a) Basis of preparation of financial statements
i) In accordance with the notification issued by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, the Company is required to prepare its Financial Statements as per the Indian Accounting Standards (‘Ind AS’) prescribed under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 read with rule 3 of the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 as amended by the Companies (Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2016 with effect from 1st April, 2016. Accordingly, the Company has prepared these Financial Statements which comprise the Balance Sheet as at 31st March, 2017, the Statement of Profit and Loss, the Statement of Cash Flows and the Statement of Changes in Equity for the year ended 31st March, 2017, and a summary of the significant accounting policies and other explanatory information (together hereinafter referred to as “Financial Statements”. The figures for the previous year ended 31st March, 2016 and Opening Balance Sheet as on 1st April, 2015 have also been reinstated by the Management as per the requirements of Ind AS.
ii) The financial statements of the Company are prepared in accordance with the Indian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) on the accrual basis of accounting and historical cost convention except for certain material items that have been measured at fair value as required by the relevant Ind AS and explained in the ensuing policies below.
iii) The financial statements are presented in Indian Rupees ( INR ) and all values are rounded to the nearest crore, except otherwise indicated.
b) Use of estimates and judgements
i) The preparation of the financial statements requires that the Management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. The recognition, measurement, classification or disclosure of an item or information in the financial statements is made relying on these estimates.
ii) The estimates and judgements used in the preparation of the financial statements are continuously evaluated by the Company and are based on historical experience and various other assumptions and factors (including expectations of future events) that the Company believes to be reasonable under the existing circumstances. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Any revision to accounting estimates is recognised prospectively in current and future periods. The critical accounting judgements and key estimates followed by the Company for preparation of financial statements is described in note 27.
c) Property, plant and equipment
i) The cost of property, plant and equipment comprises its purchase price net of any trade discounts and rebates, any import duties and other taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from the tax authorities), any directly attributable expenditure on making the asset ready for its intended use, including relevant borrowing costs for qualifying assets and any expected costs of decommissioning. Expenditure incurred after the property, plant and equipment have been put into operation, such as repairs and maintenance, are charged to Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which the costs are incurred.
ii) Major shutdown or overhaul expenditure is capitalised as the activities undertaken improve the economic benefits expected to arise from the asset.
iii) An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of the asset.
Any gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an item of property, plant and equipment is determined as the difference between the sale proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss.
iv) Assets in the course of construction are capitalised in the assets under capital work in progress account (CWIP). At the point when an asset is operating at management’s intended use, the cost of construction is transferred to the appropriate category of property, plant and equipment and depreciation commences. Where an obligation (legal or constructive) exists to dismantle or remove an asset or restore a site to its former condition at the end of its useful life, the present value of the estimated cost of dismantling, removing or restoring the site is capitalized along with the cost of acquisition or construction upon completion and a corresponding liability is recognized. Revenue generated from production during the trial period is capitalised.
v) Property, plant and equipment except freehold land held for use in the production, supply or administrative purposes, are stated in the consolidated balance sheet at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Freehold or Leasehold land is stated at historical cost. Leasehold Land acquired by the Company, with an option in the lease deed, entitling the Company to purchase on outright basis after a certain period at no additional cost is not amortized.
d) Other Intangible assets
i) Intangible assets with finite useful lives that are acquired separately are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are carried at cost less accumulated impairment losses.
ii) Certain computer software costs are capitalized and recognised as intangible assets based on materiality, accounting prudence and significant benefits expected to flow therefrom for a period longer than one year.
e) Depreciation / Amortisation
i) Depreciation is recognised so as to write off the cost of assets (other than freehold land and properties under construction) less their residual values over their useful lives, using the straight-line method.
ii) Amortisation is recognised on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. The estimated useful life and amortisation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate being accounted for on a prospective basis.
iii) Assets held under finance leases are depreciated over their expected useful lives on the same basis as owned assets. However, when there is no reasonable certainty that ownership will be obtained by the end of the lease term, assets are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and their useful lives.
iv) Depreciation on tangible assets is provided as per the provisions of Part B of Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013 based on useful life and residual value notified for accounting purposes by Electricity Regulatory Authorities.
v) Lease improvement costs are amortized over the period of the lease. Leasehold land acquired by the Company, with an option in the lease deed, entitling the Company to purchase on outright basis after a certain period at no additional cost is not amortized.
vi) Specialised software is amortised over an estimated useful life of 3 years.
vii) Estimated useful life of the assets are as follows:
Useful life is either the period of time which the asset is expected to be used or the number of production or similar units expected to be obtained from the use of asset.
The estimated useful life, residual values and depreciation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate accounted for on a prospective basis.
f) Impairment of tangible and intangible assets other than goodwill
i) At the end of each reporting period, the Company reviews the carrying amounts of its tangible and intangible assets to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss (if any). When it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of an individual asset, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs. When a reasonable and consistent basis of allocation can be identified, corporate assets are also allocated to individual cash-generating units, or otherwise they are allocated to the smallest Company of cash-generating units for which a reasonable and consistent allocation basis can be identified.
ii) Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives and intangible assets not yet available for use are tested for impairment at least annually, and whenever there is an indication that the asset may be impaired.
iii) Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted.
iv) If the recoverable amount of an asset (or cash-generating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset (or cash-generating unit) is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognised immediately in Statement of Profit and Loss.
v) When an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset (or a cash-generating unit) is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, but so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset (or cash-generating unit) in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognised immediately in Statement of Profit and Loss.
g) Borrowing costs
i) Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, which are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale, are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use or sale.
ii) All other borrowing costs are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they are incurred.
iii) The Company determines the amount of borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation as the actual borrowing costs incurred on that borrowing during the period less any interest income earned on temporary investment of specific borrowings pending their expenditure on qualifying assets, to the extent that an entity borrows funds specifically for the purpose of obtaining a qualifying asset. In case if the Company borrows generally and uses the funds for obtaining a qualifying asset, borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation are determined by applying a capitalisation rate to the expenditures on that asset.
The Company suspends capitalisation of borrowing costs during extended periods in which it suspends active development of a qualifying asset.
h) Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents in the balance sheet comprise cash at banks and on hand and demand deposits with an original maturity of three months or less and highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value net of outstanding bank overdrafts as they are considered an integral part of the Company’s cash management.
Cost of inventories includes cost of purchase, costs of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.
Inventories of stores, spare parts, coal, fuel and loose tools are stated at the lower of weighted average cost and net realizable value. Net realisable value represents the estimated selling price for inventories in the ordinary course of business less all estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
j) Revenue recognition
i) Sale of Power
Revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that economic benefit will flow to the Company and that the revenue can be reliably measured. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable. Revenue is reduced for estimated rebates and other similar allowances.
Revenue from sale of power / coal / other items is recognised when substantial risks and rewards of ownership is transferred to the buyer under the terms of the contract.
ii) Operator fee
Operator fees is accounted on accrual basis as and when the right to receive arises.
iii) Revenue from construction contracts
Revenue from construction contracts is recognised by applying percentage of completion method after providing for foreseeable losses, if any. Percentage of completion is determined as a proportion of the cost incurred up to the reporting date to the total estimated cost to complete. Foreseeable losses, if any, on the contracts is recognised as an expense in the period in which it is foreseen, irrespective of the stage of completion of the contract. While determining the amount of foreseeable loss, all elements of cost and related incidental income which is not included in contract revenue is taken into consideration. Contract is reflected at cost that is expected to be recoverable till such time the outcome of the contract cannot be ascertained reliably and at realisable value thereafter. Claims are accounted as income in the year of acceptance by customer.
iv) Dividend and interest income
Dividend income from investments is recognised when the shareholder’s right to receive payment has been established (provided that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably).
Interest income from a financial asset is recognised when it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably. Interest income is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and at the effective interest rate applicable, which is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to that asset’s net carrying amount on initial recognition.
k) Foreign currency transactions and foreign operations
i) The functional currency of the Company and its subsidiaries is determined on the basis of the primary economic environment in which it operates. The functional currency of the Company is Indian National Rupee (INR).
ii) In preparing the financial statements the Company, transactions in currencies other than the entity’s functional currency (foreign currencies) are recognised at the rates of exchange prevailing at the dates of the transactions.
iii) At the end of each reporting period, monetary items denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rates prevailing at that date. Non-monetary items carried at fair value that are denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rates prevailing at the date when the fair value was determined.
iv) Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are not retranslated.
v) Exchange differences on monetary items are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they arise except for:
- exchange differences on foreign currency borrowings relating to assets under construction for future productive use, which are included in the cost of those assets when they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs on those foreign currency borrowings; and
- exchange differences on transactions entered into in order to hedge certain foreign currency risks
- exchange difference arising on settlement / restatement of longterm foreign currency monetary items recognized in the financial statements for the year ended 31st March 2016 prepared under previous GAAP, are capitalized as a part of the depreciable fixed assets to which the monetary item relates and depreciated over the remaining useful life of such assets. If such monetary items do not relate to acquisition of depreciable fixed assets, the exchange difference is amortised over the maturity period / upto the date of settlement of such monetary item, whichever is earlier and charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. The un-amortised exchange difference is carried under other equity as “Foreign currency monetary item translation difference account” net of tax effect thereon, where applicable. All exchange differences on foreign currency monetary items originating after March, 2016 including those relating to fixed assets are charged off to statement of profit and loss
l) Employee benefits
The Company has following post-employment plans:
a) Defined benefit plans - gratuity
i) The liability or asset recognised in the balance sheet in respect of defined benefit gratuity plan is the present value of defined benefit obligations at the end of the reporting period less fair value of plan assets. The defined benefit obligation is calculated annually by actuaries through actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method.
ii) The Company recognises the following changes in the net defined benefit obligation as an expense in the statement of profit and loss:
- Service costs comprising current service costs, past-service costs, gains and losses on curtailment and non-routine settlements
- Net interest expense or income
iii) The net interest cost is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net balance of the defined benefit obligation and fair value of plan assets. This cost is included in employee benefit expenses in the statement of the profit & loss.
iv) Re-measurement comprising of actuarial gains and losses arising from
- Re-measurement of Actuarial(gains)/losses
- Return on plan assets, excluding amount recognized in effect of asset ceiling
- Re-measurement arising because of change in effect of asset ceiling are recognised in the period in which they occur directly in other comprehensive income. Remeasurements are not reclassified to Statement of Profit and Loss in subsequent periods.
v) Ind AS 19 requires the exercise of judgment in relation to various assumptions including future pay rises, inflation and discount rates and employee and pensioner demographics. The Company determines the assumptions in conjunction with its actuaries, and believes these assumptions to be in line with best practice, but the application of different assumptions could have a significant effect on the amounts reflected in the income statement, other comprehensive income and balance sheet. There may be also interdependency between some of the assumptions.
b) Defined contribution plans - provident fund
i) Under defined contribution plans, provident fund, the Company pays pre-defined amounts to separate funds and does not have any legal or informal obligation to pay additional sums. Defined Contribution plan comprise of contributions to the employees’ provident fund set up as trust and certain state plans like Employees’ State Insurance. The Company’s payments to the defined contribution plans are recognised as expenses during the period in which the employees perform the services that the payment covers.
ii) A liability for a termination benefit is recognised at the earlier of when the entity can no longer withdraw the offer of the termination benefit and when the entity recognises any related restructuring costs.
c) Short-term and other long-term employee benefits
i) A liability is recognised for benefits accruing to employees in respect of wages and salaries, annual leave and sick leave in the period the related service is rendered at the undiscounted amount of the benefits expected to be paid in exchange for that service.
ii) Liabilities recognised in respect of short-term employee benefits are measured at the undiscounted amount of the benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the related service.
iii) Liabilities recognised in respect of other long-term employee benefits are measured at the present value of the estimated future cash outflows expected to be made by the Company in respect of services provided by employees up to the reporting date.
iv) Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related services are recognised as a liability at the present value of the obligation as at the Balance sheet date determined based on an actuarial valuation.
m) Share-based payment arrangements
i) Equity-settled share-based payments to employees and others providing similar services are measured at the fair value of the equity instruments at the grant date.
ii) The fair value determined at the grant date of the equity-settled share-based payments is expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, based on the Company’s estimate of equity instruments that will eventually vest, with a corresponding increase in equity. At the end of each reporting period, the Company revises its estimate of the number of equity instruments expected to vest. The impact of the revision of the original estimates, if any, is recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss such that the cumulative expense reflects the revised estimate, with a corresponding adjustment to the equity-settled employee benefits reserve.
iii) The Company has created an Employee Benefit Trust for providing share-based payment to its employees. The group uses the Trust as a vehicle for distributing shares to employees under the employee remuneration schemes. The Trust buys shares of the Parent Company from the market, for giving shares to employees. The group treats Trust as its extension and shares held by the Trust are treated as treasury shares.
i) Income tax comprises current and deferred tax. Income tax expense is recognized in the statement of profit and loss except to the extent it relates to items directly recognized in equity or in other comprehensive income.
a) Current tax
Current tax is the amount of tax payable based on the taxable profit for the year. Taxable profit differs from ‘profit before tax’ as reported in the statement of profit and loss because of items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and items that are never taxable or deductible. The Company’s current tax is calculated using tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.
b) Deferred tax
1) Deferred tax is recognised on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are generally recognised for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which those deductible temporary differences can be utilised. Such deferred tax assets and liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the taxable profit nor the accounting profit. In addition, deferred tax liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of goodwill.
2) Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries and associates, and interests in joint ventures, except where the Company is able to control the reversal of the temporary difference and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future. Deferred tax assets arising from deductible temporary differences associated with such investments and interests are only recognised to the extent that it is probable that there will be sufficient taxable profits against which to utilise the benefits of the temporary differences and they are expected to reverse in the foreseeable future.
3) The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.
4) Deferred tax liabilities and assets are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period in which the liability is settled or the asset realised, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.
5) Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets relate to the same taxable entity and same taxation authority.
ii) Minimum Alternate Tax (‘MAT’) credit is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income-tax during the specified period. In the year in which the MAT credit becomes eligible to be recognised as an asset, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the statement of profit and loss. The Company reviews the same at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT credit entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that Company will pay normal income-tax during the specified period.
iii) Current and deferred tax for the year:
Current and deferred tax are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss, except when they relate to items that are recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case, the current and deferred tax are also recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity respectively. Where current tax or deferred tax arises from the initial accounting for a business combination, the tax effect is included in the accounting for the business combination.
o) Earnings per share
Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit/(loss) for the year by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year is adjusted for treasury shares, bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split and reverse share split (consolidation of shares).
Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit/(loss) for the year as adjusted for dividend, interest and other charges to expense or income (net of any attributable taxes) relating to the dilutive potential equity shares, by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share and the weighted average number of equity shares which could have been issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. Potential equity shares are deemed to be dilutive only if their conversion to equity shares would decrease the net profit per share from continuing ordinary operations. Potential dilutive equity shares are deemed to be converted as at the beginning of the period, unless they have been issued at a later date.
p) Provisions, contingencies and commitments
i) Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, and it is probable that the Company will be required to settle the obligation, and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.
ii) The amount recognised as a provision is the best estimate of the consideration required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period, taking into account the risks and uncertainties surrounding the obligation. When a provision is measured using the cash flows estimated to settle the present obligation, its carrying amount is the present value of those cash flows (when the effect of the time value of money is material).
iii) When some or all of the economic benefits required to settle a provision are expected to be recovered from a third party, a receivable is recognised as asset if it is virtually certain that reimbursement will be received and the amount of the receivable can be measured reliably.
iv) A disclosure for contingent liabilities is made where there is
a) a possible obligation that arises from past events and whose existence will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the entity; or
b) a present obligation that arises from past events but is not recognized because:
i) it is not probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation; or
ii) the amount of the obligation cannot be measured with sufficient reliability.
v) A contingent asset is a possible asset that arises from past events and whose existence will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the entity.
vi) Commitments include the amount of purchase order (net of advances) issued to parties for completion of assets.
vii) Provisions, contingent liabilities, contingent assets and commitments are reviewed at each reporting period.
viii) Provisions for onerous contracts are recognized when the expected benefits to be derived by the Company from a contract are lower than the unavoidable costs of meeting the future obligations under the contract.
q) Financial instruments
Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognised when Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instruments.
Financial assets and financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value of the financial assets or financial liabilities, as appropriate, on initial recognition. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are recognised immediately in Statement of Profit and Loss.
Financial assets are recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instruments. Financial assets other than trade receivables are initially recognised at fair value plus transaction costs for all financial assets not carried at fair value through profit or loss. Financial assets carried at fair value through profit or loss are initially recognised at fair value, and transaction costs are expensed in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Financial assets, other than equity instruments, are subsequently measured at amortised cost, fair value through other comprehensive income or fair value through profit or loss on the basis of both:
(a) the entity’s business model for managing the financial assets and
(b) the contractual cash flow characteristics of the financial asset.
Classification of financial assets
Debt instruments that meet the following conditions are subsequently measured at amortised cost (except for debt instruments that are designated at fair value through profit or loss on initial recognition):
- the asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets in order to collect contractual cash flows; and
- the contractual terms of the instrument give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
Debt instruments that meet the following conditions are subsequently measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (except for debt instruments that are designated as fair value through profit or loss on initial recognition)
- the asset is held within a business model whose objective is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets; and
- the contractual terms of the instrument give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
Interest income is recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss for FVTOCI debt instruments. For the purposes of recognising foreign exchange gains and losses, FVTOCI debt instruments are treated as financial assets measured at amortised cost. Thus, the exchange differences on the amortised cost are recognised in Satement of Profit and Loss and other changes in the fair value of FVTOCI financial assets are recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated under the heading of ‘Reserve for debt instruments through other comprehensive income’. When the investment is disposed of, the cumulative gain or loss previously accumulated in this reserve is reclassified to Statement of Profit and Loss.
All other financial assets are subsequently measured at fair value.
Effective interest method
The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a debt instrument and of allocating interest income over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts (including all fees paid or received that form an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and other premiums or discounts) through the expected life of the debt instrument, or, where appropriate, a shorter period, to the net carrying amount on initial recognition.
Income is recognised on an effective interest basis for debt instruments other than those financial assets classified as at FVTPL. Interest income is recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss and is included in the “Other income” line item.
Investments in equity instruments at FVTOCI
On initial recognition, the Company can make an irrevocable election (on an instrument-by-instrument basis) to present the subsequent changes in fair value in other comprehensive income pertaining to investments in equity instruments. This election is not permitted if the equity investment is held for trading. These elected investments are initially measured at fair value plus transaction costs. Subsequently, they are measured at fair value with gains and losses arising from changes in fair value recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in the ‘Reserve for equity instruments through other comprehensive income’. The cumulative gain or loss is not reclassified to Statement of Profit and Loss on disposal of the investments.
A financial asset is held for trading if:
- it has been acquired principally for the purpose of selling it in the near term; or
- on initial recognition it is part of a portfolio of identified financial instruments that the Company manages together and has a recent actual pattern of short-term profit-taking; or
- it is a derivative that is not designated and effective as a hedging instrument or a financial guarantee.
Dividends on these investments in equity instruments are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss when the Company’s right to receive the dividends is established, it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the dividend will flow to the entity, the dividend does not represent a recovery of part of cost of the investment and the amount of dividend can be measured reliably. Dividends recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss are included in the ‘Other income’ line item.
Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)
Investments in equity instruments are classified as at FVTPL, unless the Company irrevocably elects on initial recognition to present subsequent changes in fair value in other comprehensive income for investments in equity instruments which are not held for trading.
Debt instruments that do not meet the amortised cost criteria or FVTOCI criteria (see above) are measured at FVTPL. In addition, debt instruments that meet the amortised cost criteria or the FVTOCI criteria but are designated as at FVTPL are measured at FVTPL.
A financial asset that meets the amortised cost criteria or debt instruments that meet the FVTOCI criteria may be designated as at FVTPL upon initial recognition if such designation eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition inconsistency that would arise from measuring assets or liabilities or recognising the gains and losses on them on different bases. The Company has not designated any debt instrument as at FVTPL.
Financial assets at FVTPL are measured at fair value at the end of each reporting period, with any gains or losses arising on remeasurement recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss. The net gain or loss recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss incorporates any dividend or interest earned on the financial asset and is included in the ‘Other income’ line item. Dividend on financial assets at FVTPL is recognised when the Company’s right to receive the dividends is established, it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the dividend will flow to the entity, the dividend does not represent a recovery of part of cost of the investment and the amount of dividend can be measured reliably.
Impairment of financial assets
The Company recognises a loss allowance for Expected Credit Losses (ECL) on financial assets that are measured at amortised cost and at FVOCI. The credit loss is difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to an entity in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the entity expects to receive (i.e. all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original effective interest rate. This is assessed on an individual or collective basis after considering all reasonable and supportable including that which is forward-looking.
The Company’s trade receivables or contract revenue receivables do not contain significant financing component and loss allowance on trade receivables is measured at an amount equal to life time expected losses i.e. expected cash shortfall, being simplified approach for recognition of impairment loss allowance.
Under simplified approach, the Company does not track changes in credit risk. Rather it recognizes impairment loss allowance based on the lifetime ECL at each reporting date right from its initial recognition. The Company uses a provision matrix to determine impairment loss allowance on the portfolio of trade receivables.
The provision matrix is based on its historically observed default rates over the expected life of the trade receivable and is adjusted for forward looking estimates. At every reporting date, the historical observed default rates are updated and changes in the forward-looking estimates are analysed.
For financial assets other than trade receivables, the Company recognises 12-months expected credit losses for all originated or acquired financial assets if at the reporting date the credit risk of the financial asset has not increased significantly since its initial recognition. The expected credit losses are measured as lifetime expected credit losses if the credit risk on financial asset increases significantly since its initial recognition. If, in a subsequent period, credit quality of the instrument improves such that there is no longer significant increase in credit risks since initial recognition, then the Company reverts to recognizing impairment loss allowance based on 12 months ECL. The impairment losses and reversals are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss. For equity instruments and financial assets measured at FVTPL, there is no requirement for impairment testing.
Derecognition of financial assets
The Company derecognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire, or when it transfers the financial asset and substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the asset to another party. If the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership and continues to control the transferred asset, the Company recognises its retained interest in the asset and an associated liability for amounts it may have to pay. If the Company retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of a transferred financial asset, the
Company continues to recognise the financial asset and also recognises a collateralised borrowing for the proceeds received.
On derecognition of a financial asset in its entirety, the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the sum of the consideration received and receivable and the cumulative gain or loss that had been recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity is recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss if such gain or loss would have otherwise been recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss on disposal of that financial asset.
On derecognition of a financial asset other than in its entirety (e.g. when the Company retains an option to repurchase part of a transferred asset), the Company allocates the previous carrying amount of the financial asset between the part it continues to recognise under continuing involvement, and the part it no longer recognises on the basis of the relative fair values of those parts on the date of the transfer. The difference between the carrying amount allocated to the part that is no longer recognised and the sum of the consideration received for the part no longer recognised and any cumulative gain or loss allocated to it that had been recognised in other comprehensive income is recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss if such gain or loss would have otherwise been recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss on disposal of that financial asset. A cumulative gain or loss that had been recognised in other comprehensive income is allocated between the part that continues to be recognised and the part that is no longer recognised on the basis of the relative fair values of those parts.
r) Financial liabilities and equity instruments Classification as debt or equity
Debt and equity instruments issued by a Company entity are classified as either financial liabilities or as equity in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangements and the definitions of a financial liability and an equity instrument.
An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments issued by a Company entity are recognised at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs.
Repurchase of the Company’s own equity instruments is recognised and deducted directly in equity. No gain or loss is recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss on the purchase, sale, issue or cancellation of the Company’s own equity instruments.
All Financial liabilities are measured at amortized cost using effective interest method or fair value through profit and loss. However, financial liabilities that arise when a transfer of a financial asset does not qualify for derecognition or when the continuing involvement approach applies, financial guarantee contracts issued by the Company, and commitments issued by the Company to provide a loan at below-market interest rate are measured in accordance with the specific accounting policies set out below.
Financial liabilities at FVTPL
Financial liabilities are classified as at FVTPL when the financial liability is either contingent consideration recognised by the Company as an acquirer in a business combination to which Ind AS 103 applies or is held for trading or it is designated as at FVTPL.
A financial liability is classified as held for trading if:
- it has been incurred principally for the purpose of repurchasing it in the near term; or
- on initial recognition it is part of a portfolio of identified financial instruments that the Company manages together and has a recent actual pattern of short-term profit-taking; or
- it is a derivative that is not designated and effective as a hedging instrument
A financial liability other than a financial liability held for trading or contingent consideration recognised by the Company as an acquirer in a business combination to which Ind AS 103 applies, may be designated as at FVTPL upon initial recognition if:
- such designation eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition inconsistency that would otherwise arise;
- the financial liability forms part of a Company of financial assets or financial liabilities or both, which is managed and its performance is evaluated on a fair value basis, in accordance with the Company’s documented risk management or investment strategy, and information about the Companying is provided internally on that basis; or
- it forms part of a contract containing one or more embedded derivatives, and Ind AS 109 permits the entire combined contract to be designated as at FVTPL in accordance with Ind AS 109 Financial liabilities at FVTPL are stated at fair value, with any gains or losses arising on remeasurement recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss. The net gain or loss recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss incorporates any interest paid on the financial liability and is included in the ‘Other income’ line item.
However, for non-held-for-trading financial liabilities that are designated as at FVTPL, the amount of change in the fair value of the financial liability that is attributable to changes in the credit risk of that liability is recognised in other comprehensive income, unless the recognition of the effects of changes in the liability’s credit risk in other comprehensive income would create or enlarge an accounting mismatch in profit or loss, in which case these effects of changes in credit risk are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss. The remaining amount of change in the fair value of liability is always recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss. Changes in fair value attributable to a financial liability’s credit risk that are recognised in other comprehensive income are reflected immediately in retained earnings and are not subsequently reclassified to Statement of Profit and Loss.
Gains or losses on financial guarantee contracts and loan commitments issued by the Company that are designated by the Company as at fair value through profit or loss are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss.
Financial liabilities subsequently measured at amortised cost
Financial liabilities that are not held-for-trading and are not designated as at FVTPL are measured at amortised cost at the end of subsequent accounting periods. The carrying amounts of financial liabilities that are subsequently measured at amortised cost are determined based on the effective interest method. Interest expense that is not capitalised as part of costs of an asset is included in the ‘Finance costs’ line item.
The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a financial liability and of allocating interest expense over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash payments (including all fees paid or received that form an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and other premiums or discounts) through the expected life of the financial liability, or (where appropriate) a shorter period, to the net carrying amount on initial recognition.
Derecognition of financial liabilities
The Company derecognises financial liabilities when, and only when, the Company’s obligations are discharged, cancelled or have expired. An exchange with a lender of debt instruments with substantially different terms is accounted for as an extinguishment of the original financial liability and the recognition of a new financial liability. Similarly, a substantial modification of the terms of an existing financial liability (whether or not attributable to the financial difficulty of the debtor) is accounted for as an extinguishment of the original financial liability and the recognition of a new financial liability. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability derecognised and the consideration paid and payable is recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss.
s) Derivative financial instruments
The Company uses derivative financial instruments, such as forward foreign exchange contracts, to hedge its foreign currency risks.
Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently remeasured at fair value, with changes in fair value recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss.
Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value at the date the derivative contracts are entered into and are subsequently remeasured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period. The resulting gain or loss is recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss immediately unless the derivative is designated and effective as a hedging instrument, in which event the timing of the recognition in profit or loss depends on the nature of the hedging relationship and the nature of the hedged item.
Offsetting of financial instruments
Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the Balance Sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.
Fair value measurement
The Company measures financial instruments, such as, derivatives at fair value at each balance sheet date.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:
i) In the principal market for the asset or liability, or
ii) In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability
The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the Company.
The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.
A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant’s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use.
The Company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximising the use of relevant observable inputs and minimising the use of unobservable inputs.
All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorised within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:
Level 1 — Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
Level 2 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable
For assets and liabilities that are recognised in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorisation (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.
Level 3 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable
t) Reclassification of financial assets and liabilities:
The Company determines classification of financial assets and liabilities on initial recognition. After initial recognition, no reclassification is made for financial assets which are equity instruments and financial liabilities.
For financial assets which are debt instruments, a reclassification is made only if there is a change in the business model for managing those assets. Changes to the business model are expected to be infrequent. The Company’s senior management determines change in the business model as a result of external or internal changes which are significant to the Company’s operations.
Such changes are evident to external parties. A change in the business model occurs when the Company either begins or ceases to perform an activity that is significant to its operations.
If the Company reclassifies financial assets, it applies the reclassification prospectively from the reclassification date which is the first day of the immediately next reporting period following the change in the business model. The Company does not restate any previously recognised gains, losses (including impairment gains or losses) or interest.
For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the Company has determined classes of assets and liabilities on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy as explained above.
A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. Leases under which the Company assumes substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. All other leases are classified as operating leases.
The Company as lessor:
Rental income from operating leases is generally recognised on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease except where another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which economic benefits from the leased asset are consumed. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating and arranging an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognised on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
The Company as lessee:
Assets held under finance leases are initially recognised as assets of the Company at their fair value at the inception of the lease or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments (discounted at the interest rate implicit in the lease or at the entity’s incremental borrowing rate). The corresponding liability to the lessor is included in the balance sheet as a finance lease obligation.
Lease payments are apportioned between finance expenses and reduction of the lease obligation so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance expenses are recognised immediately in Statement of Profit and Loss, unless they are directly attributable to qualifying assets, in which case they are capitalised in accordance with the Company’s general policy on borrowing costs. Contingent rentals are recognised as expenses in the periods in which they are incurred.
Lease payments under an operating lease shall be recognised on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Where the rentals are structured solely to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor’s expected inflationary cost increases, such increases are recognised in the year in which such benefits accrue. Contingent rentals arising under operating leases are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.
Accounting for arrangements in the nature of lease:
Under appendix C to Ind AS17, an entity may enter into an arrangement comprising a transaction or a series of related transactions, that do not take the legal form of lease but conveys a right to use an asset in return for a payment or series of payments. Arrangements meeting these criteria should be identified as either operating leases or finance leases.
For determining whether an arrangement is, or contains, a lease shall be based on the substance of the arrangement and requires an assessment of whether:
a) fulfilment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of specific asset or assets; and
b) the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset.
The Company enters into agreements, comprising a transaction or series of related transactions that does not take the legal form of a lease but conveys the right to use the asset in return for a payment or series of payments. In case of such arrangements, the Company applies the requirements of Ind AS 17 - Leases to the lease element of the arrangement. For the purpose of applying the requirements under Ind AS 17
- Leases, payments and other consideration required by the arrangement are separated at the inception of the arrangement into those for lease and those for other elements.