a) Basis of preparation of financial statements
The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 read with Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2016, as amended. For all periods upto and including the year ended March 31, 2016, the Company has prepared its financial statements to comply in all material respects with the Accounting Standards specified under section 133 of the Act, read with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 (Indian GAAP) and to reflect the financial position and the results of operations of the Company. These financial statements for the year ended March 31, 2017 are the first the Company has prepared in accordance with Ind AS. Refer to Note 41 for information on how the Company adopted Ind AS.
The financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis except for certain financial assets and liabilities which have been measured at fair value (refer accounting policy regarding financial instruments).
b) Current versus non-current classification
The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current/ non-current classification.
An asset is treated as current when it is:
- Expected to be realized or intended to sold or consumed in normal operating cycle
- Held primarily for the purpose of trading
- Expected to be realized within twelve months after the reporting period, or
- Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.
All other assets are classified as non-current.
A liability is current when:
- It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle
- It is held primarily for the purpose of trading
- It is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or
- There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.
The Company classifies all other liabilities as non-current.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.
The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash and cash equivalents. The Company has identified twelve months as its operating cycle.
c) Property, plant and equipment and Depreciation
The Company has elected to continue with the carrying value for all of its property, plant and equipment as recognised in its Indian GAAP financial statements as deemed cost at the transition date, viz., April 1, 2015.
Further, the deemed cost exemption being availed, the carrying value of property, plant and equipment’s have been adjusted to recognise the asset related government grants outstanding on the transition date as deferred income in accordance with the requirements of Ind AS 20, Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosure of Government Assistance. The corresponding adjustment has been made to the carrying amount of property, plant and equipment (net of cumulative depreciation impact) and retained earnings as at date of transition in accordance with paragraph 10 of Ind AS 101, respectively, as the grant is directly linked to the property, plant and equipment as clarified by Ind AS Transition Facilitation Group (ITFG) clarification Bulletin 5.
Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Cost comprises the purchase price ( including all duties and taxes after deducting trade discounts and rebates if any ) and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Such cost includes the cost of replacing part of the plant and equipment and borrowing costs for long-term construction projects if the recognition criteria are met. Likewise, when a major expenditure is incurred, its cost is recognised in the carrying amount of the plant and equipment, if it increases the future benefits from the existing asset. All other expenses on existing fixed assets, including day-to-day repair and maintenance expenditure, are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred.
For depreciation, the Company identifies and determines cost of assets significant to the total cost of the assets having useful life that is materially different from that of the life of the principal asset.
Property, plant and equipment under construction and fixed assets acquired but not put to use at the balance sheet date are classified as capital work in progress.
An item of property, plant and equipment and any significant part initially recognised is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Gains or losses arising from de-recognition of Property, plant and equipment are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.
The residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation of property, plant and equipment are reviewed at each financial year end and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.
Based on a technical assessment and a review of past history of asset usage, management of the Company has not revised its useful lives to those referred to under Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 (as amended).
Depreciation on property, plant and equipment other than aircraft and leasehold improvements is provided on written down value method, using the rates arrived at based on the useful lives estimated by the management. The Company has used the following useful life to provide depreciation on its property, plant and equipment.
Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the lower of estimated useful lives of the assets or the remaining primary period of the lease. The average useful life of Leasehold improvements is 3 to 8 years.
Costs incurred towards purchase of aircraft are depreciated using the straight-line method based on technical assessment and a review of past history of asset usage, management’s estimate of useful life of such aircrafts, i.e. 15 years.
The gross block of plant and machinery as at March 31, 2017 includes cost of program production equipment of Rs. 25.47 crores (Previous year Rs. 24.44 crores and April 1, 2015 Rs 19.13 crores), post production equipment of Rs. 13.41 crores (Previous year Rs. 12.74 crores and April 1, 2015 Rs 12.33 crores), reception and distribution facilities of Rs. 67.63 crores (Previous year Rs. 61.99 crores and April 1, 2015 Rs 49.20 crores), computer and related equipment of Rs. 32.02 crores (Previous year Rs. 29.01 crores and April 1, 2015 Rs 17.61 crores) and aircraft of Rs. 365.17 crores (Previous year Rs. 255.18 crores and April 1, 2015 Rs 255.17 crores). The net block of plant and machinery as at March 31, 2017 includes the net block of program production equipment of Rs. 18.06 crores (Previous year Rs. 20.76 crores and April 1, 2015 Rs 19.13 cores), post production equipment of Rs. 7.98 crores (Previous year Rs. 9.32 crores and April 1, 2015 Rs 12.33 crores), reception and distribution facilities of Rs. 44.37 crores (Previous year Rs. 50.20 crores and April 1, 2015 Rs 49.20 crores), computer and related equipment of Rs. 13.61 crores (Previous year Rs. 18.74 crores and April 1, 2015 Rs 17.61 crores) and aircraft of Rs. 364.67 (Previous year Rs. Nil crores and April 1, 2015 Rs 255.17 crores).
d) Investment Property
The Company has elected to apply the carrying value of underlying assets as measured in its Indian GAAP financial statements as the deemed cost of the Investment Property at the transition date, viz., April 1, 2015.
Investment properties are measured initially at cost, including transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, investment properties are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment loss, if any.
Depreciation on Investment property is provided on written down value method, using the useful lives estimated by the management .The Company, based on technical assessment made by technical expert and management estimate, depreciates the building over estimated useful life of 20 to 58 years which is different from the useful life prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013. The management believes that these estimated useful lives are realistic and reflect fair approximation of the period over which the assets are likely to be used.
Though the Company measures investment property using cost based measurement, the fair value of investment property is disclosed in the notes. Fair values are determined based on an annual evaluation performed by an accredited external independent valuer applying an approved valuation model (refer note 4 of Standalone financial statement).
Investment properties are derecognised either when they have been disposed of or when they are permanently withdrawn from use and no future economic benefit is expected from their disposal. The difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset is recognised in profit or loss in the period of derecognition.
e) Intangible assets and amortization
The company has elected to continue with the carrying value for all of its Intangible assets as recognised in its Indian GAAP financial statements as deemed cost at the transition date, viz., April 1, 2015.
Intangible assets acquired are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, Intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.
Intangible assets with finite lives are amortised over the useful economic life and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortisation period and the amortisation method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at least at the end of each reporting period. Changes in the expected useful life or the expected pattern of consumption of future economic benefits embodied in the asset are considered to modify the amortisation period or method, as appropriate, and are treated as changes in accounting estimates. The amortisation expense on intangible assets with finite lives is recognised in the statement of profit and loss unless such expenditure forms part of carrying value of another asset.
- Computer software
Costs incurred towards purchase of computer software are depreciated using the straight-line method over a period based on management’s estimate of useful lives of such software being 3 years, or over the license period of the software, whichever is shorter.
- Film and program broadcasting rights (‘Satellite Rights’)
Acquired Satellite Rights for the broadcast of feature films and other long-form programming such as multiepisode television serials are initially stated at cost.
Future revenues from use of these Satellite Rights cannot be estimated with any reasonable accuracy as these are susceptible to a variety of factors, such as the level of market acceptance of television products, programming viewership, advertising rates etc., and accordingly cost related to film is fully expensed on the date of first telecast of the film and the cost related to program broadcasting rights / multi episodes series are amortized based on the telecasted episodes.
- Film production costs, distribution and related rights
The cost of production / acquisition of all the rights related to each movie is amortised upon the theatrical release of the movie.
Licenses represent one time entry fees paid to Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (‘MIB’) under the applicable licensing policy for Frequency Modulation (‘FM’) Radio broadcasting. Cost of licenses are amortised over the license period, being 15 years.
f) Impairment of non-financial assets
At each reporting date, the Company assesses whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset’s recoverable amount. An asset’s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s or Cash Generating Unit’s (‘CGU’) fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. The recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets.
Where the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount.
In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining fair value cost of disposal, recent market transactions are taken into account, if available. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used.
Impairment losses are recognized in the statement of profit and loss. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over its remaining useful life.
The Company bases its impairment calculation on detailed budgets and forecast calculations, which are prepared separately for each of the Company’s CGUs to which the individual assets are allocated.
An assessment is made at each reporting date as to whether there is any indication that previously recognized impairment losses may no longer exist or may have decreased. If such indication exists, the Company estimates the asset’s or cash-generating unit’s recoverable amount. A previously recognized impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset’s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.
g) Franchisee fees
The annual franchise fee payable to the Board of Control for Cricket in India (‘BCCI’) is recognized as an expense on an accrual basis in accordance with terms of the Company’s agreement with BCCI.
h) Borrowing costs
Borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they are incurred.
i) Revenue recognition
Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes or duties collected on behalf of the government. The Company has concluded that it is the principal in all of its revenue arrangements since it is the primary obligor in all the revenue arrangements as it has pricing latitude and is also exposed to credit risks.
- Advertising income and income from sales of broadcast slots are recognised when the related commercial or programme is telecast.
- International subscription income represents income from the export of program software content, and is recognised as and when the services are rendered in accordance with the terms of agreements with customers.
- Subscription income represents subscription fees billed to cable operators and Direct to Home (‘DTH’) service providers towards pay-channels operated by the Company, and are recognised in the period during which the service is provided. Subscription fees billed to cable operators are determined based on number of subscription points to which the service is provided based on relevant agreements with such cable operators (along with management’s best estimates of such subscription points wherever applicable), at contractually agreed rates with the Company’s authorised distributor. Subscription income from DTH customers is recognised as and when services are rendered to the customer in accordance with the terms of agreements entered into with the service providers.
- Revenues from sale of movie distribution rights are recognised in accordance with the terms of agreements with customers.
- Income from content trading represent revenue earned from mobile service providers and DTH service providers through exploitation of content owned by the Company. Income is recognised as per the terms of contract with the respective service providers and based on the services being rendered to the service provider.
- Income from Indian Premier League represents following :
Income from franchisee rights is recognised when the rights to receive the payments is established as per the terms of the agreement entered with The Board of Control for Cricket in India (“BCCI”). Revenue is recognised as per the information provided by BCCI or as per Management’s estimate in case the information is not received. The revenue is allocated on a pro-rata basis to number of matches played during the year as against the total number of matches for the season.
Income from sponsorship fees is recognised on completion of terms of the sponsorship agreement.
Income from sale of tickets is recognised on the dates of the respective matches. The Company reports revenues net of discounts offered on sale of tickets.
Prize money is recognised when right to receive payment is established.
- Revenues from barter transactions, and the related costs, are recorded at fair values of the services received or if the same cannot be measured reliably, then the fair value of the services rendered, as estimated by management.
- For all debt instruments, interest income is recorded using the effective interest rate (EIR). Finance income is included in other income in the statement of profit and loss.
- Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive payment is established, which is generally when shareholders of the investee entity approve the dividend.
- Rental income arising from operating leases on investment properties is accounted for based on the terms of the agreements and is included in other income in the statement of profit or loss.
- Export incentives are recognized on availment of the benefits under the respective schemes.
Revenues recognised in excess of billings are disclosed as “Unbilled Revenue” under other current financial assets. Billings in excess of revenue recognised are disclosed as “Deferred Revenues” under other current liabilities.
j) Retirement and other employee benefits
Retirement benefit in the form of provident fund is a defined contribution scheme. The Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the provident fund. The Company recognizes the contribution payable to the provident fund scheme as an expenditure when the employee renders the related service.
Gratuity liability is a defined benefit obligation. The cost of providing benefits under the plan is determined on the basis of actuarial valuation at each year-end using the projected unit credit method.
Remeasurement, comprising of actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the asset ceiling, excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability and the return on plan assets (excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability), are recognised immediately in the balance sheet with a corresponding debit or credit to retained earnings through Other Comprehensive Income (‘OCI’) in the period in which they occur. Remeasurement is not reclassified to profit or loss in subsequent periods.
Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net defined benefit liability or asset. The Company recognizes the following changes in the net defined benefit obligation as an expense in the statement of profit and loss:
- Service costs comprising current service costs, past-service costs, gains and losses on curtailments and non routine settlements; and
- Net interest expense or income
Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next 12 months, is treated as short-term employee benefit. The Company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date. The Company treats accumulated leave expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long-term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the year-end. Re-measurement gains /losses are accounted through Profit or Loss account and are not deferred.
The Company presents the entire leave as a current liability in the balance sheet, since it does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement for 12 months after the reporting date.
Tax expense comprises current and deferred tax.
a. Current income-tax
Current income-tax asset and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date. Current income tax relating to items recognised outside profit or loss is recognised outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity). Management periodically evaluates positions taken in the tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulations are subject to interpretation and establishes provisions where appropriate.
b. Deferred tax
Deferred tax is provided using the liability method on temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes at the reporting date. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.
Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all taxable temporary differences, except:
- When the deferred tax liability arises from the initial recognition of goodwill or an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss
- In respect of taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, associates and interests in joint ventures, when the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences can be controlled and it is probable that the temporary differences will not reverse in the foreseeable future
Deferred tax assets are recognised for all deductible temporary differences, the carry forward of unused tax credits and any unused tax losses. Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilised, except:
- When the deferred tax asset relating to the deductible temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss
- In respect of deductible temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, associates and interests in joint ventures, deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that it is probable that the temporary differences will reverse in the foreseeable future and taxable profit will be available against which the temporary differences can be utilised
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the year when the asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.
Deferred tax relating to items recognised outside profit or loss is recognised outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity).
Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set-off current tax assets against current tax liabilities.
l) Earnings per share (EPS)
Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events such as bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue, share split and reverse share split that have changed the number of equity shares outstanding, without a corresponding change in resources.
For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.
m) Operating leases
The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfilment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement
Operating leases (where the Company is the lessee)
Leases, where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Operating leases (where the Company is the lessor)
Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the asset are classified as operating leases.. Lease income on an operating lease is recognized in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation, are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss. Initial direct costs such as legal costs, brokerage costs, etc. are recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.
n) Cash and Cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalent in the balance sheet comprise cash at banks and on hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.
For the purpose of the statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and short-term deposits, as defined above, net of outstanding bank overdrafts as they are considered an integral part of the Company’s cash management operations.
o) Foreign currency transactions
Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the functional currency, by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the functional currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.
Foreign currency monetary items are translated using the closing rate. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary items which are carried at fair value denominated in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.
All exchange differences arising on settlement / conversion of foreign currency monetary items are included in the statement of profit and loss.
p) Fair value measurement
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:
- In the principal market for the asset or liability, or
- In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability
- The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the Company.
The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.
A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant’s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use.
The Company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximizing the use of relevant observable inputs and minimizing the use of unobservable inputs.
All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorized within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:
Level 1 - Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable.
Level 3 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable.
For assets and liabilities that are recognised in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorization (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.
For recurring and non-recurring fair value measurements categorised within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy, mention a description of the valuation processes used by the entity (including, for example, how an entity decides its valuation policies and procedures and analyses changes in fair value measurements from period to period).
For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the Company has determined classes of assets and liabilities on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy as explained above
This note summarizes accounting policy for fair value. Other fair value related disclosures are given in Note No. 37 & 38 of the Standalone financial statements.
A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. The expense relating to a provision is presented in the statement of profit and loss.
r) Financial Instruments
A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.
Initial recognition and measurement
All financial assets are recognised initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset.
For purposes of subsequent measurement, financial assets are classified in three categories:
- Debt instruments at amortized cost
- Debt instruments at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)
- Equity instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)
Debt instruments at amortized cost
A ‘debt instrument’ is measured at the amortized cost if both the following conditions are met:
- The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and
- Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.
After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortized cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortization is included in finance income in the profit or loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognised in the profit or loss.
Debt instrument at FVTPL
FVTPL is a residual category for debt instruments. Any debt instrument, which does not meet the criteria for categorization as at amortized cost or as FVTOCI, is classified as at FVTPL.
Debt instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the Statement of Profit and loss account. The Company does not have any financial asset under this category.
In addition, the Company may elect to classify a debt instrument, which otherwise meets amortized cost or FVTOCI criteria, as at FVTPL. However, the Company doesn’t have any debt instruments that qualify for FVTOCI classification.
All equity investments in scope of Ind AS 109 are measured at fair value. Equity instruments which are held for trading are classified as at FVTPL. For all other equity instruments, the Company decides to classify the same either as at FVTOCI or FVTPL. However there are no such instruments that have been classified through FVTOCI and all equity instruments are routed through FVTPL.
Equity instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the P&L.
Equity investment in Subsidiary and Joint Venture
Investment in subsidiary and joint venture is carried at cost in the separate financial statements as permitted under Ind AS 27.
A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a group of similar financial assets) is primarily derecognized (i.e. removed from the Company’s balance sheet) when:
- The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or
- The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ‘pass-through’ arrangement; and either (a) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.
Impairment of financial assets
In accordance with Ind AS 109, the Company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the following financial assets and credit risk exposure:
- Financial assets that are debt instruments, and are measured at amortized cost e.g. debt securities, deposits, trade receivables and bank balance
- Trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 18.
The Company follows ‘simplified approach’ for recognition of impairment loss allowance on Trade receivables.
The application of simplified approach does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognizes impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition.
For recognition of impairment loss on other financial assets and risk exposure, the Company determines that whether there has been a significant increase in the credit risk since initial recognition. If credit risk has not increased significantly, 12-month ECL is used to provide for impairment loss. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, lifetime ECL is used. If, in a subsequent period, credit quality of the instrument improves such that there is no longer a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, then the entity reverts to recognizing impairment loss allowance based on 12-month ECL.
Lifetime ECL are the expected credit losses resulting from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial instrument. The 12-month ECL is a portion of the lifetime ECL which results from default events that are possible within 12 months after the reporting date.
ECL is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the entity expects to receive (i.e., all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original EIR. When estimating the cash flows, an entity is required to consider:
- All contractual terms of the financial instrument (including prepayment, extension, call and similar options) over the expected life of the financial instrument. However, in rare cases when the expected life of the financial instrument cannot be estimated reliably, then the entity is required to use the remaining contractual term of the financial instrument
- Cash flows from the sale of collateral held or other credit enhancements that are integral to the contractual terms
As a practical expedient, the Company uses a provision matrix to determine impairment loss allowance on portfolio of its trade receivables. The provision matrix is based on its historically observed default rates over the expected life of the trade receivables and is adjusted for forward-looking estimates. At every reporting date, the historical observed default rates are updated and changes in the forward-looking estimates are analyzed.
ECL impairment loss allowance (or reversal) recognized during the period is recognized as income/ expense in the statement of profit and loss (P&L). This amount is reflected under the head ‘other expenses’ in the P&L. The balance sheet presentation for various financial instruments is described below:
- Financial assets measured as at amortized cost: ECL is presented as an allowance, i.e., as an integral part of the measurement of those assets in the balance sheet. The allowance reduces the net carrying amount. Until the asset meets write-off criteria, the Company does not reduce impairment allowance from the gross carrying amount.
For assessing increase in credit risk and impairment loss, the Company combines financial instruments on the basis of shared credit risk characteristics with the objective of facilitating an analysis that is designed to enable significant increases in credit risk to be identified on a timely basis.
Financial liabilities Initial recognition and measurement
The Company’s financial liabilities include deposits, and trade and other payables. These are recognized initially at amortized cost net of directly attributable transaction costs.
After initial recognition, they are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the EIR method. Gains and losses are recognised in profit or loss when the liabilities are derecognized as well as through the EIR amortization process.
The EIR amortization is included as finance costs in the statement of profit and loss.
A financial liability is derecognized when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires.
Financial guarantee contracts
Financial guarantee contracts issued by the Company are those contracts that require a payment to be made to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because the specified debtor fails to make a payment when due in accordance with the terms of a debt instrument. Financial guarantee contracts are recognised initially as a liability at fair value, adjusted for transaction costs that are directly attributable to the issuance of the guarantee. Subsequently, the liability is measured at the higher of the amount of loss allowance determined as per impairment requirements of Ind AS 109 and the amount recognised less cumulative amortisation.
Offsetting of financial instruments
Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realize the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.
s) Contingent liabilities
A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.
t) Government Grants
Government grants are recognised where there is reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and all attached conditions will be complied with. When the grant relates to an asset, it is recognised as income in equal amounts over the expected useful life of the related asset.
When the Company receives grants of non-monetary assets, the asset and the grant are recorded at fair value amounts and depreciated / released to profit or loss over the expected useful life in a pattern of consumption of the benefit of the underlying asset.
Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value.
Costs include the cost incurred in bringing each product to its present location and condition. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale. Cost of goods is determined on a FIFO basis.
v) Segment reporting
Based on internal reporting provided to the Chief operating decision maker, the Company’s operations predominantly related to Media and Entertainment and, accordingly, this is the only operating segment. The management committee reviews and monitors the operating results of the business segment for the purpose of making decisions about resource allocation and performance assessment using profit or loss and return on capital employed.
w) Recent accounting pronouncements Standards issued but not yet effective
In March 2017, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs issued the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendments) Rules, 2017, notifying amendments to Ind AS 7, ‘Statement of cash flows’ and Ind AS 102, ‘Share-based payment.’ These amendments are in accordance with the recent amendments made by International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) to IAS 7, ‘Statement of cash flows’ and IFRS 2, ‘Share-based payment,’ respectively. The amendments are applicable to the company from April 1, 2017.
Amendment to Ind AS 7
The amendment to Ind AS 7 requires the entities to provide disclosures that enable users of financial statements to evaluate changes in liabilities arising from financing activities, including both changes arising from cash flows and non-cash changes, suggesting inclusion of a reconciliation between the opening and closing balances in the balance sheet for liabilities arising from financing activities, to meet the disclosure requirement.
The company is evaluating the requirements of the amendment and the effect on the financial statements.