Strides Shasun Limited (Formerly Strides Arcolab Limited) (the ''''Company'''' or ''''Strides'''') is a pharmaceutical company headquartered in Bengaluru, India. Strides develops and manufactures a wide range of IP-led niche pharmaceutical products. The Company is listed on the BSE Limited and the National Stock Exchange of India Limited.
The standalone financial statements were approved by the Board of Directors and authorized for issue on May 18, 2017.
Significant accounting policies
2.1 Statement of compliance
These standalone financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (“Ind AS") notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 and Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2016, as applicable. For periods up to and including the year ended March 31, 2016, the Company prepared its financial statements in accordance with the then applicable Accounting Standards in India (''''previous GAAP''''). These are the Company''''s first Ind AS financial statements. The date of transition to Ind AS is April 1, 2015. Refer Note 4 for the explanations of transition to Ind AS including the details of first-time adoption exemptions availed by the Company.
2.2 Basis of measurement
The standalone financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except for:
- certain financial assets and liabilities (including derivative instruments), plan assets of the defined benefit plan and equity settled share based payments that are measured at fair values at the end of each reporting period;- certain fixed assets of the Company which were fair valued in earlier years (prior to transition date), based on scheme of arrangement approved by the High court of Judicature. However, as explained in note 3.6, for transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of such assets as of April 01, 2015 measured as per previous GAAP and use that carrying value as deemed cost as of transition date.
2.3 Business combinations
Acquisitions of business are accounted for using the acquisition method. The consideration transferred in a business combination is measured at fair value, which is calculated as the sum of the acquisition-date fair values of the assets transferred by the Company, liabilities incurred by the Company to the former owners of the acquiree and the equity interests issued by the Company in exchange of control of the acquiree. Acquisition-related costs are generally recognized in statement of profit and loss as incurred.
At the acquisition date, the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed are recognized at their fair value, except that:
- deferred tax assets or liabilities, and assets or liabilities related to employee benefit arrangements are recognized and measured in accordance with Ind AS 12 Income Taxes and Ind AS 19 Employee Benefits respectively;
- liabilities or equity instruments related to share-based payment arrangements of the acquiree or share-based payment arrangements of the Company entered into to replace share-based payment arrangements of the acquiree are measured in accordance with Ind AS 102 Share-based Payment at the acquisition date (see note 2.10.2); and
- assets (or disposal groups) that are classified as held for sale in accordance with Ind AS 105 Noncurrent Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations are measured in accordance with that Standard.
Goodwill is measured as the excess of the sum of the consideration transferred and the fair value of the acquirer''''s previously held equity interest in the acquiree (if any) over the net of the acquisition-date amounts of the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed.
In case of a bargain purchase, before recognizing a gain in respect thereof, the Company determines whether there exists clear evidence of the underlying reasons for classifying the business combination as a bargain purchase. Thereafter, the Company reassesses whether it has correctly identified all of the assets acquired and all of the liabilities assumed and recognizes any additional assets or liabilities that are identified in that reassessment. The Company then reviews the procedures used to measure the amounts that Ind AS requires for the purposes of calculating the bargain purchase. If the gain remains after this reassessment and review, the Company recognizes it in other comprehensive income and accumulates the same in equity as capital reserve. This gain is attributed to the acquirer. If there does not exist clear evidence of the underlying reasons for classifying the business combination as a bargain purchase, the Company recognizes the gain, after reassessing and reviewing (as described above), directly in equity as capital reserve.
When the consideration transferred by the Company in a business combination includes assets or liabilities resulting from a contingent consideration arrangement, the contingent consideration is measured at its acquisition-date fair value and included as part of the consideration transferred in a business combination. Changes in the fair value of the contingent consideration that qualify as measurement period adjustments are adjusted retrospectively, with corresponding adjustments against goodwill or capital reserve, as the case maybe. Measurement period adjustments are adjustments that arise from additional information obtained during the ''''measurement period'''' (which cannot exceed one year from the acquisition date) about facts and circumstances that existed at the acquisition date.
The subsequent accounting for changes in the fair value of the contingent consideration that do not qualify as measurement period adjustments depends on how the contingent consideration is classified. Contingent consideration that is classified as equity is not premeasured at subsequent reporting dates and its subsequent settlement is accounted for within equity. Contingent consideration that is classified as an asset or a liability is premeasured at fair value at subsequent reporting dates with the corresponding gain or loss being recognized in statement of profit and loss.
When a business combination is achieved in stages, the Company''''s previously held equity interest in the acquiree is premeasured to its acquisition-date fair value and the resulting gain or loss, if any, is recognized in statement of profit and loss. Amounts arising from interests in the acquiree prior to the acquisition date that have previously been recognized in other comprehensive income are reclassified to statement of profit and loss where such treatment would be appropriate if that interest were disposed of.
If the initial accounting for a business combination is incomplete by the end of the reporting period in which the combination occurs, the Company reports provisional amounts for the items for which the accounting is incomplete. Those provisional amounts are adjusted during the measurement period (see above), or additional assets or liabilities are recognized, to reflect new information obtained about facts and circumstances that existed at the acquisition date that, if known, would have affected the amounts recognized at that date
Goodwill arising on an acquisition of a business is carried at cost as established at the date of acquisition of the business (see note 2.3 above) less accumulated impairment losses, if any.
For the purposes of impairment testing, goodwill is allocated to cash-generating units. The allocation is made to those cash generating units or groups of cash generating units that are expected to benefit from the business combination in which such goodwill arose.
A cash-generating unit to which goodwill has been allocated is tested for impairment annually, or more frequently when there is an indication that the unit may be impaired. If the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit is less than its carrying amount, the impairment loss is allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the unit and then to the other assets of the unit pro rata based on the carrying amount of each asset in the unit. Any impairment loss for goodwill is recognized directly in statement of profit and loss. An impairment loss recognized for goodwill is not reversed in subsequent periods.
On disposal of the relevant cash-generating unit, the attributable amount of goodwill is included in the determination of the profit or loss on disposal.
2.5 Revenue recognition
Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable. Revenue is reduced for estimated customer returns, rebates and other similar allowances.
2.5.1 Sale of goods
Revenue from the sale of goods is recognized when the following conditions are satisfied:
- the Company has transferred to the buyer the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods to the buyer as per the terms of arrangement with buyer;
- the Company retains neither continuing managerial involvement to the degree usually associated with ownership nor effective control over the goods sold;
- the amount of revenue can be measured reliably;
- it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the Company; and
- the costs incurred or to be incurred in respect of the transaction can be measured reliably.
Sale to Distributors
The Company appoints distributors in various territories who purchases the goods from the Company and thereafter sells them in the territory. In case the distributor is acting as an agent, the Company defers revenue recognition till the time goods are sold by the distributor to the end customer. On the other hand, if the distributor is principal, revenue is recognized upon the transfer of significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods to the distributor.
Right to reject or return goods
The Company sells its products to the customers with a right to return the goods within the specified period of time. If the probability of acceptance by the customer is uncertain, recognition of revenue is deferred till the expiry of right to return or acceptance by the customer whichever is earlier.
The Company distributes free samples to distributors, at various exhibitions and at medical conferences. The cost of samples distributed at exhibitions, medical conferences or to doctors directly are treated as marketing expense and clubbed under “Business Promotion Expense". However, free samples given to distributors (that are not acting as agents) is recognized as cost of goods sold. In case the free samples are not delivered at the same time as the related sales consignment, a reliable provision is made in this regard.
Price Variations / Incentives
Incentives are accounted based on the assessment of whether the beneficiary (of the incentive) is acting as a principal or an agent. Where the beneficiary is a principal, the incentive is regarded as consideration paid to the customer and is reduced from revenue. However, where the beneficiary is an agent, the incentive payment is recognized as an expense as the same is in the nature of commission.
Chargeback’s / Repots claims by the wholesalers / distributors and Price Protections
Chargeback’s and repots claims are estimated on the basis of the average trend of the past years and recognized as reduction to revenue.
2.5.2 Rendering of services
Revenue from product development services:
(i) In respect of contracts where the Company undertakes to develop products for its customers (on an end-to end basis), revenues are recognized based on technical estimates of the stage of work completed under the contracts.
(ii) In respect of other contracts where the Company performs specifically identified services in the development of the products, revenues are recognized on the basis of the performance milestones provided in the contract.
Revenue from contract manufacturing is recognized based on the services rendered in accordance with the terms of the contract
Income from rendering advisory / support services is recognized based on contractual terms.
Share of profits and royalty incomes under manufacturing and supply agreements with customers are accrued based on confirmation received from customers.
2.5.4Dividend and interest income
Dividend income from investments is recognized when the shareholder''''s right to receive payment has been established (provided that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably).
Interest income from a financial asset is recognized when it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably. Interest income is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and at the effective interest rate applicable, which is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to that asset''''s net carrying amount on initial recognition.
2.5.5 Rental income
The Company''''s policy for recognition of revenue from operating leases is described in note 2.6.1 below.
2.5.6 Export Incentives
Export incentives are accrued for based on fulfillment of eligibility criteria for availing the incentives and when there is no uncertainty in receiving the same. These incentives include estimated realizable values/ benefits from special import licenses and benefits under specified schemes as applicable.
Leases are classified as finance leases whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee. All other leases are classified as operating leases.
2.6.1 The Company as less or
Amounts due from lessees under finance leases are recognized as receivables at the amount of the Company''''s net investment in the leases. Finance lease income is allocated to accounting periods so as to reflect a constant periodic rate of return on the Company''''s net investment outstanding in respect of the leases.
Rental income from operating leases is generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating and arranging an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
2.6.2 The Company as lessee
Assets held under finance leases are initially recognized as assets of the Company at their fair value at the inception of the lease or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. The corresponding liability to the less or is included in the standalone balance sheet as a finance lease obligation.
Lease payments are apportioned between finance expenses and reduction of the lease obligation so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance expenses are recognized immediately in statement of profit and loss, unless they are directly attributable to qualifying assets, in which case they are capitalized in accordance with the Company''''s general policy on borrowing costs (see note 2.8 below). Contingent rentals are recognized as expenses in the periods in which they are incurred.
Rental expense from operating leases is generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Where the rentals are structured solely to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the less or’s expected inflationary cost increases, such increases are recognized in the year in which such benefits accrue. Contingent rentals arising under operating leases are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.
In the event that lease incentives are received to enter into operating leases, such incentives are recognized as a liability. The aggregate benefit of incentives is recognized as a reduction of rental expense on a straight-line basis, except where another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which economic benefits from the leased asset are consumed.
2.7 Foreign currencies transactions and translation
The functional currency of the Company is the Indian Rupee ('''' ).
Transactions in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the functional currency closing rates of exchange at the reporting date.
Exchange differences arising on settlement or translation of monetary items are recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss except to the extent of exchange differences which are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs on foreign currency borrowings that are directly attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets, are capitalized as cost of assets.
Non-monetary assets and liabilities that are measured in terms of historical cost in foreign currencies are not retranslated. Income and expense items in foreign currency are translated at the average exchange rates for the period, unless exchange rates fluctuate significantly during that period, in which case the exchange rates at the dates of the transactions are used.
2.8 Borrowing costs
Borrowing costs include:
(i) interest expense calculated using the effective interest rate method,
(ii) finance charges in respect of finance leases, and
(iii) exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent that they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs.
Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, which are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale, are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use or sale.
I nterest income earned on the temporary investment of specific borrowings pending their expenditure on qualifying assets is deducted from the borrowing costs eligible for capitalization.
All other borrowing costs are recognized in statement of profit and loss in the period in which they are incurred.
2.9 Employee benefits
2.9.1 Retirement benefit costs and termination benefits
Payments to defined contribution retirement benefit plans are recognized as an expense when employees have rendered service entitling them to the contributions.
For defined benefit retirement plans, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at the end of each annual reporting period. Remeasurement, comprising actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the changes to the asset ceiling (if applicable) and the return on plan assets (excluding net interest), is reflected immediately in the balance sheet with a charge or credit recognized in other comprehensive income in the period in which they occur. Remeasurement recognized in other comprehensive income is reflected immediately in retained earnings and is not reclassified to statement of profit and loss. Past service cost is recognized in statement of profit and loss in the period of a plan amendment. Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate at the beginning of the period to the net defined benefit liability or asset. Defined benefit costs are categorised as follows:
- service cost (including current service cost, past service cost, as well as gains and losses on curtailments and settlements);
- net interest expense or income; and
The Company presents the first two components of defined benefit costs in statement of profit and loss in the line item ''''Employee benefit expense''''. Curtailment gains and losses are accounted for as past service costs.
The retirement benefit obligation recognized in the standalone balance sheet represents the actual deficit or surplus in the Company''''s defined benefit plans. Any surplus resulting from this calculation is limited to the present value of any economic benefits available in the form of refunds from the plans or reductions in future contributions to the plans.
A liability for a termination benefit is recognized at the earlier of when the entity can no longer withdraw the offer of the termination benefit and when the entity recognizes any related restructuring costs.
2.9.2 Defined contribution plan
Contribution to defined contribution plans are recognized as expense when employees have rendered services entitling them to such benefits.
2.9.3 Compensated absences
Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related services are recognized at an actuarially determined liability at the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the Balance sheet date. In respect of compensated absences expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related services, liability for short-term employee benefits is measured at the undiscounted amount of the benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the related service.
2.9.4 Long term Incentive Plans
Under the Plan, certain employees are eligible for retention and performance linked payouts. These payouts are accrued as and when services are rendered and/ or when the specific performance criteria are met.
2.10 Share-based payment arrangements
2.10.1Share-based payment transactions of the Company
Equity-settled share-based payments to employees and others providing similar services are measured at the fair value of the equity instruments at the grant date.
The fair value determined at the grant date of the equity-settled share-based payments is expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, based on the Company''''s estimate of equity instruments that will eventually vest, with a corresponding increase in equity. At the end of each reporting period, the Company revises its estimate of the number of equity instruments expected to vest. The impact of the revision of the original estimates, if any, is recognized in statement of profit and loss such that the cumulative expense reflects the revised estimate, with a corresponding adjustment to the equity-settled employee benefits reserve.
2.10.2 Share-based payment transactions of the acquiree in a business combination
When the share-based payment awards held by the employees of an acquiree (acquiree awards) are replaced by the Company''''s share-based payment awards (replacement awards), both the acquiree awards and the replacement awards are measured in accordance with Ind AS 102 ("market-based measure") at the acquisition date. The portion of the replacement awards that is included in measuring the consideration transferred in a business combination equals the market-based measure of the acquiree awards multiplied by the ratio of the portion of the vesting period completed to the greater of the total vesting period or the original vesting period of the acquiree award. The excess of the market-based measure of the replacement awards over the market-based measure of the acquiree awards included in measuring the consideration transferred is recognized as remuneration cost for post-combination service.
However, when the acquiree awards expire as a consequence of a business combination and the Company replaces those awards when it does not have an obligation to do so, the replacement awards are measured at their market-based measure in accordance with Ind AS 102. All of the market-based measure of the replacement awards is recognized as remuneration cost for post-combination service.
Income tax expense represents the sum of the tax currently payable and deferred tax.
2.11.1 Current tax
The tax currently payable is based on taxable profit for the year. Taxable profit differs from ''''profit before tax'''' as reported in the standalone statement of profit and loss because of items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and items that are never taxable or deductible. The Company''''s current tax is calculated using tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.
2.11.2 Deferred tax
Deferred tax is recognized on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the standalone financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognized for all taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are generally recognized for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which those deductible temporary differences can be utilized. Such deferred tax assets and liabilities are not recognized if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the taxable profit nor the accounting profit. In addition, deferred tax liabilities are not recognized if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of goodwill.
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.
Deferred tax liabilities and assets are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period in which the liability is settled or the asset realized, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.
The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and assets reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the end of the reporting period, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.
Deferred tax assets include Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws in India, which is likely to give future economic benefits in the form of availability of set-off against future tax liability. Accordingly, MAT is recognized as deferred tax asset in the Balance sheet when the asset can be measured reliably and it is probable that the future economic benefit associated with the asset will be realised.
2.11.3 Current and deferred tax for the year
Current and deferred tax are recognized in statement of profit and loss, except when they relate to items that are recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case, the current and deferred tax are also recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity respectively. Where current tax or deferred tax arises from the initial accounting for a business combination, the tax effect is included in the accounting for the business combination.
2.12 Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment held for use in the production or supply of goods or services, or for administrative purposes, are stated in the balance sheet at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses.
Properties in the course of construction for production, supply or administrative purposes are carried at cost, less any recognized impairment loss. Cost includes professional fees and, for qualifying assets, borrowing costs capitalized in accordance with the Company''''s accounting policy. Such properties are classified to the appropriate categories of property, plant and equipment when completed and ready for intended use. Depreciation of these assets, on the same basis as other property assets, commences when the assets are ready for their intended use. Freehold land is not depreciated.
The non refundable payments made with respect to Land taken on finance lease (where there is an option to purchase the same at the end of the lease period) is classified under Property, plant and Equipment as "Lease hold Land".
Depreciation is recognized so as to write off the cost of assets (other than freehold land and properties under construction) less their residual values over their useful lives, using the straight-line method. The estimated useful lives, residual values and depreciation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate accounted for on a prospective basis.
Assets held under finance leases are depreciated over their expected useful lives on the same basis as owned assets. However, when there is no reasonable certainty that ownership will be obtained by the end of the lease term, assets are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and their useful lives.
Depreciation on tangible fixed assets has been provided on the straight-line method as per the useful life prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 except in respect of the following categories of assets, in whose case the life of the assets has been assessed to be different and are as under based on technical advice, taking into account the nature of the asset, the estimated usage of the asset, the operating conditions of the asset, past history of replacement, anticipated technological changes, manufacturers warranties and maintenance support, etc.:
Dies and punches : 4 years
Mobiles phone : 3 years
Certain factory buildings : 18 years
Individual assets costing less than '''' 5,000 are depreciated in full in the year of purchase.
An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of the asset. Any gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an item of property, plant and equipment is determined as the difference between the sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognized in statement of profit and loss.
When an item of property, plant and equipment is acquired in exchange for a non-monetary asset or assets, or a combination of monetary and nonmonetary assets, the cost of that item is measured at fair value (even if the entity cannot immediately derecognize the asset given up) unless the exchange transaction lacks commercial substance or the fair value of neither the asset received nor the asset given up is reliably measurable. If the acquired item is not measured at fair value, its cost is measured at the carrying amount of the asset given up.
For transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its property, plant and equipment recognized as at April 1, 2015 (transition date) measured as per the previous GAAP and use that carrying value as its deemed cost as of the transition date.
2.13 Investment property
Properties that is held for long-term rentals or for capital appreciation or both, and that is not occupied by the Company, is classified as investment property. Investment property is measured initially at its cost, including related transaction costs and where applicable borrowing costs. Subsequent expenditure is capitalized to the asset''''s carrying amount only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. All other repairs and maintenance costs are expensed when incurred. When part of the investment property is replaced, the carrying amount of the replaced part is derecognized.
Investment property are depreciated using the straight line method over their estimated useful lives. Investment properties generally have a useful life of 25-40 years. The useful life has been determined based on technical evaluation performed by the management''''s expert.
For transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of its investment property recognized as at April 1, 2015 (transition date) measured as per the previous GAAP and use that carrying value as the deemed cost of investment properties as of the transition date.
2.14 Intangible assets
2.14.1Intangible assets acquired separately
Intangible assets with finite useful lives that are acquired separately are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses. Amortization is recognized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. The estimated useful life and amortization method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate being accounted for on a prospective basis. Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives that are acquired separately are carried at cost less accumulated impairment losses.
2.14.2Internally-generated intangible assets - research and development expenditure
Expenditure on research activities is recognized as an expense in the period in which it is incurred.
An internally-generated intangible asset arising from development (or from the development phase of an internal project) is recognized if, and only if, all of the following have been demonstrated:
- the technical feasibility of completing the intangible asset so that it will be available for use or sale;
- the intention to complete the intangible asset and use or sell it;
- the ability to use or sell the intangible asset;
- how the intangible asset will generate probable future economic benefits;
- the availability of adequate technical, financial and other resources to complete the development and to use or sell the intangible asset; and
- the ability to measure reliably the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset during its development.
The amount initially recognized for internally-generated intangible assets is the sum of the expenditure incurred from the date when the intangible asset first meets the recognition criteria listed above. Where no internally-generated intangible asset can be recognized, development expenditure is recognized in statement of profit and loss in the period in which it is incurred.
Subsequent to initial recognition, internally-generated intangible assets are reported at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, on the same basis as intangible assets that are acquired separately.
2.14.3Intangible assets acquired in a business combination
Intangible assets acquired in a business combination and recognized separately from goodwill are initially recognized at their fair value at the acquisition date (which is regarded as their cost).
Subsequent to initial recognition, intangible assets acquired in a business combination are reported at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, on the same basis as intangible assets that are acquired separately.
2.14.4Derecognition of intangible assets
An intangible asset is derecognized on disposal, or when no future economic benefits are expected from use or disposal. Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset, measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset, are recognized in statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.
2.14.5Useful lives of intangible assets
Intangible assets are amortized over their estimated useful life on straight line method as follows:
Registration and Brands : 10 years to 25 years Software Licenses : 5 years
2.14.6Deemed cost on transition to Ind AS
For transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its intangible assets recognized as at April 1, 2015 (transition date) measured as per the previous GAAP and use that carrying value as its deemed cost as of the transition date.
2.15 Impairment of assets
2.15.1 Impairment of financial assets:
The Company assesses at each date of balance sheet, whether a financial asset or a group of financial assets is impaired. Ind AS 109 requires expected credit losses to be measured through a loss allowance. The Company recognizes lifetime expected losses for all contract assets and / or all trade receivables that do not constitute a financing transaction. For all other financial assets, expected credit losses are measured at an amount equal to the twelve-month expected credit losses or at an amount equal to the life time expected credit losses if the credit risk on the financial asset has increased significantly, since initial recognition.
2.15.2Impairment of investment in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures
The Company reviews its carrying value of investments in subsidiaries at cost, annually, or more frequently when there is an indication for impairment. If the recoverable amount is less than its carrying amount, the impairment loss is accounted for.
2.15.3Impairment of goodwill
Refer note 2.4.
2.15.4Impairment of non-financial assets other than goodwill
At the end of each reporting period, the Company reviews the carrying amounts of its tangible and intangible assets to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss (if any). When it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of an individual asset, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs. When a reasonable and consistent basis of allocation can be identified, corporate assets are also allocated to individual cash-generating units, or otherwise they are allocated to the smallest group of cash-generating units for which a reasonable and consistent allocation basis can be identified.
Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives and intangible assets not yet available for use are tested for impairment at least annually, and whenever there is an indication that the asset may be impaired.
Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted.
If the recoverable amount of an asset (or cash-generating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset (or cash-generating unit) is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognized immediately in statement of profit and loss.
When an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset (or a cash-generating unit) is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, but so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset (or cash-generating unit) in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognized immediately in statement of profit and loss.
Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and the net realizable value after providing for obsolescence and other losses, where considered necessary. Cost includes all charges in bringing the goods to the point of sale, including octroi and other levies, transit insurance and receiving charges. Work-in-progress and finished goods include appropriate proportion of overheads and, where applicable, excise duty. Cost is determined as follows:
Raw materials, packing materials and consumables: weighted average basis
Work-in progress: at material cost and an appropriate share of production overheads
Finished goods: material cost and an appropriate share of production overheads and excise duty, wherever applicable
Stock-in trade: weighted average basis
Provisions are recognized when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that the Company will be required to settle the obligation, and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.
The amount recognized as a provision is the best estimate of the consideration required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period, taking into account the risks and uncertainties surrounding the obligation. When a provision is measured using the cash flows estimated to settle the present obligation, its carrying amount is the present value of those cash flows (when the effect of the time value of money is material).
When some or all of the economic benefits required to settle a provision are expected to be recovered from a third party, a receivable is recognized as an asset if it is virtually certain that reimbursement will be received and the amount of the receivable can be measured reliably.
Present obligations arising under onerous contracts are recognized and measured as provisions. An onerous contract is considered to exist where the Company has a contract under which the unavoidable costs of meeting the obligations under the contract exceed the economic benefits expected to be received from the contract.
A restructuring provision is recognized when the Company has developed a detailed formal plan for the restructuring and has raised a valid expectation in those affected that it will carry out the restructuring by starting to implement the plan or announcing its main features to those affected by it. The measurement of a restructuring provision includes only the direct expenditures arising from the restructuring, which are those amounts that are both necessarily entailed by the restructuring and not associated with the ongoing activities of the entity.
Contingent liabilities are disclosed in notes when there is a possible obligation that arises from past events and whose existence will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the entity.
Provision is made for the amount of any dividend declared, being appropriately authorized and no longer at the discretion of the entity, on or before the end of the reporting period but not distributed at the end of the reporting period.
2.18 Financial instruments
2.18.1Investment in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures
The Company has accounted for its investments in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures at cost less impairment.
2.18.2Other financial assets and financial liabilities
Other financial assets and financial liabilities are recognized when Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instruments.
Initial recognition and measurement:
Other financial assets and financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value of the financial assets or financial liabilities, as appropriate, on initial recognition. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are recognized immediately in statement of profit and loss.
Financial assets at amortized cost
Financial assets are subsequently measured at amortized cost if these financial assets are held within a business whose objective is to hold these assets in order to collect contractual cash flows and contractual terms of financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
Financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income
Financial assets are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income if these financial assets are held within business whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows on specified dates that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding and selling financial assets.
Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss
Financial assets are measured at fair value through profit or loss unless it measured at amortized cost or fair value through other comprehensive income on initial recognition. The transaction cost directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets and liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are immediately recognized in the statement of profit and loss.
Financial liabilities are measured at amortized cost using effective interest rate method. For trade and other payables maturing within one year from the balance sheet date, the carrying amounts approximate fair value due to the short maturity of these instruments.
An equity instrument is a contract that evidences residual interest in the assets of the company after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments recognized by the Company are recognized at the proceeds received net off direct issue cost.
2.18.4Financial guarantee contracts
The Company enters into financial guarantee contracts with its subsidiaries. At the inception of a financial guarantee contract, a liability is recognized initially at fair value and then subsequently at the higher of the estimated loss and amortized cost, the changes in subsequent measurement being recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Where a guarantee is issued for a consideration, a financial asset of an amount equal to the liability is initially recognized at amortized cost. Where a guarantee is issued for no consideration, the fair value is recognized as additional investment in the entity to which the guarantee relates
2.18.5Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting
The Company uses various derivative financial instruments such as interest rate swaps, currency swaps and forward contracts to mitigate the risk of changes in interest rates and foreign exchange rates. Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognized
at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are also subsequently measured at fair value. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.
Any gains or losses arising from changes in the fair value of derivatives are taken directly to the Statement of Profit and Loss, except for the effective portion of cash flow hedges which is recognized in Other Comprehensive Income and later to the Statement of Profit and Loss when the hedged item affects profit or loss or treated as basis adjustment if a hedged forecast transaction subsequently results in the recognition of a non-financial assets or non-financial liability.
Hedges that meet the criteria for hedge accounting are accounted for as follows:
a) Cash flow hedge
The Company designates derivative contracts or non derivative financial assets / liabilities as hedging instruments to mitigate the risk of movement in interest rates and foreign exchange rates for foreign exchange exposure on highly probable future cash flows attributable to a recognized asset or liability or forecast cash transactions. When a derivative is designated as a cash flow hedging instrument, the effective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative is recognized in the cash flow hedging reserve being part of other comprehensive income. Any ineffective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative is recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss. If the hedging relationship no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, then hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively. If the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, the cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognized in cash flow hedging reserve till the period the hedge was effective remains in cash flow hedging reserve until the underlying transaction occurs. The cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in the cash flow hedging reserve is transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss upon the occurrence of the underlying transaction. If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, then the amount accumulated in cash flow hedging reserve is reclassified in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
b) Fair value hedge
The Company designates derivative contracts or non derivative financial assets / liabilities as hedging instruments to mitigate the risk of change in fair value of hedged item due to movement in interest rates, foreign exchange rates and commodity prices.
Changes in the fair value of hedging instruments and hedged items that are designated and qualify as fair value hedges are recorded in the Statement of Profit and Loss. If the hedging relationship no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, the adjustment to the carrying amount of a hedged item for which the effective interest method is used is amortized to Statement of Profit and Loss over the period of maturity.
2.19 Exceptional items
The Company classifies the following as exceptional items in the Statement of Profit and Loss:
(a) Exchange gain / loss arising on account of restatement and settlement of long-term foreign currency loans;
(b) Profit / loss on disposal of non-current investments and / or dividends received from proceeds of such disposal and provision for / reversals of provision for diminution in noncurrent investments, goodwill and other assets;
(c) Profit / loss arising on account of discontinuance of products / development activities; and
(d) Restructuring cost
2.20 Service Tax Input credit
Service tax input credit is accounted for in the books in the period in which the underlying service received is accounted and when there is no uncertainty in availing / utilizing the credits.
2.21 Operating Cycle
As mentioned in para 1 above under ''''Corporate information'''', the Company is into development and manufacture of pharmaceutical products. Based on the normal time between acquisition of assets and their realization in cash or cash equivalents, the Company has determined its operating cycle as 3 years to 5 years and 12 months relating to research and development activities and manufacturing of pharmaceutical products respectively. The above basis is used for classifying the assets and liabilities into current and non-current as the case may be.
2.22 Key sources of estimation uncertainty
In the application of the Company''''s accounting policies, the directors of the Company are required to make judgments, estimates and assumptions about the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. The estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and other factors that are considered to be relevant. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision affects only that period, or in the period of the revision and future periods if the revision affects both current and future periods.
The following are the key assumptions concerning the future, and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the end of the reporting period that may have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year.
2.22.1Impairment of non-financial assets
Determining whether the asset is impaired requires to assess the recoverable amount of the asset or Cash Generating Unit (CGU) which is compared to the carrying amount of the asset or CGU, as applicable. Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. Where the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds the recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount.
The value in use calculation requires the directors to estimate the future cash flows expected to arise from the cash-generating unit and a suitable discount rate in order to calculate present value. Where the actual future cash flows are less than expected, a material impairment loss may arise.
2.22.2Impairment of financial assets
The impairment provisions for financial assets are based on assumptions about risk of default and expected cash loss rates. The Company uses judgement in making these assumptions and selecting the inputs to the impairment calculation, based on Company''''s past history, existing market conditions as well as forward looking estimates at the end of each reporting period.
2.22.3 Useful lives of property, plant and equipment
The Company reviews the useful life of property, plant and equipment at the end of each reporting period. This assessment may result in change in the depreciation expense in future periods.
2.22.4 Employee Benefits
The cost of defined benefit plans are determined using actuarial valuations. The actuarial valuation involves making assumptions about discount rates, expected rates of return on assets, future salary increases, mortality rates and future pension increases. Due to the long-term nature of these plans, such estimates are subject to significant uncertainty.
2.22.5 Share Based Compensation to Employees
The Company has granted share based payment plans to its employees. Valuation models are used to calculate the expense for such share-based compensation to employees. These models require a number of assumptions to be made as input. These include financial assumptions as well as various assumptions around individual employee behavior.
As explained in note 39.1, the Company is a party to certain commercial disputes and has also received notification of claims for significant amounts. There are number of factors that may affect the ultimate outcome in respect of this matter and accordingly, it is difficult to assess the impact of these disputes with accuracy.
2.23 Standards / amendments not yet effective
In March 2017, the Ministry of Corporate affairs issued the Companies (Indian Accounting standards) (Amendments) Rules, 2017, notifying amendments to Ind AS 7 "Statement of Cash flows" and Ind AS 102 "Share Based Payments". The said amendments are effective from April 1, 2017. Among the said amendments, only the amendment to Ind AS 7 "Statement of cash flows" is relevant to the company.
Amendment to Ind AS 7:
The amendment to Ind AS 7 requires the entities to provide disclosures that enable users of financial statements to evaluate the changes in liabilities arising from financing activities, including both changes arising from cash flows and non cash flows. The said amendment suggests inclusion of reconciliation of closing balance of liabilities arising from finance activities, to meet the disclosure requirement. The effect on the financial statements is being evaluated by the company.