Notes to the financial statements for the year ended 30 September 2016 (Currency: Indian rupees millions)
Basis of preparation of financial statements
The financial statements are prepared and presented under the historical cost convention, on the accrual basis of accounting except for certain derivative instruments which are measured at fair value in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in India ("Indian GAAP"). The Company has prepared these financial statements to comply in all material respects with the accounting standards notified under section 133 of the Companies Act 2013, read together with paragraph 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules 2014. The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of financial statements are consistent with those of previous year.
1. Significant accounting policies
1.1 Use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Indian GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenue, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of the financial statements. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Any revision to accounting estimates is recognized prospectively in current and future periods.
1.2 Tangible fixed assets and depreciation
Fixed assets are stated at cost of acquisition or revalued amounts less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. The cost of fixed assets includes taxes, duties, freight and other incidental expenses related to the acquisition and installation of the respective assets.
Diagnostics equipments are being treated as traded items of inventory when they are received. However, if these instruments are issued from inventory to customers under placement agreement, these are treated as capital asset in the period of such issue and are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation.
Depreciation on tangible assets is provided on a straight-line basis over the useful lives of assets estimated by the management, taking into account the nature of the asset on technical evaluation of the useful life, which may not necessarily be in alignment with the indicative useful lives prescribed by Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013. Such class of assets and their estimated useful lives are as under:
Items of fixed assets that have been retired from active use and are held for disposal are stated at the lower of their net book value and estimated net realizable value and are disclosed separately in the financial statements.
Capital work-in-progress includes the cost of fixed assets that are not ready to use at the balance sheet date.
1.3 Intangible assets
Intangible assets comprise goodwill, software and technical know-how. Intangible assets are stated at cost of acquisition less accumulated amortization and impairment losses, if any. These intangible assets are amortized on straight-line basis based on the following useful lives, which in management''''s estimate represents the period during which economic benefits will be derived from their use:
Assets Estimated useful lives
Goodwill 3 - 5 years
Software 3 - 5 years
Technical know-how 5 - 10 years
1.4 Impairment of assets
The Company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any indication that an asset or a group of assets (cash generating unit) may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset or cash generating unit.
The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset''''s net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to the present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining net selling price, recent market transactions are taken into account, if available. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used. If such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount. The reduction is treated as an impairment loss and is recognized in the statement of profit and loss. If at the balance sheet date there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reflected at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of depreciable historical cost, had no impairment been recognized.
Investments that are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than a year from the date on which such investments were made are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long term investments.
Long-term investments are carried at cost. Provision for diminution is made to recognize a decline, other than temporary in value of long-term investments and is determined separately for each individual investment.
An investment in land or buildings, which is not intended to be occupied substantially for use by or in the operations of the Company, is classified as an investment property. Investment properties are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.
The cost comprises purchase price and borrowing costs, if capitalization criteria are met and directly attributable cost of bringing the investment property to its working condition for the intended use.
Depreciation on investment property is provided on a straight-line basis over the useful lives of assets estimated by the management. Such classes of investment properties and their estimated useful lives are as under:
Assets Estimated useful lives Land
- Freehold land -
- Leasehold land Over the lease period Buildings
On disposal of an investment property, the difference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is charged or credited to the statement of profit and loss.
1.6 Revenue recognition
Revenue is recognized to the extent it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.
Revenue from sale of products is recognized on transfer of significant risk and rewards of ownership of the products to the customers, which is generally on dispatch of goods other than revenue from sale of healthcare equipments which is recognized upon installation at customer premises. Sales are stated exclusive of sales tax and net of trade and quantity discount.
Revenue recognized in respect of extended warranty offered to customers relating to healthcare equipment is deferred and is recognized on a straight line basis over the period of the extended warranty contract. Deferred revenue is classified as other liabilities.
Revenue from services is recognized as per the terms of the contract with the customer using the proportionate completion method.
Revenue from services represents service income other than from services which are incidental to sale of products and projects.
Income from fixed price construction contracts is recognized by reference to the estimated overall profitability of the contract under the percentage of completion method. Percentage of completion is determined as a proportion of the costs incurred up to the reporting date to the total estimated contract costs. Contract revenue earned in excess of billing has been reflected as "Project excess cost" under "Other current assets " and "Billing in excess" of contract revenue has been reflected under "Other current liabilities" in the balance sheet. Provision for expected loss is recognized immediately when it is probable that the total estimated contract costs will exceed total contract revenue.
Commission income is recognized when proof of shipment is received from the supplier.
Interest income is recognized on the time proportion basis.
Export incentives receivable are accrued for when the right to receive the credit is established and there is no significant uncertainty regarding the ultimate collection of export proceeds.
Inventories comprise all costs of purchase, conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.
Raw materials are carried at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost is determined on the basis of the weighted average method.
Work-in-progress, finished goods and traded goods are carried at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Excise duty is included in the value of finished goods inventory. Cost is determined on a weighted average basis.
The net realizable value of work-in-progress is determined with reference to the estimated selling price less estimated cost of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale of related finished goods. Raw materials held for the production of finished goods are not written down below cost except in case where material prices have declined and it is estimated that the cost of the finished product will exceed its net realizable value.
Where the Company is the lessee:
Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risk and benefits of ownership of the leased items are classified as operating leases. Lease payments under an operating lease, are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight line basis over the lease term.
Where the Company is the lessor:
Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets and investment property. Lease income is recognized in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss. Initial direct costs such as legal costs, brokerage costs, etc. are recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.
1.9 Employee benefits
(a) Short term employee benefits
All employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short-term employee benefits. Benefits such as salaries, wages and short term compensated absences, etc. and the expected cost of ex-gratia are recognized in the period in which the employee renders the related service.
(b) Post-employment benefits
(i) Defined Contribution Plans: The Company''''s approved superannuation scheme and employee state insurance scheme are defined contribution plans. The Company''''s contribution paid/payable under the schemes is recognized as expense in the statement of profit and loss during the period in which the employee renders the related service.
(ii) Defined Benefit Plans and other Long Term Benefits: The Company''''s provident fund, gratuity, pension and medical benefit schemes are defined benefit plans. Leave wages, retention bonus, silver jubilee and star awards are other long term benefits. The present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plans and other long term benefits are determined based on actuarial valuation using the Projected Unit Credit Method, which recognizes each period of service as giving rise to additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation.
Provision for leave wages, pension, medical benefit, retention bonus, silver jubilee and star awards which is expected to be utilized within the next 12 months is treated as short term employee benefits and beyond 12 months as long term employee benefits. For the purpose of presentation, the allocation between short and long term provisions has been made as determined by an actuary.
Actuarial gains and losses are recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.
1.10 Foreign currency transactions
The Company is exposed to currency fluctuations on foreign currency transactions. Transactions denominated in foreign currency are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of transactions.
Exchange differences arising on foreign exchange transactions settled during the year are recognized in the statement of profit and loss of the year.
Monetary assets and liabilities in foreign currency, which are outstanding as at the year-end, are translated at the year-end at the closing exchange rate and the resultant exchange differences are recognized in the statement of profit and loss. Non monetary items are stated in the balance sheet using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.
The Company''''s exposure to foreign currency fluctuations relates to foreign currency assets, liabilities and forecasted cash flows. The Company limits the effects of foreign exchange rate fluctuations by following established risk management policies including the use of derivatives. The Company enters into forward exchange contracts, where the counterparty is a bank.
As per Accounting Standard (''''AS'''') 11 - ''''The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates'''', the premium or the discount on forward exchange contracts not relating to firm commitments or highly probable forecast transactions and not intended for trading or speculation purpose is amortized as expense or income over the life of the contract. All other derivatives except cash flow hedges, which are not covered by AS 11, are measured using the mark-to-market principle with the resulting gains / losses thereon being recorded in the statement of profit and loss.
The Company uses foreign currency forward contracts to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations relating to highly probable forecast transactions. The Company designates some of the forward contracts in a cash flow hedging relationship by applying the hedge accounting principles.
These forward contracts are stated at fair value at each reporting date. Changes in the fair value of these forward contracts that are designated and effective as hedges of future cash flows are recognized directly in Cash Flow Hedge Reserve under Reserves and Surplus, net of applicable deferred income taxes and the ineffective portion is recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.
Amounts accumulated in Cash Flow Hedge Reserve are reclassified to profit and loss in the same periods during which the forecasted transaction materializes.
Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. For forecasted transactions, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognized in Cash Flow Hedge Reserve is retained there until the forecasted transaction occurs.
If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognized in Cash Flow Hedge Reserve is immediately transferred to the statement of profit and loss for the period.
Income-tax expense comprises current tax (i.e. amount of tax for the year determined in accordance with the income-tax law), deferred tax charge or credit (reflecting the tax effect of timing differences between accounting income and taxable income for the year) computed in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961. The deferred tax charge or credit and the corresponding deferred tax liabilities or assets are recognized using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the asset can be realized in future; however, where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward loss under taxation laws, all deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is a virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence of realization of the assets. Deferred tax assets are reviewed as at each balance sheet date and written down or written-up to reflect the amount that is reasonable/virtually certain (as the case may be) to be realized.
1.12 Earnings per share
Basic earnings per share are computed by dividing the net profit attributable to equity shareholders for the year, by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.
For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.
1.13 Provisions and Contingencies
Provisions are recognized when the Company recognizes it has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect current best estimates.
Disclosures for contingent liability are made when there is a possible or present obligation which arises from past events which is not recognized since it is not probable that there will be an outflow of resources. When there is a possible or present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no disclosure is made.
Loss contingencies arising from claims, litigation, assessment, fines, penalties, etc. are recorded when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount can be reasonably estimated.
Contingent assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in the financial statements.
1.14 Cash and Cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash, cheques in hand, cash at bank and deposits with banks having maturity of three months or less. The bank deposits with original maturity of up to three months are classified as cash and cash equivalents and bank deposits with original maturity of more than three months are classified as other bank balances.
1.15 Government grants and subsidies
Grants and subsidies from the government are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that (i) the company will comply with the conditions attached to them, and (ii) the grant/subsidy will be received.
When the grant or subsidy relates to revenue, it is recognized as income on a systematic basis in the statement of profit and loss over the periods necessary to match them with the related costs, which they are intended to compensate. Where the grant relates to an asset, it is recognized as deferred income and released to income in equal amounts over the expected useful life of the related asset.
1.16 Operating cycle
All assets and liabilities have been classified as current or non-current as per the Company''''s normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013. The Company has ascertained its operating cycle as twelve months for the purpose of current or non-current classification of assets and liabilities.