1. Revenue recognition:
1.1 Income and expenditure are accounted on accrual basis, except otherwise stated. As regards Bank’s foreign offices, income and expenditure are recognised as per the local laws of the country in which the respective foreign office is located.
1.2 Interest/ Discount income is recognised in the Profit and Loss Account as it accrues except: (i) income from Non-Performing Assets (NPAs), comprising of advances, leases and investments, which is recognised upon realisation, as per the prudential norms prescribed by the RBI/ respective country regulators in the case of foreign offices (hereafter collectively referred to as Regulatory Authorities), (ii) overdue interest on investments and bills discounted, (iii) Income on Rupee Derivatives designated as “Trading”, which are accounted on realisation.
1.3 Profit or Loss on sale of investments is recognised in the Profit and Loss Account. However, the profit on sale of investments in the ‘Held to Maturity’ category is appropriated (net of applicable taxes and amount required to be transferred to statutory reserve), to ‘Capital Reserve Account’.
1.4 Income from finance leases is calculated by applying the interest rate implicit in the lease to the net investment outstanding in the lease, over the primary lease period. Leases effective from April 1, 2001 are accounted as advances at an amount equal to the net investment in the lease as per Accounting Standard 19 -”Leases” issued by ICAI. The lease rentals are apportioned between principal and finance income based on a pattern reflecting a constant periodic return on the net investment outstanding in respect of finance leases. The principal amount is utilized for reduction in balance of net investment in lease and finance income is reported as interest income.
1.5 Income (other than interest) on investments in “Held to Maturity (HTM)” category acquired at a discount to the face value, is recognised as follows :
a. On Interest bearing securities, it is recognised only at the time of sale/ redemption.
b. On zero-coupon securities, it is accounted for over the balance tenor of the security on a constant yield basis.
1.6 Dividend is accounted on an accrual basis where the right to receive the dividend is established.
1.7 All other commission and fee incomes are recognised on their realisation except for: (i) Guarantee commission on deferred payment guarantees, which is spread over the period of the guarantee; (ii) Commission on Government Business and ATM interchange fees, which are recognised as they accrue; and (iii) Upfront fees on restructured accounts, which is apportioned over the restructured period.
1.8 One time Insurance Premium paid under Special Home Loan Scheme (December 2008 to June 2009) is amortised over average loan period of 15 years.
1.9 Brokerage, Commission etc. paid/ incurred in connection with issue of Bonds/ Deposits are amortized over the tenure of the related Bonds/ Deposits and the expenses incurred in connection with the issue are charged upfront.
1.10 The sale of NPA is accounted as per guidelines prescribed by RBI :-
i. When the bank sells its financial assets to Securitisation Company (SC)/ Reconstruction Company (RC), the same is removed from the books.
ii. If the sale is at a price below the net book value (NBV) (i.e., book value less provisions held), the shortfall is debited to the Profit and Loss Account in the year of sale.
iii. If the sale is for a value higher than the NBV, the excess provision is written back in the year the amounts are received, as permitted by the RBI.
The transactions in all securities are recorded on “Settlement Date”.
Investments are classified into three categories, viz. Held to Maturity (HTM), Available for Sale (AFS) and Held for Trading (HFT) as per RBI Guidelines.
2.2 Basis of classification:
i. Investments that the Bank intends to hold till maturity are classified as “Held to Maturity (HTM)”.
ii. Investments that are held principally for resale within 90 days from the date of purchase are classified as “Held for Trading (HFT)”.
iii. Investments, which are not classified in the above two categories, are classified as “Available for Sale (AFS)”.
iv. An investment is classified as HTM, HFT or AFS at the time of its purchase and subsequent shifting amongst categories is done in conformity with regulatory guidelines.
v. Investments in subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates are classified as HTM.
i. In determining the acquisition cost of an investment:
(a) Brokerage/commission received on subscriptions is reduced from the cost.
(b) Brokerage, Commission, Securities Transaction Tax (STT) etc., paid in connection with acquisition of investments are expensed upfront and excluded from cost.
(c) Broken period interest paid / received on debt instruments is treated as interest expense/ income and is excluded from cost/ sale consideration.
(d) Cost is determined on the weighted average cost method for investments under AFS and HFT category and on FIFO basis (first in first out) for investments under HTM category.
ii. Transfer of securities from HFT/AFS category to HTM category is carried out at the lower of acquisition cost/ book value/market value on the date of transfer. The depreciation, if any, on such transfer is fully provided for. However, transfer of securities from HTM category to AFS category is carried out on acquisition price/book value. After transfer, these securities are immediately revalued and resultant depreciation, if any, is provided.
iii. Treasury Bills and Commercial Papers are valued at carrying cost.
iv. Held to Maturity category: a) Investments under Held to Maturity category are carried at acquisition cost unless it is more than the face value, in which case the premium is amortised over the period of remaining maturity on constant yield basis. Such amortisation of premium is adjusted against income under the head “interest on investments”. b) Investments in subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates (both in India and abroad) are valued at historical cost. A provision is made for diminution, other than temporary, for each investment individually. c) Investments in Regional Rural Banks are valued at carrying cost (i.e. book value).
v. Available for Sale and Held for Trading categories: Investments held under AFS and HFT categories are individually revalued at the market price or fair value determined as per Regulatory guidelines, and only the net depreciation of each group for each category (viz., (i) Government securities (ii) Other Approved Securities (iii) Shares (iv) Bonds and Debentures (v) Subsidiaries and Joint Ventures; and (vi) others) is provided for and net appreciation, is ignored. On provision for depreciation, the book value of the individual security remains unchanged after marking to market.
vi. In case of sale of NPA (financial asset) to Securitisation Company (SC)/ Asset Reconstruction Company (ARC) against issue of Security Receipts (SR), investment in SR is recognised at lower of: (i) Net Book Value (NBV) (i.e., book value less provisions held) of the financial asset; and
(ii) Redemption value of SR. SRs issued by an SC/ ARC are valued in accordance with the guidelines applicable to non-SLR instruments. Accordingly, in cases where the SRs issued by the SC/ ARC are limited to the actual realisation of the financial assets assigned to the instruments in the concerned scheme, the Net Asset Value, obtained from the SC/ ARC, is reckoned for valuation of such investments.
vii. Investments are classified as performing and nonperforming, based on the guidelines issued by the RBI in the case of domestic offices and respective regulators in the case of foreign offices. Investments of domestic offices become non-performing where:
(a) Interest/ installment (including maturity proceeds) is due and remains unpaid for more than 90 days.
(b) In the case of equity shares, in the event the investment in the shares of any company is valued at Rs.1 per company on account of the non availability of the latest balance sheet, those equity shares would be reckoned as NPI.
(c) If any credit facility availed by an entity is NPA in the books of the Bank, investment in any of the securities issued by the same entity would also be treated as NPI and vice versa.
(d) The above would apply mutatis-mutandis to Preference Shares where the fixed dividend is not paid.
(e) The investments in debentures/ bonds, which are deemed to be in the nature of advance, are also subjected to NPI norms as applicable to investments.
(f) In respect of foreign offices, provisions for NPIs are made as per the local regulations or as per the norms of RBI, whichever is more stringent.
viii. Accounting for Repo/ Reverse Repo transactions (other than transactions under the Liquidity Adjustment Facility (LAF) with the RBI):
(a) The securities sold and purchased under Repo/ Reverse Repo are accounted as Collateralized lending and borrowing transactions. However, securities are transferred as in the case of normal outright sale/ purchase transactions and such movement of securities is reflected using the Repo/ Reverse Repo Accounts and Contra entries. The above entries are reversed on the date of maturity. Costs and revenues are accounted as interest expenditure/ income, as the case may be. Balance in Repo Account is classified under Schedule 4 (Borrowings) and balance in Reverse Repo Account is classified under Schedule 7 (Balance with Banks and Money at Call & Short Notice).
(b) Interest expended/ earned on Securities purchased/ sold under LAF with RBI is accounted for as expenditure/ revenue.
ix. Market repurchase and reverse repurchase transactions as well as the transactions with RBI under Liquidity Adjustment Facility (LAF) are accounted for as Borrowings and Lending transactions in accordance with the extant RBI guidelines.
3. Loans/ Advances and Provisions thereon:
3.1 Loans and Advances are classified as performing and nonperforming, based on the guidelines/ directives issued by the RBI. Loan Assets become Non-Performing Assets (NPAs) where:
i. In respect of term loans, interest and/ or instalment of principal remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days;
ii. In respect of Overdraft or Cash Credit advances, the account remains “out of order”, i.e. if the outstanding balance exceeds the sanctioned limit/ drawing power continuously for a period of 90 days, or if there are no credits continuously for 90 days as on the date of balance-sheet, or if the credits are not adequate to cover the interest debited during the same period;
iii. In respect of bills purchased/ discounted, the bill remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days;
iv. In respect of agricultural advances: (a) for short duration crops, where the instalment of principal or interest remains overdue for two crop seasons; and (b) for long duration crops, where the principal or interest remains overdue for one crop season.
3.2 NPAs are classified into Sub-Standard, Doubtful and Loss Assets, based on the following criteria stipulated by RBI:
i. Sub-standard: A loan asset that has remained nonperforming for a period less than or equal to 12 months.
ii. Doubtful: A loan asset that has remained in the substandard category for a period of 12 months.
iii. Loss: A loan asset where loss has been identified but the amount has not been fully written off.
3.3 Provisions are made for NPAs as per the extant guidelines prescribed by the regulatory authorities, subject to minimum provisions as prescribed below:
i. A general provision of 15% on the total outstanding;
ii. Additional provision of 10% for exposures which are unsecured ab-initio (i.e. where realisable value of security is not more than 10 percent ab-initio);
iii. Unsecured Exposure in respect of infrastructure advances where certain safeguards such as escrow accounts are available - 20%.
Doubtful Assets: -Secured portion:
i. Upto one year - 25%
ii. One to three years - 40%
iii. More than three years - 100%
-Unsecured portion 100%
Loss Assets: 100%
3.4 In respect of foreign offices, the classification of loans and advances and provisions for NPAs are made as per the local regulations or as per the norms of RBI, whichever is more stringent.
3.5 Advances are net of specific loan loss provisions, unrealised interest, ECGC claims received and bills rediscounted.
3.6 For restructured/ rescheduled assets, provisions are made in accordance with the guidelines issued by the RBI, which require that the difference between the fair value of the loans/ advances before and after restructuring is provided for, in addition to provision for the respective loans/ advances. The Provision for Diminution in Fair Value (DFV) and interest sacrifice, if any, arising out of the above, is reduced from advances.
3.7 In the case of loan accounts classified as NPAs, an account may be reclassified as a performing asset if it conforms to the guidelines prescribed by the regulators.
3.8 Amounts recovered against debts written off in earlier years are recognised as revenue in the year of recovery.
3.9 In addition to the specific provision on NPAs, general provisions are also made for standard assets as per extant RBI Guidelines. These provisions are reflected in Schedule 5 of the Balance Sheet under the head “Other Liabilities & Provisions - Others” and are not considered for arriving at the Net NPAs.
3.10 Appropriation of recoveries in NPAs (not out of fresh/additional credit facilities sanctioned to the borrower concerned ) towards principal or interest due as per the Bank’s extant instructions is done in accordance with the following priority.
b. Unrealized Interest/Interest
4. Floating Provisions:
The Bank has a policy for creation and utilisation of floating provisions separately for advances, investments and general purposes. The quantum of floating provisions to be created is assessed at the end of the financial year. The floating provisions are utilised only for contingencies under extraordinary circumstances specified in the policy with prior permission of Reserve Bank of India.
5. Provision for Country Exposure:
In addition to the specific provisions held according to the asset classification status, provisions are also made for individual country exposures (other than the home country). Countries are categorised into seven risk categories, namely, insignificant, low, moderate, high, very high, restricted and off-credit and provisioning made as per extant RBI guidelines. If the country exposure (net) of the Bank in respect of each country does not exceed 1% of the total funded assets, no provision is maintained on such country exposures. The provision is reflected in Schedule 5 of the Balance Sheet under the “Other liabilities & Provisions -Others”.
6.1 The Bank enters into derivative contracts, such as foreign currency options, interest rate swaps, currency swaps, cross currency interest rate swaps and forward rate agreements in order to hedge on-balance sheet/ off-balance sheet assets and liabilities or for trading purposes. The swap contracts entered to hedge on-balance sheet assets and liabilities are structured in such a way that they bear an opposite and offsetting impact with the underlying on-balance sheet items. The impact of such derivative instruments is correlated with the movement of the underlying assets and accounted in accordance with the principles of hedge accounting.
6.2 Derivative contracts classified as hedge are recorded on accrual basis. Hedge contracts are not marked to market unless the underlying assets/ liabilities are also marked to market.
6.3 Except as mentioned above, all other derivative contracts are marked to market as per the Generally Accepted Accounting Practices prevalent in the industry. In respect of derivative contracts that are marked to market, changes in the market value are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account in the period of change. Any receivable under derivatives contracts, which remain overdue for more than 90 days, are reversed through Profit and Loss Account to “Suspense Account Crystallised Receivables”. In cases where the derivative contracts provide for more settlement in future and if the derivative contract is not terminated on the overdue receivables remaining unpaid for 90 days, the positive MTM pertaining to future receivables is also reversed from Profit and Loss Account to “Suspense Account -Positive MTM”.
6.4 Option premium paid or received is recorded in Profit and Loss Account at the expiry of the option. The balance in the premium received on options sold and premium paid on options bought is considered to arrive at Mark-to-Market value for forex Over-the-Counter (OTC) options.
6.5 Exchange Traded Derivatives entered into for trading purposes are valued at prevailing market rates based on rates given by the Exchange and the resultant gains and losses are recognized in the Profit and Loss Account.
7. Fixed Assets, Depreciation and Amortisation:
7.1 Fixed Assets are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation/ amortisation.
7.2 Cost includes cost of purchase and all expenditure such as site preparation, installation costs and professional fees incurred on the asset before it is put to use. Subsequent expenditure(s) incurred on the assets put to use are capitalised only when it increases the future benefits from such assets or their functioning capability.
7.3 The rates of depreciation and method of charging depreciation in respect of domestic operations are as under:
7.4 In respect of assets acquired during the year (for domestic operations), depreciation is charged on proportionate basis for the number of days the assets have been put to use during the year.
7.5 Assets costing less than Rs.1,000 each are charged off in the year of purchase.
7.6 In respect of leasehold premises, the lease premium, if any, is amortised over the period of lease and the lease rent is charged in the respective year(s).
7.7 In respect of assets given on lease by the Bank on or before 31st March 2001, the value of the assets given on lease is disclosed as Leased Assets under Fixed Assets, and the difference between the annual lease charge (capital recovery) and the depreciation is taken to Lease Equalisation Account.
7.8 In respect of fixed assets held at foreign offices, depreciation is provided as per the regulations / norms of the respective countries.
7.9 The Bank considers only immovable assets for revaluation. Properties acquired during the last three years are not revalued. Valuation of the revalued assets is done at every three years thereafter.
7.10 The increase in Net Book Value of the asset due to revaluation is credited to the Revaluation Reserve Account without routing through the profit and loss statement.
7.11 The Revalued Assets is depreciated over the balance useful life of the asset as assessed at the time of revaluation.
The asset classification and provisioning norms applicable to advances, as laid down in Para 3 above, are applied to financial leases also.
9. Impairment of Assets:
Fixed Assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances warrant that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to future Net Discounted Cash Flows expected to be generated by the asset. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognised is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the fair value of the asset.
10. Effect of changes in the foreign exchange rate:
10.1 Foreign Currency Transactions
i. Foreign currency transactions are recorded on initial recognition in the reporting currency by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency on the date of transaction.
ii. Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the Foreign Exchange Dealers Association of India (FEDAI) closing (spot/ forward) rates.
iii. Foreign currency non-monetary items, which are carried at historical cost, are reported using the exchange rate on the date of the transaction.
iv. Contingent liabilities denominated in foreign currency are reported using the FEDAI closing spot rates.
v. Outstanding foreign exchange spot and forward contracts held for trading are revalued at the exchange rates notified by FEDAI for specified maturities, and the resulting Profit or Loss is recognised in the Profit and Loss account.
vi. Foreign exchange forward contracts which are not intended for trading and are outstanding on the Balance Sheet date, are re-valued at the closing spot rate. The premium or discount arising at the inception of such forward exchange contract is amortised as expense or income over the life of the contract.
vii. Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded are recognised as income or as expense in the period in which they arise.
viii. Gains/ Losses on account of changes in exchange rates of open position in currency futures trades are settled with the exchange clearing house on daily basis and such gains/ losses are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account.
10.2 Foreign Operations:
Foreign Branches of the Bank and Offshore Banking Units (OBU) have been classified as Non-integral Operations and Representative Offices have been classified as Integral Operations.
a. Non-integral Operations:
i. Both monetary and non-monetary foreign currency assets and liabilities including contingent liabilities of non-integral foreign operations are translated at closing exchange rates notified by FEDAI at the Balance Sheet date.
ii. Income and expenditure of non-integral foreign operations are translated at quarterly average closing rates notified by FEDAI.
iii. Exchange differences arising on investment in non integral foreign operations are accumulated in Foreign Currency Translation Reserve until the disposal of the investment.
iv. The Assets and Liabilities of foreign offices in foreign currency (other than local currency of the foreign offices) are translated into local currency using spot rates applicable to that country on the Balance Sheet date.
b. Integral Operations:
i. Foreign currency transactions are recorded on initial recognition in the reporting currency by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and the foreign currency on the date of transaction.
ii. Monetary foreign currency assets and liabilities of integral foreign operations are translated at closing (Spot/ Forward) exchange rates notified by FEDAI at the Balance Sheet date and the resulting Profit/ Loss is included in the Profit and Loss Account. Contingent Liabilities are translated at Spot rate.
iii. Foreign currency non-monetary items which are carried at historical cost are reported using the exchange rate on the date of the transaction.
11. Employee Benefits:
11.1 Short Term Employee Benefits:
The undiscounted amounts of short-term employee benefits, such as medical benefits which are expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees, are recognised during the period when the employee renders the service.
11.2 Long Term Employee Benefits:
i. Defined Benefit Plan
a. The Bank operates a Provident Fund scheme. All eligible employees are entitled to receive benefits under the Bank’s Provident Fund scheme. The Bank contributes monthly at a determined rate (currently 10% of employee’s basic pay plus eligible allowance). These contributions are remitted to a Trust established for this purpose and are charged to Profit and Loss Account. The Bank recognizes such annual contributions as an expense in the year to which it relates. Shortfall, if any, is provided for on the basis of actuarial valuation.
b. The Bank operates Gratuity and Pension schemes which are defined benefit plans.
i) The Bank provides for gratuity to all eligible employees. The benefit is in the form of lump sum payments to vested employees on retirement, or on death while in employment, or on termination of employment, for an amount equivalent to 15 days basic salary payable for each completed year of service, subject to a maximum amount of Rs.10 lacs. Vesting occurs upon completion of five years of service. The Bank makes periodic contributions to a fund administered by Trustees based on an independent external actuarial valuation carried out annually.
ii) The Bank provides for pension to all eligible employees. The benefit is in the form of monthly payments as per rules to vested employees on retirement or on death while in employment, or on termination of employment. Vesting occurs at different stages as per rules. The Bank makes monthly contribution to the Pension Fund at 10% of salary in terms of SBI Pension Fund Rules. The pension liability is reckoned based on an independent actuarial valuation carried out annually and Bank makes such additional contributions periodically to the Fund as may be required to secure payment of the benefits under the pension regulations.
c. The cost of providing defined benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each balance sheet date. Actuarial gains/ losses are immediately recognised in the Profit and Loss Account and are not deferred.
ii. Defined Contribution Plans:
The Bank operates a New Pension Scheme (NPS) for all officers/ employees joining the Bank on or after 1st August, 2010, which is a defined contribution plan, such new joinees not being entitled to become members of the existing SBI Pension Scheme. As per the scheme, the covered employees contribute 10% of their basic pay plus dearness allowance to the scheme together with a matching contribution from the Bank. Pending completion of registration procedures of the employees concerned, these contributions are retained as deposits in the Bank and earn interest at the same rate as that of the current account of Provident Fund balance. The Bank recognizes such annual contributions and interest as an expense in the year to which they relate. Upon receipt of the Permanent Retirement Account Number (PRAN), the consolidated contribution amounts are transferred to the NPS Trust.
iii. Other Long Term Employee benefits:
a. All eligible employees of the Bank are eligible for compensated absences, silver jubilee award, leave travel concession, retirement award and resettlement allowance. The costs of such long term employee benefits are internally funded by the Bank.
b. The cost of providing other long term benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date. Past service cost is immediately recognised in the Profit and Loss Account and is not deferred.
11.3 Employee benefits relating to employees employed at foreign offices are valued and accounted for as per the respective local laws/ regulations.
12. Taxes on income:
Income tax expense is the aggregate amount of current tax and deferred tax expense incurred by the Bank. The current tax expense and deferred tax expense are determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961 and as per Accounting Standard 22 - “Accounting for Taxes on Income” respectively after taking into account taxes paid at the foreign offices, which are based on the tax laws of respective jurisdictions. Deferred Tax adjustments comprises of changes in the deferred tax assets or liabilities during the year. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognised by considering the impact of timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the current year, and carry forward losses. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date. The impact of changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognised in the profit and loss account. Deferred tax assets are recognised and re-assessed at each reporting date, based upon management’s judgment as to whether their realisation is considered as reasonably certain. Deferred Tax Assets are recognised on carry forward of unabsorbed depreciation and tax losses only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that such deferred tax assets can be realised against future profits.
13. Earnings per Share:
13.1 The Bank reports basic and diluted earnings per share in accordance with AS 20 -”Earnings per Share” issued by the ICAI. Basic Earnings per Share are computed by dividing the Net Profit after Tax for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding for the year.
13.2 Diluted Earnings per Share reflect the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue equity shares were exercised or converted during the year. Diluted Earnings per Share are computed using the weighted average number of equity shares and dilutive potential equity shares outstanding at year end.
14. Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets:
14.1 In conformity with AS 29, “Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets”, issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, the Bank recognises provisions only when it has a present obligation as a result of a past event, and would result in a probable outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation, and when a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation can be made.
14.2 No provision is recognised for:
i. any possible obligation that arises from past events and the existence of which will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Bank; or
ii. any present obligation that arises from past events but is not recognised because:
a. it is not probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation; or
b. a reliable estimate of the amount of obligation cannot be made.
Such obligations are recorded as Contingent Liabilities. These are assessed at regular intervals and only that part of the obligation for which an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits is probable, is provided for, except in the extremely rare circumstances where no reliable estimate can be made.
14.3 Provision for reward points in relation to the debit card holders of the Bank is being provided for on actuarial estimates.
14.4 Contingent Assets are not recognised in the financial statements.
15. Bullion Transactions:
The Bank imports bullion including precious metal bars on a consignment basis for selling to its customers. The imports are typically on a back-to-back basis and are priced to the customer based on price quoted by the supplier. The Bank earns a fee on such bullion transactions. The fee is classified under commission income. The Bank also accepts deposits and lends gold, which is treated as deposits/ advances as the case may be with the interest paid/ received classified as interest expense/ income. Gold Deposits, Metal Loan Advances and closing Gold Balances are valued at available Market Rate as on the date of Balance Sheet.
16. Special Reserves:
Revenue and other Reserve include Special Reserve created under Section 36(i)(viii) of the Income Tax Act, 1961. The Board of Directors of the Bank have passed a resolution approving creation of the reserve and confirming that it has no intention to make withdrawal from the Special Reserve.
17. Share Issue Expenses:
Share issue expenses are charged to the Share Premium Account.