Since inception, Pidilite Industries Limited, together with its subsidiaries has been a pioneer in consumer and industrial speciality chemicals in India. The equity shares of the Company are listed on BSE Ltd (BSE) and National Stock Exchange of India Ltd (NSE).
The address of its registered office is Regent Chambers, 7th Floor, Jamnalal Bajaj Marg, 208, Nariman Point, Mumbai 400 021. The address of principal place of business is Ramkrishna Mandir Road, Off Mathuradas Vasanji Road, Andheri (E), Mumbai 400 059.
2. Significant Accounting Policies
2.1 Basis of accounting and preparation of financial statements
The standalone financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) prescribed under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013(‘Act’) read with Rule 3 of the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 and the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2016.
For all period upto and including the year ended 31st March 2016, the Company prepared its financial statements in accordance with the requirements of Indian GAAP, i.e. comply with Accounting Standards specified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013, read with applicable rules and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013. These financial statements for the year ended 31st March 2017 are the Company’s first financial statements under Ind AS and the same are prepared in accordance with Ind AS 101 on ‘First-time adoption of Indian Accounting Standards’ - Refer to Note 2.18 for details of adoption of Ind AS.
The financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention except for the following items -
a. Certain Financial Assets/ Liabilities (including derivative instruments) - at Fair value
b. Employee Stock Options - at Fair value
The financial statements are presented in Indian Rupees (INR) and all values are rounded to the nearest crores, except otherwise indicated.
2.2 Business Combination
Acquisitions of businesses are accounted for using the acquisition method. The consideration transferred in a business combination is measured at fair value, which is calculated as the sum of the acquisition-date fair values of the assets transferred by the Company, liabilities incurred by the Company to the former owners of the acquiree and the equity interest issued by the Company in exchange of control of acquiree. Acquisition-related costs are recognized in profit or loss as incurred.
When the consideration transferred by the Company in a business combination includes assets or liabilities resulting from a contingent consideration arrangement, the contingent consideration is measured at its acquisition-date fair value and included as a part of the consideration transferred in a business combination. Changes in the fair value of the contingent consideration that qualify as measurement period adjustments are adjusted retrospectively, with corresponding changes against goodwill or capital reserve, as the case maybe. Measurement period adjustments are adjustments that arise from additional information obtained during the ‘measurement period’ (which cannot exceed one year from the acquisition date) about facts and circumstances that existed at the acquisition date. Contingent consideration that is classified as an asset or a liability is subsequently (after the measurement period) remeasured at subsequent reporting dates with the corresponding gain or loss being recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss.
Goodwill is measured as the excess of the sum of the consideration transferred over the net of acquisition-date amounts of the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. Goodwill arising on an acquisition of a business is carried at cost as established at the date of acquisition of the business less accumulated impairment losses, if any. For the purposes of impairment testing, goodwill is allocated to each of the Company’s cash-generating units (or groups of cash-generating units) that is expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination. A cash-generating unit to which goodwill has been allocated is tested for impairment annually, or more frequently when there is an indication that the unit may be impaired. If the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit is less than its carrying amount, the impairment loss is allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the unit and then to the other assets of the unit pro rata based on the carrying amount of each assets in the unit. Any impairment loss for goodwill is recognized directly in Statement of Profit and Loss. An impairment loss recognized for goodwill is not reversed in subsequent periods.
2.4 Revenue Recognition
Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes or duties collected on behalf of the government.
2.4.1 Sale of Goods
Revenue from sale of goods is recognized upon transfer of significant risk and rewards of ownership of the goods to the customer which generally coincides with dispatch of goods to customer. Sales include excise duty but exclude Sales Tax/ VAT. It is measured at fair value of consideration received or receivable, net of returns, rebates and discounts.
2.4.2 Dividend, Interest income and Royalty
Dividend income from investments is recognized when the Company’s right to receive dividend is established provided it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the dividend will flow to the Company as also the amount of dividend income can be measured reliably.
Interest income from a financial asset is recognized on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding using the effective interest method provided it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the interest will flow to the Company and the amount of interest can be measured reliably. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to the gross carrying amount of that financial asset.
Royalty revenue is recognized on an accrual basis in accordance with the substance of the relevant agreement or underlying arrangement in case of sales provided that it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the royalty shall flow to the Company and the amount of royalty can be measured reliably.
Claims / Insurance Claim etc. are accounted for when no significant uncertainties are attached to their eventual receipt.
The Company’s policy for recognition of revenue (rental income) from operating leases is described in Note 2.5.1
At the inception of an arrangement, it is determined whether the arrangement is or contains a lease. Leases are classified as finance leases whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee. All other leases are classified as operating leases.
2.5.1 Company as Lessor
Rental income from operating leases is recognized on a straight- line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Where the rentals are structured solely to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the Company’s expected inflationary cost increase, such increases are recognized in the year in which such benefits accrue.
Amounts due from lessees under finance leases are recognized as receivables at the amount of the Company’s net investment in the leases. Finance lease income is allocated to accounting periods so as to reflect constant periodic rate of return of the Company’s net investment outstanding in respect of the leases.
2.5.2 Company as Lessee
In case of assets under a finance lease, such assets are initially capitalized at the lower of fair value and the present value of the minimum lease payments. Minimum lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Subsequent to initial recognition, the assets are accounted in accordance with the accounting policy applicable to similar owned assets.
Payments made under operating leases are recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Where the rentals are structured solely to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor’s expected inflationary cost increases, such increases are recognized in the year in which such benefits accrue.
2.6 Foreign Currencies
The functional currency of the Company is the Indian Rupee. At the end of each reporting period, monetary items (including financial assets and liabilities) denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rates prevailing at that date. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are not retranslated. Gains or losses arising from these translations are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
In respect of the foreign offices / branches, which are integral foreign operations, all revenues and expenses during the month are reported at monthly average rates. Outstanding balances in respect of monetary assets and liabilities are restated at the year end exchange rates. Outstanding balances in respect of non-monetary assets and liabilities are stated at the rates prevailing on the date of the transaction. Net gain / loss on foreign currency translation are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
2.7 Share-based payment transactions of the Company
Equity-settled share-based payments to employees providing similar services are measured at the fair value of the equity instruments at the grant date.
The fair value determined at the grant date of the equity-settled share-based payments is expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, in accordance with the SEBI guidelines, based on the Company’s estimate of equity instruments that will eventually vest, with a corresponding increase in equity.
Income tax expense represents the sum of the tax currently payable and deferred tax.
2.8.1 Current Tax
The tax currently payable is based on taxable profit for the year. Taxable profit differs from ‘profit before tax’ as reported in the Statement of Profit and Loss because of items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and items that are never taxable or deductible. The Company’s current tax is calculated using applicable tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period and the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961 and other tax laws, as applicable.
2.8.2 Deferred Tax
Deferred tax is recognized on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognized for all taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are generally recognized for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which those deductible temporary differences can be utilized.
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.
Deferred tax liabilities and assets are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period in which the liability is settled or the asset realized, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.
The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and assets reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the end of the reporting period, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.
2.8.3 Current and Deferred Tax for the year
Current and deferred tax are recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss, except when they relate to items that are recognized in Other Comprehensive Income or directly in equity, in which case, the current and deferred tax are also recognized in Other Comprehensive Income or directly in equity respectively.
2.9 Property, Plant and Equipment
2.9.1 Property, Plant and Equipment acquired separately
Freehold land is stated at cost and not depreciated. Buildings, plant and machinery, vehicles, furniture and office equipments are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses.
An item of Property, Plant and Equipment is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of the asset. Any gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an item of Property, Plant and Equipment is determined as the difference between the sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss.
2.9.2 Capital Work-in-Progress
Properties in the course of construction for production, supply or administrative purposes are carried at cost, less any recognized impairment loss. Cost includes professional fees and, for qualifying assets, borrowing costs capitalized in accordance with the Company’s accounting policy. Such properties are classified and capitalized to the appropriate categories of Property, Plant and Equipment when completed and ready for intended use. Depreciation of these assets, on the same basis as other property assets, commences when the assets are ready for their intended use.
Depreciation is recognized so as to write off the cost of assets (other than freehold land and Capital work-in-progress) less their residual values over their useful lives, using the straight-line method as per the useful life prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013. The estimated useful lives, residual values and depreciation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate accounted for on a prospective basis. The estimated useful lives are as mentioned below:
2.10 Intangible Assets
2.10.1 Intangible assets acquired separately
Intangible assets with finite useful lives that are acquired separately are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses. Amortization is recognized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. The estimated useful life and amortization method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate being accounted for on a prospective basis. Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives that are acquired separately are carried at cost less accumulated impairment losses.
2.10.2 Intangible assets acquired in a business combination
Intangible assets acquired in a business combination and recognized separately from goodwill are initially recognized at their fair value at the acquisition date (which is regarded as their cost). Subsequent to initial recognition, intangible assets acquired in a business combination are reported at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, on the same basis as intangible assets that are acquired separately.
2.10.3 Internally generated Intangible Assets - Research and Development Expenditure
Expenditure on research activities is recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which it is incurred. An internally generated intangible asset arising from development is recognized if and only if it meets the recognition criteria of intangible assets. The amount initially recognized is the sum total of expenditure incurred from the date when the intangible asset first meets the recognition criteria. Where no intangible asset can be recognized, development expenditure is recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which it is incurred. Subsequent to initial recognition, internally generated intangible assets are reported at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, on the same basis as intangible assets acquired separately.
2.10.4 Useful lives of Intangible Assets
Estimated useful lives of the Intangible Assets are as follows:
2.11 Impairment of Tangible and Intangible Assets other than Goodwill
At the end of each reporting period, the Company reviews the carrying amounts of its tangible and intangible assets to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss (if any). When it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of an individual asset, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs. When a reasonable and consistent basis of allocation can be identified, corporate assets are also allocated to individual cash-generating units, or otherwise they are allocated to the smallest group of cash-generating units for which a reasonable and consistent allocation basis can be identified.
Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives and intangible assets not yet available for use are tested for impairment at least annually, and whenever there is an indication that the asset may be impaired. Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are tested for impairment annually at the cash-generating unit level. The assessment of indefinite useful life is reviewed annually to determine whether the indefinite life continues to be supportable.
If not, the change in useful life from indefinite to finite is made on a prospective basis.
Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. If the recoverable amount of the asset (or cash-generating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset (or cash-generating unit) is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss.
Inventories are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost of inventories is determined on weighted average. Cost for this purpose includes cost of direct materials, direct labour, excise duty and appropriate share of overheads. Net realizable value represents the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less all estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale. Obsolete, defective, unserviceable and slow/ non-moving stocks are duly provided for and valued at net realizable value.
2.13 Provisions (other than Employee Benefits)
A provision is recognized when as a result of past event, the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation which can be reliably estimated and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefit will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are determined based on the best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date, taking into account the risks and uncertainties surrounding the obligation. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Contingent Liabilities are not recognized but disclosed in the notes to the financial statements. Contingent Assets are not recognized but disclosed in the notes to the financial statements, where an inflow of economic benefits is probable.
2.14 Financial Instruments
2.14.1 Initial Recognition and Measurement
Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognized when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instruments. At initial recognition, financial assets and financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss) are added to or deducted from the value of the financial assets or financial liabilities, as appropriate, on initial recognition. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or financial liabilities at Fair Value through Profit or Loss are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
2.14.2 Subsequent measurement of Financial Assets
All recognized financial assets are subsequently measured in their entirety at either amortized cost or fair value, depending on the classification of the financial assets.
Debt instruments that meet conditions based on purpose of holding assets and contractual terms of instrument are subsequently measured at amortized cost using effective interest method. All other financial assets are measured at fair value. Income is recognized on an effective interest basis for debt instruments other than those financial assets classified as Fair Value Through Profit or Loss. Interest income is recognized in profit or loss and is included in the “Other income” line item.
2.14.3 Impairment of Financial Assets
The Company recognizes loss allowance using expected credit loss model for financial assets which are not measured at Fair Value through Profit or Loss. Expected credit losses are weighted average of credit losses with the respective risks of default occurring as the weights. Credit loss is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the Company expects to receive, discounted at original effective rate of interest. For trade receivables, the Company measures loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses. The Company computes expected credit loss allowance based on a provision matrix which takes into account historical credit loss experience and adjusted for forward-looking information.
2.14.4 Financial Liabilities and equity instruments
126.96.36.199 Classification of debt or equity
Debt or equity instruments issued by the Company are classified as either financial liabilities or as equity in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangements and the definitions of financial liability and equity instrument.
188.8.131.52 Equity Instruments
An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments issued by the Company are recognized at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs.
184.108.40.206 Financial Liabilities
All financial liabilities (other than derivative financial instruments) are measured at amortized cost using effective interest method at the end of reporting periods.
2.14.5 Derecognition of Financial Assets and Liabilities
The Company derecognizes a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire or when the Company transfers the contractual rights to receive the cash flows of the financial asset in which substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset are transferred or in which the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset and does not retain control of the financial asset. The Company derecognizes a financial liability (or a part of financial liability) when the contractual obligation is discharged, cancelled or expires.
2.14.6 Derivative Financial Instruments
The Company holds derivative financial instruments such as foreign exchange forward contracts to manage its exposure to foreign currency exchange rate risks. Derivatives are initially recognized at fair value at the date the contracts are entered into. Subsequent to initial recognition, these contracts are measured at fair value at the end of each reporting period and changes are recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss.
2.15 Cash Flow Statement
Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit / loss before extraordinary items and tax for the period is adjusted for the effects of transactions of non-cash nature, any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments. Cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated. Cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of cash flow statement comprise of cash at bank, cash in hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, as reduced by bank overdrafts.
2.16 Segment Reporting
The Company identifies primary segments based on the dominant source, nature of risks and returns and the internal organization and management structure. The operating segments are the segments for which separate financial information is available and for which operating profit / loss amounts are evaluated regularly by the Chief Operating Decision Maker (CODM) in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance.
The accounting policies adopted for segment reporting are in line with the accounting policies of the Company. Segment revenue, segment expenses, segment assets and segment liabilities have been identified to segments on the basis of their relationship to the operating activities of the segment.
Inter-segment revenue is accounted on the basis of cost plus margins. Revenue, expenses, assets and liabilities which relate to the Company as a whole and are not allocable to segments on reasonable basis have been included under “unallocated revenue/expenses/ assets/liabilities” respectively.
2.17 Employee Benefits
Employee benefits include Provident Fund, Superannuation Fund, Employee State Insurance Scheme, Gratuity Fund, Compensated Absences, Anniversary Awards, Premature Death Pension Scheme and Total Disability Pension Scheme.
2.17.1 Defined Contribution Plans
The Company’s contribution to Provident Fund, Superannuation Fund and Employee State Insurance Scheme are considered as defined contribution plans and are charged as an expense based on the amount of contribution required to be made and when services are rendered by the employees.
2.17.2 Defined Benefit Plans
For Defined Benefit Plans in the form of Gratuity Fund, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each balance sheet date. Remeasurement, comprising actuarial gains and losses and the return on plan assets (excluding net interest) is reflected immediately in the Balance Sheet with a charge or credit recognized in Other Comprehensive Income in the period in which they occur. Remeasurement recognized in Other Comprehensive Income is reflected immediately in retained earnings and is not reclassified to Profit and Loss. Past service cost is recognized immediately for both vested and the non-vested portion. The retirement benefit obligation recognized in the Balance Sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation, as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets. Any asset resulting from this calculation is limited taking into account the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the schemes.
2.17.3 Short Term and Other Long Term Employee Benefits
A liability is recognized for benefits accruing to employees in respect of wages and salaries, annual leave and sick leave in the period the related service is rendered at the undiscounted amount of the benefits expected to be paid in exchange for that service.
Liabilities recognized in respect of short-term employee benefits, employee benefits are measured at the undiscounted amount of the benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the related service.
Liabilities recognized in respect of other long-term employee benefits are measured at the present value of the estimated future cash outflows expected to be made by the Company in respect of services provided by employees up to the reporting date.
2.18 First-time Adoption - Mandatory Exceptions, Optional Exemptions
2.18.1 Overall Principle
The Company has prepared the opening balance sheet as per Ind AS as of 1st April 2015 (the transition date) by recognizing all assets and liabilities whose recognition is required by Ind AS, not recognizing items of assets or liabilities which are not permitted by Ind AS, by reclassifying items from previous GAAP to Ind AS as required under Ind AS, and applying Ind AS in measurement of recognized assets and liabilities. However, this principle is subject to the exceptions and optional exemptions availed by the Company detailed below:
220.127.116.11 Past Business Combinations
The Company has elected not to apply Ind AS 103 Business Combinations retrospectively to past business combinations that occurred before the transition date of 1st April 2015. Consequently,
- The Company has kept the same classification for the past business combinations as in its previous GAAP financial statements;
- The Company has not recognized assets and liabilities that were not recognized in accordance with previous GAAP in the balance sheet of the acquirer and would also not qualify for recognition in accordance with Ind AS in the separate balance sheet of the acquiree;
- The Company has excluded from its opening balance sheet those items recognized in accordance with previous GAAP that do not qualify for recognition as an asset or liability under Ind AS;
- The Company has tested the goodwill for impairment at the transition date based on the condition as of the transition date;
- The effects of the above adjustments have been given to the measurement of non-controlling interests and deferred tax.
18.104.22.168 Deemed cost for Property, Plant and Equipment, Investment Property, and Intangible Assets
The Company has elected to fair value Land, Building and Plant & Machinery along with integrated patents, designs and drawings at Dahej (included in Capital Work-in-progress) as of the transition date. Accordingly, the Company has measured all other items of Property, Plant and Equipment and intangible assets recognized as of 1st April 2015 at retrospective carrying values calculated in accordance with Ind AS 16.
The Company has elected to measure investments in Equity shares of subsidiary companies and associate company at deemed cost, which is previous GAAP carrying amount. Accordingly, under Ind AS, the Company has recognized investments as follows:
- Equity shares of subsidiary companies and associate company - At deemed cost
- Unquoted Equity shares of other companies- At fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL)
- Mutual Funds - At FVTPL
3 Critical Accounting Judgements and key sources of Estimation Uncertainty
The preparation of the Company’s financial statements requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies, reported amounts of assets, liabilities, income and expenses, and accompanying disclosures, and the disclosure of contingent liabilities. The estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and other factors that are considered to be relevant. Actual results may differ from these estimates. The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision affects only that period or in the period of the revision and future periods if the revision affects both current and future periods.
3.1 Key accounting judgements, assumptions and estimates
The key assumptions concerning the future and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the reporting date, that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year, are described below:
3.1.1 Income taxes
Significant judgments are involved in estimating budgeted profits for the calculation of advance tax and deferred tax, and determining provision for income taxes and uncertain tax positions (disclosed in Note 48).
3.1.2 Business combinations and Intangible Assets
Business combinations are accounted for using Ind AS 103, Business Combinations. Ind AS 103 requires the identifiable intangible assets to be fair valued in order to ascertain the net fair value of identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities of the acquiree. Significant estimates are required to be made in determining the value of intangible assets. These valuations are conducted by independent valuation experts.
3.1.3 Property, Plant and Equipment
The useful lives and residual values of Company’s assets are determined by the management at the time the asset is acquired. These estimates are reviewed annually by the management. The lives are based on historical experience with similar assets as well as anticipation of future events, which may impact their life, such as changes in technical or commercial obsolescence arising from changes or improvements in production or from a change in market demand of the product or service output of the asset.
3.1.4 Fair value measurement of Capital Work-in-Progress
Fair value of Land, Building and Plant and Machinery along with integrated patents, designs and drawings at Dahej (included in Capital Work-in-Progress) is based on valuations conducted by independent valuation experts.
3.1.5 Impairment of Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets (i.e. trademarks and copyrights) are tested for impairment on an annual basis. Recoverable amount of cash-generating units is determined based on higher of value-in-use and fair value less cost to sell. The impairment test is performed at the level of the cash-generating unit or groups of cash-generating units which are benefitting from the synergies of the acquisition and which represents the lowest level at which the intangibles are monitored for internal management purposes. Market related information and estimates are used to determine the recoverable amount. Key assumptions on which management has based its determination of recoverable amount include estimated long term growth rates, weighted average cost of capital and estimated operating margins. Cash flow projections take into account past experience and represent management’s best estimate about future developments.
3.1.6 Employee related provisions
The costs of long term and short term employee benefits are estimated using assumptions by the management. These assumptions include rate of increase in compensation levels, discount rates, expected rate of return on assets and attrition rates. (disclosed in Note 45)
3.1.7 Impairment of investments in subsidiaries
Investment in subsidiaries is measured at cost and tested for impairment annually. For impairment testing, management determines recoverable amount, using cash flow projections which take into account past experience and represent management’s best estimate about future developments. Key assumptions on which management has based its determination of recoverable amount include estimated long term growth rates, weighted average cost of capital and estimated operating margins. Management obtains fair value of investments from independent valuation experts.