1 CORPORATE INFORMATION, SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING JUDGEMENTS, ESTIMATES AND ASSUMPTIONS
A CORPORATE INFORMATION
“SRF Limited (“the Company”) is a public limited company domiciled in India and incorporated under the provisions of companies Act, 2013 (“the 2013 Act”). The Company’s equity shares are listed at the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and the National Stock Exchange (NSE). The registered office of the Company is situated at C-8, Commercial Complex, Safdarjung Development Area, New Delhi - 110 016. The Company’s parent and ultimate holding company is KAMA Holdings Limited.
The principal activities of the Company are manufacturing, purchase and sale of technical textiles, chemicals & polymers and packaging films.
The financial statements were approved for issue in accordance with a resolution of the directors on May 22, 2017.”
B SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
1 Statement of compliance
The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under the Section 133 of the 2013 Act read with the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 and other relevant provisions of the 2013 Act.
Up to the year ended March 31, 2016, the Company prepared the financial statements in accordance with the requirements of previous GAAP, which includes standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 and other relevant provisions of the 2013 Act.
These are the Company’s first Ind AS financial statements. The date of transition to the Ind AS is April 1, 2015. Refer Note 39 for details of first-time adoption exceptions and exemptions availed by the Company.
2 Basis of preparation
The financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost convention on accrual basis except for certain financial instruments which are measured at fair value at the end of each reporting period, as explained in the accounting policies mentioned below.
Historical cost is generally based on the fair value of the consideration given in exchange of goods or services.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date, regardless of whether that price is directly observable or estimated using another valuation technique.
The principal accounting policies are set out below.
All assets and liabilities have been classified as current or non-current according to the Company’s operating cycle and other criteria set out in the Act. Based on the nature of products and the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash and cash equivalents, the Company has ascertained its operating cycle as twelve months.
3 Property, plant and equipment (PPE)
“Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.
All Items of Property plant and equipment have been measured at fair value at the date of transition to Ind AS. The Company have opted such fair valuation as deemed cost at the transition date i.e. April 1, 2015.
Cost of acquisition or construction is inclusive of freight, duties, relevant taxes, incidental expenses and interest on loans attributable to the acquisition of qualifying assets, up to the date of commissioning of the assets.
Such cost includes the cost of replacing part of the plant and equipment and borrowing costs for qualifying assets, up to the date of commissioning of the assets.
Likewise, when a major inspection for faults is performed, its cost is recognized in the carrying amount of the plant and equipment as a replacement if the recognition criteria is satisfied. All other repair and maintenance costs are recognized in profit or loss as incurred.
Assets are classified to the appropriate categories of property, plant and equipment when completed and ready for intended use.
Capital Work in Progress: Project under which assets are not yet ready for their intended use are carried at cost comprising direct cost, related incidental expenses and attributable interest. Spare parts are capitalized when they meet the definition of PPE, i.e., when the Company intends to use these during more than a period of 12 months. of property plant and equipment is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Any gain or loss arising on derecognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset) is included in the income statement when the asset is derecognized.
The estimated useful lives and methods of depreciation of property, plant and equipment are reviewed at each financial year end and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.
5 Intangible Assets
Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost.
Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less any accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Internally generated intangibles, excluding capitalized development costs, are not capitalized and the related expenditure is reflected in profit or loss in the period in which the expenditure is incurred.
Freehold land is not depreciated Depreciation is calculated on a pro rata basis except that, assets costing up to Rs, 5,000 each are fully depreciated in the year of purchase
An item of property, plant and equipment or any significant part initially recognized of such item
The Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its intangibles assets recognized as on April 1, 2015 measured as per the previous GAAP and use that carrying value as its deemed cost as of transition date.
The amortization period and the amortization method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at least at the end of each reporting period. Changes in the expected useful life or the expected pattern of consumption of future economic benefits embodied in the asset are considered to modify the amortization period or method, as appropriate, and are treated as changes in accounting estimates. The amortization expense on intangible assets with finite lives is recognized in the statement of profit and loss unless such expenditure forms part of carrying value of another asset.
An intangible asset is derecognized on disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from use or disposal. Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit or loss when the asset is derecognized.
6 Research and development expenditure
Expenditure on research and development of products is included under the natural heads of expenditure in the year in which it is incurred except which relate to development activities whereby research findings are applied to a plan or design for the production of new or substantially improved products and processes.
Such costs are capitalized if they can be reliably measured, the product or process is technically and commercially feasible and the Company has sufficient resources to complete the development and to use or sell the asset.
Following initial recognition of the development expenditure as an asset, the asset is carried at cost less any accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Amortization of the asset begins when development is complete and the asset is available for use. It is amortized over the period of expected future benefit. Amortization expense is recognized in the statement of profit and loss unless such expenditure forms part of carrying value of another asset. During the period of development, the asset is tested for impairment annually.
Goodwill arising on an acquisition of a business is carried at cost as established at the date of acquisition of the business less accumulated impairment losses, if any.
For the purposes of impairment testing, goodwill is allocated to each of the Company’s cash-generating units (or Company’s of cash-generating units) that is expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination.
A cash-generating unit to which goodwill has been allocated is tested for impairment annually, or more frequently when there is an indication that the unit may be impaired. If the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit is less than its carrying amount, the impairment loss is allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the unit and then to the other assets of the unit pro rata based on the carrying amount of each asset in the unit. Any impairment loss for goodwill is recognized directly in profit or loss. An impairment loss recognized for goodwill is not reversed in subsequent periods On disposal of the relevant cash-generating unit, the attributable amount of goodwill is included in the determination of the profit or loss on disposal.
8 Impairment of tangible and intangible assets other than goodwill
As at each balance sheet date, the carrying amount of cash generating units / assets is tested for impairment so as to determine:
(a) the provision for impairment loss, if any, required;
The Company assesses, at each reporting date, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset’s recoverable amount. An asset’s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s or cash-generating unit’s (CGU) fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use.
Impairment loss is recognized when the carrying amount of an asset exceeds recoverable amount.
In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining fair value less costs of disposal, recent market transactions are taken into account. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used. These calculations are corroborated by valuation multiples or other available fair value indicators.
The Company bases its impairment calculation on detailed budgets and forecast calculations, which are prepared separately for each of the Company’s CGUs to which the individual assets are allocated. These budgets and forecast calculations generally cover a period of 5 years. For longer periods, a long-term growth rate is calculated and applied to project future cash flows after 5th year. To estimate cash flow projections beyond periods covered by the most recent budgets/forecasts, Company extrapolates cash flow projections in the budget using a steady or declining growth rate for subsequent years, unless an increasing rate can be justified.
(b) the reversal, if any, required of impairment loss recognized in previous periods.
For assets excluding goodwill, an assessment is made at each reporting date to determine whether there is an indication that previously recognized impairment losses no longer exist or have decreased.
If such indication exists, the Company estimates the asset’s or CGU''''s recoverable amount. A previously recognized impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset’s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years.
Company as a lessee
A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the
Company is classified as a finance lease. The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfillment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.
Operating Leases as lessee:
Lease rental expenses from operating leases is generally recognized on a straight line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Where the rentals are structured solely to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the less or’s expected inflationary cost increases, such increases are recognized in the year in which such benefits accrue. Contingent rentals arising under operating leases are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.
Finance leases as lessee:
Assets held under finance lease are initially recognized as assets at the fair value at the inception of lease or at the present value of the minimum lease payments, whichever is lower. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognized in finance costs in the statement of profit and loss, unless they are directly attributable to qualifying assets, in which case they are capitalized in accordance with the Company’s general policy on the borrowing cost.
A leased asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term.
10. Borrowing costs
Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs that an entity incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing cost also includes exchange differences to the extent regarded as an adjustment to the borrowing costs.
Borrowing costs, allocated to and utilized for qualifying assets, pertaining to the period from commencement of activities relating to construction/development of the qualifying asset up to the date of capitalization of such asset is added to the cost of the assets.
Interest income earned on temporary investment of specific borrowing pending expenditure on qualifying asset is deducted from the borrowing costs eligible for capitalization. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they occur.
11 Foreign Currencies
a) Functional and presentation currency
Items included in the financial statements are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (‘the functional currency’). The financial statements are presented in Indian Rupee (INR/ ''''), which is the Company’s functional and presentation currency.
b) Transaction and balances
Transactions in foreign currencies are recorded on initial recognition at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction.
(i) Any gains or losses arising due to differences in exchange rates at the time of translation or settlement are accounted for in the Statement of Profit & Loss either under the head foreign exchange fluctuation or interest cost, as the case may be, except those relating to long-term foreign currency monetary items.
(ii) Exchange differences pertaining to long term foreign currency loans obtained or re-financed on or before March 31, 2016: Exchange differences on long-term foreign currency monetary items relating to acquisition of depreciable assets are adjusted to the carrying cost of the assets and depreciated over the balance useful life of the assets.
(iii) Exchange differences pertaining to long term foreign currency loans obtained or re-financed on or after April 1 , 201 6 The exchange differences pertaining to long term foreign currency loans obtained or refinanced on or after April 1, 2016 is charged off or credited to profit & loss account.
“Inventories are valued at cost or net realizable value, whichever is lower. The basis of determining the cost for various categories of inventory are as follows:
(a) Raw materials and stores & spares - Cost includes cost of purchase and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost is determined on weighted average basis.
(b) Stock in trade, Stock in process and finished goods- Direct cost plus appropriate share of overheads and excise duty, wherever applicable
(c) By products - At estimated realizable value Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
13 Provisions and Contingent Liabilities Provisions
The Company recognized a provision when there is a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of past events and it is more likely than not that an outflow of resources would be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made.
When the Company expects some or all of a provision to be reimbursed, for example, under an insurance contract, the reimbursement is recognized as a separate asset, but only when the reimbursement is virtually certain.
The expense relating to a provision is presented in the statement of profit and loss net of any reimbursement.
If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pretax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognized as a finance cost.
A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. Where there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.
14 Revenue recognition
a) Sale of goods
Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured, regardless of when the payment is being made. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes or duties collected on behalf of the government.
Sales of products is inclusive of excise duty and net of value added tax / sales tax. Revenue is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the customer, recovery of the consideration is probable, the associated costs can be estimated reliably, there is no continuing management involvement with the goods nor it exercises effective control over the goods and the amount of revenue can be measured reliably. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of returns and allowances, trade discounts and volume rebates and cash discount. The timing of the transfer of risks and rewards varies depending on the individual terms of the sales arrangements.
b) Interest and dividend income
Interest income is recognized when it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company using the effective interest rate and the amount of income can be measured reliably. Interest income is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding.
Dividend income from investments is recognized when the shareholder’s right to receive payment has been established (provided that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably).
Income tax expense represents the sum of the tax currently payable and deferred tax.
a) Current tax
Current income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date. Current income tax relating to items recognized outside profit or loss is recognized outside profit or loss i.e. in other comprehensive income. Management periodically evaluates positions taken in the tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulations are subject to interpretation and establishes provisions where appropriate.
b) Deferred tax
Deferred tax is provided on temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts at the reporting date. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted as at the reporting date. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if such items relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing tax laws and the Company has a legally enforceable right for such set off. The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be utilized.
Unrecognized deferred tax assets are reassessed at each reporting date and are recognized to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered. Deferred tax relating to items recognized outside profit or loss is recognized outside profit or loss i.e. in other comprehensive income.
Deferred tax assets/liabilities are recognized for all taxable temporary differences, except:
(i) At the time of initial recognition of goodwill;
(ii) Initial recognition of assets or liabilities (other than in a business combination) at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss; Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that it is probable that the temporary differences will reverse in the foreseeable future and taxable profit will be available against which the temporary differences can be utilized.
c) Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT)
Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives future economic benefits in the form of adjustment to future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax. Accordingly, MAT asset is recognized in the Balance Sheet when it is probable that future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company.
16 Government grants
Government grants are recognized where there is reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and all attached conditions will be complied with.
A government grant that becomes receivable as compensation for expenses or losses incurred in a previous period. Such a grant is recognized in profit or loss of the period in which it becomes receivable.
Government grants shall be recognized in profit or loss on a systematic basis over the periods in which the Company recognizes as expenses the related costs for which the grants are intended to compensate.
Government grants related to assets are presented in the balance sheet as deferred income and is recognized in profit or loss on a systematic basis over the expected useful life of the related assets.
17 Employee benefits
Wages and salaries including non monetary benefits that are expected to be settled within the operating cycle after the end of the period in which the related services are rendered and are measured at the undiscounted amount expected to be paid.
In case of provident fund administered through Regional Provident Fund Commissioner, the Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the provident fund. The Company recognizes contribution payable to the provident fund scheme as an expense, when an employee renders the related service. The Company’s contributions paid / payable during the year to provident fund administered through Regional Provident Fund Commissioner, Superannuation Fund and Employees’ State Insurance Corporation are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss as an expense when employees have rendered services entitling them to contributions. Provision for gratuity, compensated absences, provident fund for certain category of employees administered through a recognized provident fund trust and long term retention pay are determined on an actuarial basis at the end of the year and charged to Statement of Profit and Loss. The cost of providing these benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method.
Remeasurements, comprising of actuarial gains and losses and the effect of the asset ceiling, (excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability and return on plan assets), are recognized immediately in the balance sheet with a corresponding debit or credit to retained earnings through other comprehensive income in the period in which they occur. It is included in retained earnings in the statement of changes in equity and in the balance sheet.
18 Earning Per Share
Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.
For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year is adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.
19 Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalent in the balance sheet comprise cash at banks and on hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.
20 Financial instruments
A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.
A) Financial assets
Initial recognition and measurement All financial assets are recognized initially at fair value plus transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset.
For purposes of subsequent measurement, financial assets of the Company are classified in three categories:
a) At amortized cost
b) At fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL)
c) At fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)
Financial Asset is measured at amortized cost if both the following conditions are met:
a) The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and
b) Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.
After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortized cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortization is included in finance income in the profit or loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognized in the profit or loss. This category generally applies to trade and other receivables.
Equity instruments which are held for trading are measured at fair value through profit or loss.
For all other equity instruments, the Company may make an irrevocable election to present in other comprehensive income subsequent changes in the fair value.
The Company makes such election on an instrument by instrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable. If the Company decides to classify an equity instrument as at FVTOCI, then all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognized in other comprehensive income. This cumulative gain or loss is not reclassified to profit or loss on disposal of such instruments. Financial assets included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the P&L.
Investments representing equity interest in subsidiaries are carried at cost less any provision for impairment.
Investment in mutual funds are measured at fair value through profit or loss.
A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset) is primarily derecognized (i.e. removed from the balance sheet) when:
a) The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or
b) The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ‘pass-through’ arrangement; and either (i) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (ii) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.
When the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into a pass-through arrangement, it evaluates if and to what extent it has retained the risks and rewards of ownership. When it has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the asset, nor transferred control of the asset, the Company continues to recognize the transferred asset to the extent of the Company’s continuing involvement. In that case, the Company also recognizes an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained. Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured at the lower of the original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration that the Company could be required to repay. Impairment of financial assets In accordance with Ind AS 109, the Company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the following financial assets and credit risk exposure:
a) Financial assets that are debt instruments, and are measured at amortized cost e.g., loans, security deposits, trade receivables and bank balance.
The Company follows ‘simplified approach’ for recognition of impairment loss allowance on financial assets that do not contain a significant financing component.
The application of simplified approach does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognises impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition. For recognition of impairment loss on other financial assets and risk exposure, the Company determines that whether there has been a significant increase in the credit risk since initial recognition. If credit risk has not increased significantly, 12-month ECL is used to provide for impairment loss. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, lifetime ECL is used. If, in a subsequent period, credit quality of the instrument improves such that there is no longer a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, then the entity reverts to recognizing impairment loss allowance based on 12-month ECL.
Lifetime ECL are the expected credit losses resulting from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial instrument. The 12-month ECL is a portion of the lifetime ECL which results from default events that are possible within 12 months after the reporting date.
ECL is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the entity expects to receive (i.e., all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original EIR. When estimating the cash flows, an entity is required to consider:
a) All contractual terms of the financial instrument (including prepayment, extension, call and similar options) over the expected life of the financial instrument. However, in rare cases when the expected life of the financial instrument cannot be estimated reliably, then the entity is required to use the remaining contractual term of the financial instrument
b) Cash flows from the sale of collateral held or other credit enhancements that are integral to the contractual terms
At every reporting date, the historical observed default rates are updated and changes in the forward-looking estimates are analyzed. On that basis, the Company estimates the following provision matrix at the reporting date: ECL impairment loss allowance (or reversal) recognized during the period is recognized as income/ expense in the statement of profit and loss (P&L). This amount is reflected under the head ‘other expenses’ in the P&L. The balance sheet presentation for various financial instruments is described below:
a) Financial assets measured as at amortized cost, contractual revenue receivables and lease receivables: ECL is presented as an allowance, i.e., as an integral part of the measurement of those assets in the balance sheet. The allowance reduces the net carrying amount until the asset meets write-off criteria.
B) Financial liabilities and Equity instruments Initial recognition and measurement All financial liabilities are recognized initially at fair value, net of directly attributable transaction costs, if any.
The Company’s financial liabilities includes borrowings, trade and other payables including financial guarantee contracts and derivative financial instruments.
Subsequent measurement Borrowings
Borrowings are subsequently measured at amortized cost. Any differences between the proceeds (net of transaction costs) and the redemption/repayment amount is recognized in profit and loss over the period of the borrowings using the effective interest rate method.
Trade and other payables
Trade and other payables represent liabilities for goods and services provided to the Company prior to the end of the financial year which are unpaid.
Offsetting of financial instruments
Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognized amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realize the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.
Financial guarantee contracts
Financial guarantee contracts issued by the Company are those contracts that require a payment to be made to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because the specified entity fails to make a payment when due in accordance with the terms of a debt instrument. Financial guarantee contracts are recognized initially as a liability at fair value, adjusted for transaction costs that are directly attributable to the issuance of the guarantee. Subsequently, the liability is measured at the higher of the amount of loss allowance determined as per impairment requirements of Ind AS 109 and the amount recognized less cumulative amortization .
A financial liability is derecognized when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognized in the statement of profit or loss.
Equity instruments are any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities.
Debt or equity instruments issued by the Company are classified as either financial liabilities or as equity in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangements and the definitions of a financial liability and an equity instrument.
21 Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting
Initial recognition and subsequent measurement
The Company uses derivative financial instruments, such as forward currency contracts, interest rate swaps to hedge its foreign currency risks and interest rate risks respectively. Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognized at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at fair value. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.
Any gains or losses arising from changes in the fair value of derivatives are taken directly to profit
or loss, except for the effective portion of cash flow hedges, which is recognized in OCI and later reclassified to profit or loss when the hedge item affects profit or loss.
For the purpose of hedge accounting, hedges are classified as:
a) Fair value hedges when hedging the exposure to changes in the fair value of a recognized asset or liability.
b) Cash flow hedges when hedging the exposure to variability in cash flows that is either attributable to a particular risk associated with a recognized asset or liability or a highly probable forecast transaction or the foreign currency risk in an unrecognized firm commitment.
At the inception of a hedge relationship, the Company formally designates and documents the hedge relationship to which the Company wishes to apply hedge accounting and the risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge. The documentation includes the Company’s risk management objective and strategy for undertaking hedge, the hedging/ economic relationship, the hedged item or transaction, the nature of the risk being hedged and how the entity will assess the effectiveness of changes in the hedging instrument’s fair value in offsetting the exposure to changes in the hedged item’s fair value or cash flows attributable to the hedged risk. Such hedges are expected to be highly effective in achieving offsetting changes in fair value or cash flows and are assessed on an ongoing basis to determine that they actually have been highly effective throughout the financial reporting periods for which they were designated.
Hedges that meet the strict criteria for hedge accounting are accounted for, as described below:
Fair value hedges
The change in the fair value of a hedging instrument is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.
The change in the fair value of the hedged item attributable to the risk hedged is recorded as part of the carrying value of the hedged item and is also recognized in the statement of profit and loss .
If the hedged item is derecognized, the unamortized fair value is recognized immediately in profit or loss. When an unrecognized firm commitment is designated as a hedged item, the subsequent cumulative change in the fair value of the firm commitment attributable to the hedged risk is recognized as an asset or liability with a corresponding gain or loss recognized in profit and loss.
Cash flow hedges
The effective portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument is recognized in other comprehensive income in the cash flow hedge reserve, while any ineffective portion is recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.
The Company uses forward currency contracts as hedges of its exposure to foreign currency risk in forecast transactions and firm commitments. The ineffective portion relating to foreign currency contracts is recognized in the statement of profit or loss. Amounts recognized as other comprehensive income are transferred to profit or loss when the hedged transaction affects profit or loss, such as when the hedged financial income or financial expense is recognized or when a forecast sale occurs.
If the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised without replacement or rollover (as part of the hedging strategy), or if its designation as a hedge is revoked, or when the hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, any cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in other comprehensive income remains separately in other equity until the forecast transaction occurs or the foreign currency firm commitment is met.
22 Fair value measurement
The Company measures financial instruments at fair value at each balance sheet date.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:
a) In the principal market for the asset or liability, or
b) In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability
The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the Company. The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest. A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant’s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use. The Company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximizing the use of relevant observable inputs and minimizing the use of unobservable inputs. All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorized within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:
a) Level 1 — Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
b) Level 2 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable
c) Level 3 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable
For assets and liabilities that are recognized in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by reassessing categorization (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.
23 Applicability of New and Revised Ind AS
Ind AS 7 has been amended in March 2017 to require an entity to enable users of financial statements to evaluate changes in liabilities arising from financing activities, including both changes arising from cash flows and non-cash changes. The Company is evaluating the requirements of the amendment and its effect on the financial statements. Further, the amendment to Ind AS 102 provides guidance to measurement of cash settled, modification of cash settled awards and awards that include a net settlement feature in respect of withholding taxes. This amendment is not applicable to the Company.
C. Significant accounting judgments, estimates and assumptions
The preparation of the Company’s financial statements requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities, and the accompanying disclosures. Actual results may differ from the estimates. Uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in outcomes that require a material adjustment to the carrying amount of assets or liabilities affected in future periods. The Company continually evaluates these estimates and assumptions based on the most recently available information. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized prospectively in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which the estimates are revised and in any future periods affected.
(i) Significant accounting judgments
In the process of applying the Company''''s accounting policies, management has made the following judgments, which have the significant effect on the amounts recognized in the financial statements:
(a) Contingent Liabilities
In ordinary course of business, the Company faces claims by various parties. The Company assesses such claims and monitors the legal environment on an ongoing basis, with the assistance of external legal counsel, wherever necessary. The Company records a liability for any claims where a potential loss probable and capable of being estimated and discloses such matters in its financial statements, if material. For potential losses that are considered possible, but not probable, the Company provides disclosures in the financial statements but does not record a liability in its financial statements unless the loss becomes probable.
(ii) Significant estimates and assumptions
The key assumptions concerning the future and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the reporting date, that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year, are described below. Existing circumstances and assumptions about future developments, however, may change due to market changes or circumstances arising that are beyond the control of the Company. Such changes are reflected in the assumptions when they occur.
(a) Defined benefit plans/ Other Long term employee benefits
The cost of the defined benefit plans and other long term employee benefit plans are determined using actuarial valuations. An actuarial valuation involves making various assumptions that may differ from actual developments in the future. These include the determination of the discount rate, future salary increases and mortality rates. Due to the complexities involved in the valuation and its long-term nature, a defined benefit obligation is highly sensitive to changes in these assumptions. All assumptions are reviewed at each reporting date.
The parameter most subject to change is the discount rate. The management considers the interest rates of government securities based on expected settlement period of various plans. Further details about various employee benefit obligations are given in Note 34.
(b) Fair value measurement
When the fair values of financial assets and financial liabilities recorded in the balance sheet cannot be measured based on quoted prices in active markets, their fair value is measured using valuation techniques including the discounted cash flow (DCF) model based on level-2 and level-3 inputs. The inputs to these models are taken from observable markets where possible, but where this is not feasible, a degree of judgment is required in establishing fair values. Judgments include considerations of inputs such as price estimates, volume estimates, rate estimates etc. Changes in assumptions about these factors could affect the reported fair value of financial instruments. Also refer note 38 for further disclosures of estimates and assumptions on fair valuation.
Uncertainties exist with respect to the interpretation of complex tax regulations, changes in tax laws and the amount and timing of future taxable income. The Company establishes provision, based on reasonable estimates. The amount of such provisions is based on various factors such as experience of previous tax audits and differing interpretations of tax regulation by the taxable entity and the responsible tax authority. Such differences in interpretation may arise on a wide variety of issues depending on the conditions prevailing in the respective domicile of the companies.
(d) Useful lives of Property, plant and equipment and Intangible assets
The Company reviews the estimated useful lives at the end of each reporting period limited under a land delivery receipt. During the previous year the Company has sold 1.03 acres of land. Thus, the Company is in possession of 135.46 acres of industrial land at Manali, Chennai.
(iii) Convincing of buildings and other superstructures located at Company’s plant at Malanpur in the state of Madhya Pradesh including immovable machinery is linked to the Stamp duty matter (Refer to note 31).
(iv) Out of the Industrial Free hold land measuring 32.41 acres at the Company’s plant in Gummidipoondi, the Company does not have clear title to 2.43 acres.
(v) Capital expenditure incurred during the year includes '''' 65.27 Crores (2016 - Rs, 22.30 crores) on account of research and development. Depreciation for the year includes depreciation on assets deployed in research and development as per note 40 (a) below.
(vi) Capital work in progress includes pre-operative expenses of Rs, 6.35 crores (2016: 4.21 crores, 2015: 2.15 crores)
(vii) Refer to note 15.1 for information on PPE pledged as security by the Company.
(viii) Refer to note 40 (c)
(ix) Refer to note 31 (e) for information on PPE charged as security by the Company
(x) The Company has opted to use fair value as deemed cost for its PPE for which the fair value of such PPE as on April 1, 2015 is Rs, 2985.78 crores. The carrying amount of such assets as on April 1, 2015 reported under previous GAAP was Rs, 2,936.29 crores
Engineering plastics units
The recoverable amount of this CGU is determined based on a value in use calculation which use cash flow projections based on financial budget approved by the directors of the Company covering a five year period and a discount rate of 10% per annum (2016: 10%, 2015: 10%). Cash flow projections during the budget period are based on the same expected gross margins and raw materials price inflation throughout the budget period. The cash flow beyond the five year period have been extrapolated using Nil (2016: Nil, 2015: Nil) growth rate.
Based on the above impairment testing no impairment losses have been recognized
Industrial yarn unit
The recoverable amount of this CGU is determined based on a value in use calculation which use cash flow projections based on financial budget approved by the directors of the Company covering a five year period and a discount rate of 10% per annum (2016: 10%, 2015: 10%). Cash flow projections during the budget period are based on the same expected gross margins and raw materials price inflation throughout the budget period. The cash flow beyond the five year period have been extrapolated using Nil (2016: Nil, 2015: Nil) growth rate. Based on the above impairment testing no impairment losses have been recognized
proposed by the Board of Directors is subject to the approval of the shareholders in the ensuing Annual General Meeting. The Board may from time to time pay to the members such interim dividends as appear to it to be justified by the profits of the Company.
During the year ended March 31, 2017, the amount of interim dividend recognized as distributions to equity shareholders was Rs, 12 per share (2016 : Rs, 10 per share, 2015: Rs, 10 per share).
In the event of liquidation of the Company, the holders of equity shares will be entitled to receive remaining assets of the Company, after distribution of all preferential amounts. The distribution will be in proportion to the number of equity shares held by the shareholders.
The general reserve is created from time to time on transfer of profits from retained earnings. General reserve is created by transfer from one component of equity to another and is not an item of other comprehensive income, items included in general reserve will not be reclassified subsequently to profit and loss.
The amount that can be distributed as dividend by the Company to its equity shareholders is determined based on the financial statements of the Company and also considering the requirements of the Companies Act, 2013. The amounts reported above are not distributable in entirety.
* net of income tax of Rs, 0.13 crore (2016: Rs, 1.09 crores)
The Cash flow hedge reserve represents the cumulative effective portion of gains or losses arising on changes in fair value of designated portion of hedging instruments entered into for cash flow hedges. The cumulative gain or loss arising on changes in the fair value of the designated portion of the hedging instruments that are recognized and accumulated under the heading of cash flow hedging reserve will be reclassified to profit or loss only when the hedged transaction affects the profit or loss, or included as a basis adjustment to the non-financial hedged item.
Capital Redemption Reserve is a statutory, non-distributable reserve into which amounts are transferred following the redemption or purchase of a company’s own shares.
The Company has issued non-convertible debentures in FY 2014-15 and as per the provisions of the 2013 Act, it is required to create debenture redemption reserve out of the profits of the Company available for payment of dividend.
This reserves represents the cumulative gains and losses arising on the revaluation of equity instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income, net of amount reclassified to retained earnings when those assets have been disposed of.
Includes Nil (As on March 31, 2016 - Nil and As on April 1, 2015 Rs, 50.00 Crores) for Commercial Paper issued by the Company. The maximum amount due during the year is Rs, 125.00 Crores (2015-16 - Rs, 150.00 Crores and 2014-15 Rs, 125.00 Crores)