1. Corporate Information
IRB Infrastructure Developers Limited (the Company) is a public company domiciled in India and is incorporated under the provision of the Companies Act applicable in India. Its shares are listed on two recognised stock exchanges in India. The registered office is located at IRB Complex, Chandivli Farm, Chandivli Village, Andheri (E), Mumbai -72, Maharashtra. The Company is engaged in carrying out the construction works as per EPC contract entered between the Company and its subsidiaries.
The financial statements were authorized for issue in accordance with a resolution of the directors on May 30, 2017.
2. Basis of preparation
The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015, as amended thereafter.
For all periods up to and including the year ended March 31, 2016, the Company has prepared its financial statements in accordance with accounting standards notified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013, read together with paragraph 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 (hereinafter referred to as ''''Previous GAAP''''). These financial statements for the year ended March 31, 2017 are the first the Company has prepared in accordance with lnd AS. Refer to note 36 for information on how the Company adopted lnd AS. The financial statements for the year ended March 31, 2016 and the opening Balance Sheet as at April 1, 2015 have been restated in accordance with Ind AS for comparative information. Reconciliations and explanations of the effect of transition from Previous GAAP to Ind AS on the Company''''s Balance Sheet, Statement of Profit and Loss and Statement of Cash Flows are provided in note 36.
The financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis, except for certain financial assets and liabilities (refer accounting policy regarding financial instruments) which have been measured at fair value.
The financial statements are presented in Indian Rupee (T) which is also the Company''''s functional currency and all values are rounded to the nearest millions, except when otherwise indicated. Wherever the amount represented ''''0'''' (zero) construes value less than Rupees five thousand.
3. Summary of significant accounting policies
3.01 Current versus non-current classification
The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current/non-current classification. An asset is treated as current when it is:
- Expected to be realized or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle
- Held primarily for the purpose of trading
- Expected to be realized within twelve months after the reporting period, or
- Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.
All other assets are classified as non-current.
A liability is current when:
- It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle
- It is held primarily for the purpose of trading
- It is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or
- There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period
The Company classifies all other liabilities as non-current.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as noncurrent assets and liabilities.
The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash and cash equivalents. The Company has identified tweleve months as its operating cycle.
3.02 Foreign currencies
The Company''''s financial statements are presented in INR, which is also the Company''''s functional currency.
Transactions and balances
Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded by the Company at their functional currency spot rates at the date the transaction first qualifies for recognition.
Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the functional currency spot rates of exchange at the reporting date.
Exchange differences arising on settlement or translation of monetary items are recognized in profit or loss.
3.03 Fair value measurement
The Company measures financial instruments, at fair value at each balance sheet date. (Refer Note 32)
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:
- In the principal market for the asset or liability, or
- In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability.
The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the Company.
The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.
A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant''''s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use.
The Company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data is available to measure fair value, maximizing the use of relevant observable inputs and minimizing the use of unobservable inputs.
All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorized within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:
Level 1 - Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable.
Level 3 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable.
For assets and liabilities that are recognized in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorization (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.
At each reporting date, the Management analyses the movements in the values of assets and liabilities which are required to be remeasured or re-assessed as per the Company''''s accounting policies. For this analysis, the Management verifies the major inputs applied in the latest valuation by agreeing the information in the valuation computation to contracts and other relevant documents.
The Management also compares the change in the fair value of each asset and liability with relevant external sources to determine whether the change is reasonable.
On an interim basis, the Management present the valuation results to the Audit Committee and the Company''''s independent auditors. This includes a discussion of the major assumptions used in the valuations.
For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the Company has determined classes of assets and liabilities on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy as explained above.
This note summarizes accounting policy for fair value. Other fair value related disclosures are given in the relevant notes.
Disclosures for valuation methods, significant estimates and assumptions (notes 32, 33, 34, 36 and 38).
Financial instruments (including those carried at amortized cost) (notes 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 13, 14 and 16).
Quantitative disclosure of fair value measurement hierarchy (note 33).
3.04 Revenue recognition
Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured, regardless of when the payment is being made. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes or duties collected on behalf of the government.
The specific recognition criteria described below must also be met before revenue is recognized.
Contract revenue (construction contracts)
Contract revenue and contract cost associated with the construction of road are recognized as revenue and expenses respectively by reference to the stage of completion of the projects at the balance sheet date. The stage of completion of project is determined by the proportion that contract cost incurred for work performed upto the balance sheet date bear to the estimated total contract costs. Where the outcome of the construction cannot be estimated reliably, revenue is recognized to the extent of the construction costs incurred if it is probable that they will be recoverable. If total cost is estimated to exceed total contract revenue, the Company provides for foreseeable loss. Contract revenue earned in excess of billing has been reflected as unbilled revenue and billing in excess of contract revenue has been reflected as unearned revenue.
Company''''s operations involve levying of value added tax (VAT) on the construction work. Sales tax/VAT is not received by the Company on its own account.
For all debt instruments measured either at amortized cost or at fair value through other comprehensive income, interest income is recorded using the effective interest rate (EIR). EIR is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash payments or receipts over the expected life of the financial instrument or a shorter period, where appropriate, to the gross carrying amount of the financial asset or to the amortized cost of a financial liability. When calculating the effective interest rate, the Company estimates the expected cash flows by considering all the contractual terms of the financial instrument (for example, prepayment, extension, call and similar options) but does not consider the expected credit losses. Interest income is included in finance income in the statement of profit and loss.
Dividend is recognized when the Company''''s right to receive the payment is established, which is generally when shareholders approve the dividend.
3.05 Taxes Current income tax
Current income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities in accordance with the Income Tax Act, 1961. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date in the country where the Company operates and generates taxable income.
Current income tax relating to items recognized outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity). Current tax items are recognized in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity. Management periodically evaluates positions taken in the tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulations are subject to interpretation and establishes provisions where appropriate.
Deferred tax is provided using the liability method on temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes at the reporting date.
Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable temporary differences, except:
- When the deferred tax liability arises from the initial recognition of goodwill or an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss.
- In respect of taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, when the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences can be controlled and it is probable that the temporary differences will not reverse in the foreseeable future.
Deferred tax assets are recognized for all deductible temporary differences, the carry forward of unused tax credits and any unused tax losses. Deferred tax assets are recognized to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilized, except:
- When the deferred tax asset relating to the deductible temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction. affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss.
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be utilized. Unrecognized deferred tax assets are re-assessed at each reporting date and are recognized to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the year when the asset is realized or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.
Deferred tax relating to items recognized outside profit or loss is recognized outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity). Deferred tax items are recognized in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity.
Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax as sets against current tax liabilities and the deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.
Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT)
Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid as per Indian Income Tax Act, 1961 is in the nature of unused tax credit which can be carried forward and utilized when the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. Deferred tax assets on such tax credit is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the unused tax credit can be utilised in the specified future period. The net amount of tax recoverable from, or payable to, the taxation authority is included as part of receivables or payables in the balance sheet.
3.06 Borrowing costs
Borrowing costs includes interest and amortization of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings.
The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfillment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.
For arrangements entered into prior to 1 April 2015, the Company has determined whether the arrangement contain lease on the basis of facts and circumstances existing on the date of transition.
Company as a lessee
A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Company is classified as a finance lease.
A leased asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term.
Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
3.08 Contingent Liability and Contingent assets
A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.
A contingent assets is not recognized unless it becomes virtually certain that an inflow of economic benefits will arise. When an inflow of economic benefits is probable, contingent assets are disclosed in the financial statements.
Contingent liabilities and contingent assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date.
3.09 Impairment of non-financial assets
The Company assesses, at each reporting date, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset''''s recoverable amount. An asset''''s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset''''s or cash-generating unit''''s (CGU) fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. Recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or group of assets. When the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount.
In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining fair value less costs of disposal, recent market transactions are taken into account. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used. These calculations are corroborated by valuation multiples, quoted share prices for publicly traded companies or other available fair value indicators.
Provisions are recognized when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. The expense relating to a provision is presented in the statement of profit and loss net of any reimbursement.
If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognized as a finance cost. Provisions are reviewed at each balance sheet and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.
3.11 Retirement and other employee benefits
i. Defined contribution plan
Retirement benefits in the form of provident fund and pension fund are a defined contribution scheme and the contributions are charged to the Statement of profit and loss of the period when the employee renders related services. There are no other obligations other than the contribution payable to the respective authorities.
ii. Defined benefit plan
Gratuity liability for eligible employees are defined benefit obligation and are provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year. Obligation is measured at the present value of estimated future cash flows using discounted rate that is determined by reference to market yields at the balance sheet date on Government Securities where the currency and terms of the Government Securities are consistent with the currency and estimated terms of the defined benefit obligation.
Remeasurements, comprising of actuarial gains and losses excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability are recognized immediately in the balance sheet with a corresponding debit or credit to retained earnings through OCI in the period in which they occur. Remeasurements are not reclassified to profit or loss in subsequent periods.
Past service costs are recognized in profit or loss on the earlier of:
- The date of the plan amendment or curtailment, and
- The date that the Company recognizes related restructuring costs.
Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net defined benefit liability or asset. The Company recognizes the following changes in the net defined benefit obligation as an expense in the statement of profit and loss:
- Service costs comprising current service costs, past-service costs, gains and losses on curtailments and non-routine settlements; and
- Net interest expense or income.
iii. Leave encashment
As per the leave encashment policy of the Company, the employees have to utilize their eligible leave during the calendar year and lapses at the end of the calendar year. Accrual towards compensated absences at the end of the financial year are based on last salary drawn and outstanding leave absence at the end of the financial year.
3.12 Financial instruments
A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.
Initial recognition and measurement
All financial assets are recognized initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset.
Debt instruments at amortized cost
A ''''debt instrument'''' is measured at its amortized cost if both the following conditions are met:
a) The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and
b) Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.
This category is the most relevant to the Company.
After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortized cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortization is included in other income in the statement of profit or loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognized in the statement of profit or loss.
Debt instrument at FVTOCI
A ''''debt instrument'''' is classified at FVTOCI if both of the following criteria are met:
a) The objective of the business model is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling the financial assets, and
b) The asset''''s contractual cash flows represent SPPI.
Debt instruments included within the FVTOCI category are measured initially as well as at each reporting date at fair value.
Fair value movements are recognized in the other comprehensive income (OCI). However, the Company recognizes interest income, impairment losses & reversals and foreign exchange gain or loss in the Profit and Loss. On derecognition of the asset, cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in OCI is reclassified from the equity to Profit and Loss. Interest earned whilst holding FVTOCI debt instrument is reported as interest income using the EIR method.
Debt instrument at FVTPL
FVTPL is a residual category for debt instruments. Any debt instrument, which does not meet the criteria for categorization as at amortized cost or as FVTOCI, is classified as at FVTPL.
In addition, the Company may elect to designate a debt instrument, which otherwise meets amortized cost or FVTOCI criteria, as at FVTPL. However, such election is allowed only if doing so reduces or eliminates a measurement or recognition inconsistency (referred to as ''''accounting mismatch''''). The Company has designated certain debt instrument as at FVTPL.
Debt instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the statement of profit and loss.
All equity investments in scope of Ind AS 109 are measured at fair value. Equity instruments which are held for trading are classified as at FVTPL. For all other equity instruments, the Company may make an irrevocable election to present in other comprehensive income subsequent changes in the fair value. The Company makes such election on an instrument-by-instrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable.
If the Company decides to classify an equity instrument as at FVTOCI, then all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognized in the OCI. There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to statement of profit and loss, even on sale of investment. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity.
Equity instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the statement of profit and loss.
A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a Company of similar financial assets) is primarily derecognized (i.e. removed from the Company''''s balance sheet) when:
The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or
The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material lay to a third party under a ''''pass-through'''' arrangement; and either (a) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.
When the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into a pass through arrangement, it evaluates if and to what extent it has retained the risks and rewards of ownership. When it has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the asset, nor transferred control of the asset, the Company continues to recognize the transferred asset to the extent of the Company''''s continuing involvement. In that case, the Company also recognizes an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained.
Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured at the lower of the original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration that the Company could be required to repay.
Impairment of financial assets
In accordance with lnd AS 109, the Company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the following financial assets and credit risk exposure:
a) Financial assets that are debt instruments, and are measured at amortized cost e.g., loans, debt securities, deposits, trade receivables and bank balance.
b) Financial assets that are debt instruments and are measured as at FVTOCI.
c) Lease receivables under lnd AS 17.
d) Trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of lnd AS 11 and lnd AS 18 (referred to as ''''contractual revenue receivables'''' in these illustrative financial statements)
e) Loan commitments which are not measured as at FVTPL.
f) Financial guarantee contracts which are not measured as at FVTPL.
The Company follows ''''simplified approach'''' for recognition of impairment loss allowance on:
- Trade receivables and
- Other receivables
The application of simplified approach does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognizes impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition.
For recognition of impairment loss on other financial assets and risk exposure, the Company determines that whether there has been a significant increase in the credit risk since initial recognition. If credit risk has not increased significantly, 12-month ECL is used to provide for impairment loss. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, lifetime ECL is used. If, in a subsequent period, credit quality of the instrument improves such that there is no longer a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, then the entity reverts to recognizing impairment loss allowance based on 12-month ECL.
Lifetime ECL are the expected credit losses resulting from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial instrument. The 12-month ECL is a portion of the lifetime ECL which results from default events that are possible within 12 months after the reporting date.
ECL is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the entity expects to receive (i.e., all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original EIR. When estimating the cash flows, an entity is required to consider:
- All contractual terms of the financial instrument (including prepayment, extension, call and similar options) over the expected life of the financial instrument. However, in rare cases when the expected life of the financial instrument cannot be estimated reliably, then the entity is required to use the remaining contractual term of the financial instrument.
- Cash flows from the sale of collateral held or other credit enhancements that are integral to the contractual terms.
- Financial assets measured as at amortized cost, contractual revenue receivables and lease receivables: ECL is presented as an allowance, i.e., as an integral part of the measurement of those assets in the balance sheet. The allowance reduces the net carrying amount. Until the asset meets write-off criteria, the Company does not reduce impairment allowance from the gross carrying amount.
Initial recognition and measurement
Financial liabilities are classified, at initial recognition, as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, loans and borrowings, trade payables and other payables.
All financial liabilities are recognized initially at fair value and, in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs.
The Company''''s financial liabilities include borrowings, trade payables and other financial liabilities including bank overdrafts and other payables.
The measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification, as described below:
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss. Financial liabilities are classified as held for trading if they are incurred for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term.
Loans and borrowings
This is the category most relevant to the Company. After initial recognition, interest-bearing loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the EIR method. Gains and losses are recognized in profit or loss when the liabilities are derecognized as well as through the EIR amortization process.
Amortized cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortization is included as finance costs in the statement of profit and loss.
This category generally applies to borrowings. For more information refer Note 13.
A financial liability is derecognized when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognized in the statement of profit or loss.
Offsetting of financial instruments
Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognized amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realize the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.
3.13 Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalent in the balance sheet comprise cash at banks and on hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.
3.14 Assets held for Sale
Non-current assets or disposal groups comprising of assets and liabilities are classified as ''''held for sale'''' when all of the following criteria''''s are met: (i) decision has been made to sell. (ii) the assets are available for immediate sale in its present condition. (iii) the assets are being actively marketed and (iv) sale has been agreed or is expected to be concluded within 12 months of the Balance Sheet date.
Subsequently, such non-current assets and disposal groups classified as held for sale are measured at the lower of its carrying value and fair value less costs to sell. Non-current assets held for sale are not depreciated or amortized.
3.15 Cash dividend to equity holders of the Company
The Company recognizes a liability to make cash or noncash distributions to equity holders of the parent when the distribution is authorized and the distribution is no longer at the discretion of the Company. As per the corporate laws in India, a distribution is authorized when it is approved by the shareholders. A corresponding amount is recognized directly in equity.
3.16 Earnings per Share
Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period.
For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.
3.17 Standard issued but not effective
In March 2017, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs issued the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendments) Rules, 2017, notifying amendments to Ind AS 7, ''''Statement of cash flows'''' and Ind AS 102, ''''Share-based payment''''. The amendments are applicable to the Company from April 01, 2017.
Amendment to Ind AS 7:
The amendment to Ind AS 7 requires the entities to provide disclosures that enable users of financial statements to evaluate changes in liabilities arising from financing activities, including both changes arising from cash flows and non cash changes, suggesting inclusion of a reconciliation between the opening and closing balances in the balance sheet for liabilities arising from financial activities, to meet the disclosure requirement.
Amendment to Ind AS 102:
The amendment to Ind AS 102 provides specific guidance to measurement of cash-settled awards, modification of cash-settled awards that include a net settlement feature in respect of withholding taxes.
The Company is evaluating the requirements of the amendment and the impact on the financial statements is being evaluated.
3.18 Segment information
Based on "Management Approach" as defined in Ind AS 108 - Operating Segments, the Chief Operating Decision Maker evaluates the Company''''s performance and allocates the resources based on an analysis of various performance indicators by business segments. Inter segment sales and transfers are reflected at market prices.
The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the Company as a whole.
The Company is engaged in "Road Infrastructure Projects" which in the context of Ind AS 108 - Operating Segments is considered as the only segment. The Company''''s activities are restricted within India and hence no separate geographical segment disclosure is considered necessary.