost of a financial liability and of allocating interest expense over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash payments through the expected life of the financial liability, or, where appropriate, a shorter period.


Changes to the carrying amount of a financial liability as a result of renegotiation or modification of terms that do not result in derecognition of the financial liability, is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.


De-recognition of financial liabilities


The Company derecognizes financial liabilities when, and only when, its obligations are discharged, cancelled or they expire.


Presentation


Borrowings are classified as current liabilities unless the Company has an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting period.


Trade and other payables are presented as current liabilities unless payment is not due within 12 months after the reporting period.


2.10.4 Derivatives and hedging activities


Derivatives are initially recognized at fair value on the date a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently premeasured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period. The accounting for subsequent changes in fair value depends on whether the derivative is designated as a hedging instrument, and if so, the nature of the item being hedged and the type of hedge relationship designated.


Derivatives are designated as hedges of foreign exchange risk associated with the cash flows of highly probable forecast transactions and variable interest rate risk or foreign exchange risk associated with borrowings (cash flow hedges). When the


Company opts to undertake hedge accounting, the Company documents at the inception of the hedging transaction, the economic relationship between hedging instruments and hedged items including whether the hedging instrument is expected to offset changes in cash flows or fair values of hedged items. The Company documents its risk management objective and strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions at the inception of each hedge relationship.


Cash flow hedges that qualify for hedge accounting


The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges, is recognized in the OCI and in cash flow hedging reserve within equity, limited to the cumulative change in fair value of the hedged item on a present value basis from the inception of the hedge. The gain or loss relating to the ineffective portion is recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss as Finance Costs.


Amounts accumulated in equity are reclassified to profit or loss in the periods when the hedged item affects profit or loss. When the hedged forecast transaction results in the recognition of a non-financial asset, the amounts accumulated in equity with respect to gain or loss relating to the effective portion of the spot component of forward contracts, both the deferred hedging gains and losses and the deferred aligned forward points are included within the initial cost of the asset. The deferred amounts are ultimately recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss as the hedged item affects profit or loss.


When a hedging instrument expires, or is sold or terminated, or when a hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, any cumulative deferred gain or loss and deferred costs of hedging in equity at that time remains in equity until the forecast transaction occurs. When the forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss and deferred costs of hedging that were reported in equity are immediately reclassified to profit or loss.


Derivatives that are not designated as hedges


When derivative contracts to hedge risks are not designated as hedges, such contracts are accounted for at fair value through profit or loss and are included in Finance Costs.


As at the year end, there were no designated accounting hedges.


The entire fair value of a hedging derivative is classified as a noncurrent asset or liability when the remaining maturity of the hedged item exceeds 12 months; it is classified as a current asset or liability when the remaining maturity of the hedged item does not exceed 12 months.


2.10.5 Financial guarantee contracts


Financial guarantee contracts are recognized as a financial liability at the time the guarantee is issued. The liability is initially measured at fair value and subsequently at the higher of the amount of loss allowance determined as per impairment requirements of Ind-AS 109 - Financial Instruments and the amount initially recognized less cumulative amortization, where appropriate.


2.10.6 Offsetting of financial instruments


Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset when it currently has a legally enforceable right (not contingent on future events) to off-set the recognized amounts and the Company intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realize the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.


2.10.7 Fair value of financial instruments


In determining the fair value of its financial instruments, the Company uses a variety of methods and assumptions that are based on market conditions and risks existing at each reporting date. The methods used to determine fair value include discounted cash flow analysis, available quoted market prices and dealer quotes. All methods of assessing fair value result in general approximation of value, and such value may never actually be realized.


2.11 Impairment


Financial assets (other than at fair value)


The Company assesses on a forward looking basis the expected credit losses associated with its assets carried at amortized cost and FVTOCI debt instruments. The impairment methodology applied depends on whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk. For trade receivables only, the Company applies the simplified approach permitted by Ind AS 109 -Financial Instruments, which requires expected lifetime losses to be recognized from initial recognition of the receivables.


PPE and intangible assets


The carrying values of assets / cash generating units at each Balance Sheet date are reviewed to determine whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication of such impairment exists, the recoverable amount of such assets / cash generating unit is estimated and in case the carrying amount of these assets exceeds their recoverable amount, an impairment is recognized. The recoverable amount is the higher of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor. Assessment is also done at each Balance Sheet date as to whether there is indication that an impairment loss recognized for an asset in prior accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.


2.12 Inventories


Inventories are valued at lower of cost (on weighted average basis) and net realizable value after providing for obsolescence and other losses, where considered necessary. Cost includes all charges in bringing the goods to their present location and condition, including other levies, transit insurance and receiving charges. Work-in-progress and finished goods include appropriate proportion of overheads and, where applicable, excise duty. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.


2.13 Revenue recognition


2.13.1 Sale of goods


Revenue from sale of goods is recognized at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of returns including estimated returns where applicable, and trade discounts, rebates, sales tax and value added tax, when all significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been passed to the buyer, usually on delivery of goods.


I n respect of Urea, sales are recognized based on concession rates as notified under the New Pricing Scheme. Equated freight claims and escalation claims for Urea sales are estimated by the Management based on the norms prescribed or notified under the said Scheme. In case of complex fertilizers, sales include price concession, as notified under the Nutrient Based Subsidy policy, or as estimated by the Management based on the norms prescribed.


2.13.2 Interest income


For all debt instruments measured either at amortized cost or at FTVOCI, interest income is recorded using the effective interest rate.


2.13.3 Dividend income


Dividend income is accounted for when Company''''s right to receive income is established.


2.13.4 Insurance claims


Insurance claims are accounted for on the basis of claims admitted / expected to be admitted and to the extent that there is no uncertainty in receiving the claims.


2.14 Leases


The Company as lessee


Lease arrangements in which substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of the under-lying assets are transferred to the Company, are classified as finance lease.


Assets held under finance leases are initially recognized at their fair value at the inception of the lease or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. The corresponding liability to the less or is included in the Balance Sheet as a finance lease obligation. Lease payments are apportioned between finance expenses and reduction of the lease obligation so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability.


Lease arrangements where the risks and rewards of ownership of an asset substantially vest with the less or are recognized as operating leases. Lease rentals under operating leases are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term unless the payments are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the less or’s expected inflationary cost increases.


2.15 Employee benefits plans


Employee benefits consist of provident fund, superannuation fund, gratuity fund, compensated absences, long service awards, post-retirement medical benefits, directors'''' retirement obligations and family benefit scheme.


2.15.1 Post-employment benefit plans Defined contribution plans


Payments to defined contribution retirement benefit scheme for eligible employees in the form of superannuation fund are charged as an expense as they fall due. Such benefits are classified as Defined Contribution Schemes as the Company does not carry any further obligations, apart from the contributions made.


The Company makes contribution towards provident fund, in substance a defined contribution retirement benefit plan. The provident fund is administered by the Trustees of the Tata Chemicals Limited Provident Fund. The rules of the Company''''s provident fund administered by the Trust, require that if the Board of Trustees are unable to pay interest at the rate declared by the Employees'''' Provident Fund by the Government under para 60 of the Employees'''' Provident Fund Scheme, 1952 for the reason that the return on investment is less or for any other reason, then the deficiency shall be made good by the Company. Having regard to the assets of the fund and the return on the investments, the Company does not expect any deficiency as at the year end.


Defined benefit plans


For defined benefit schemes in the form of gratuity fund, post retirement medical benefits, directors'''' pension liabilities and family benefit scheme, the cost of providing benefits is actuarially determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date. The retirement benefit obligation recognized in the Balance Sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets.


The present value of the said obligation is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows, using market yields of government bonds of equivalent term and currency to the liability.


The interest income / (expense) are calculated by applying the discount rate to the net defined benefit liability or asset. The net interest income / (expense) on the net defined benefit liability is recognized in the Statement of Profit and loss.


Remeasurement gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognized in the period in which they occur, directly in OCI. They are included in retained earnings in the Statement of Changes in Equity and in the Balance Sheet.


Changes in the present value of the defined benefit obligation resulting from plan amendments or curtailments are recognized immediately in profit or loss as past service cost


2.15.2 Short-term employee benefits


The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees is recognized during the period when the employee renders the service. These benefits include compensated absences such as paid annual leave and performance incentives which are expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related services.


The cost of compensated absences is accounted as under:


(a) In case of accumulated compensated absences, when employees render service that increase their entitlement of future compensated absences; and


(b) In case of non - accumulating compensated absence, when the absences occur.


2.15.3 Other long-term employee benefits


Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related services are recognized as a liability at the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the Balance Sheet date. Long Service Awards are recognized as a liability at the present value of the obligation at the Balance Sheet date.


2.16 Employee separation compensation


Compensation paid / payable to employees who have opted for retirement under a Voluntary Retirement Scheme including ex-gratia is charged to Statement of Profit and Loss in the year of separation.


2.17 Borrowing costs


Borrowing costs are interest and ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings. General and specific borrowing costs attributable to acquisition and construction of qualifying assets is added to the cost of the assets unto the date the asset is ready for its intended use. Capitalization of borrowing costs is suspended and charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss during extended periods when active development activity on the qualifying assets is interrupted. All other borrowing costs are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they are incurred.


2.18 Government grants


Government grants and subsidies are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with the conditions attached to them and the grants and subsidies will be received. Government grants whose primary condition is that the Company should purchase, construct or otherwise acquire non-current assets are recognized as deferred revenue in the Balance sheet and transferred to profit or loss on systematic and rational basis over the useful lives of the related asset. Other government grants and subsidies are recognized as income over the periods necessary to match them with the costs which they are intended to compensate on a systematic basis.


2.19 Segment reporting


The Company identifies operating segments based on the dominant source, nature of risks and returns and the internal organization. The operating segments are the segments for which separate financial information is available and for which operating profit/loss amounts are evaluated regularly by the Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer (who is the Company''''s chief operating decision maker) in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance


The accounting policies adopted for segment reporting are in conformity with the accounting policies of the Company. Segment revenue, segment expenses, segment assets and segment liabilities have been identified to segments on the basis of their relationship to the operating activities of the segment. Inter segment revenue is accounted on the basis of transactions which are primarily determined based on market / fair value factors. Revenue, expenses, assets and liabilities which relate to the Company as a whole and are not allocable to segments on a reasonable basis have been included under ''''unallocated revenue / expenses / assets / liabilities''''.


2.20 Income tax


Income tax expense comprises current tax expense and the net change in the deferred tax asset or liability during the year. Current and deferred taxes are recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss, except when they relate to items that are recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case, the current and deferred tax are also recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, respectively.


Current tax


Current tax is measured at the amount of tax expected to be payable on the taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act,1961 that have been enacted or subsequently enacted at the end of the reporting period.


Current tax assets and current tax liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to set off the recognized amounts and there is an intention to settle the asset and the liability on a net basis.


Deferred tax


Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for deductible and taxable temporary differences arising between the tax base of assets and liabilities and their carrying amount, except when the deferred income tax arises from the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and affects neither accounting nor taxable profit or loss at the time of the transaction.


Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that it is probable that either future taxable profits or reversal of deferred tax liabilities will be available, against which the deductible temporary differences, and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilized.


The carrying amount of a deferred tax asset is reviewed at the end of each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred income tax asset to be utilized.


Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period and are expected to apply when the related deferred tax asset is realized or the deferred tax liability is settled.


Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to offset current tax assets and liabilities and when it relates to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority and the Company intends to settle its current tax assets and liabilities simultaneously.


2.21 Provisions


A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate of the amount can be made. Provisions are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. When a provision is measured using the cash flows estimated to settle the present obligation, its carrying amount is the present value of those cash flows (when the effect of the time value of the money is material). The increase in the provisions due to passage of time is recognized as interest expense. Provisions are reviewed as at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimate.


Contingent liabilities are disclosed when there is a possible obligation arising from past events, the existence of which will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company or a present obligation that arises from past events where it is either not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle or a reliable estimate of the amount cannot be made. Contingent assets are not disclosed in the financial statements unless an inflow of economic benefits is probable.


2.22 Dividend


Final dividend on shares are recorded as a liability on the date of approval by the shareholders and interim dividends are recorded as a liability on the date of declaration by the Company''''s Board of Directors.

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