1.1 Use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Ind AS requires the use of certain critical accounting estimates. It also requires management to exercise its judgement in the process of applying the Company’s accounting policies. The areas involving a higher degree of judgement or complexity, or area where assumptions and estimates are significant to these financial statements are disclosed in 3 and 3.1.
These financial statements are prepared under the historical cost convention, as modified by certain derivative contracts which have been measured at their fair values, at the reporting date through profit or loss.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either in the principal market for the asset or liability, or In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability. The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible to the Company.
The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest. A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant’s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use.
The Company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximising the use of relevant observable inputs and minimising the use of unobservable inputs.
All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorized within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:
- Level 1 — Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
- Level 2 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable
- Level 3 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable
For assets and liabilities that are recognised in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between Levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorisation (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.
1.2 Foreign currency transactions
Foreign currency transactions are recorded at the exchange rates prevailing at the date of such transactions. Monetary assets and liabilities as at the Balance Sheet date are translated at the rates of exchange prevailing at the date of the Balance Sheet. Gain/Loss arising on account of differences in foreign exchange rates on settlement/translation of monetary assets and liabilities are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss, unless they are considered as an adjustment to borrowing costs, in which case they are capitalised along with the borrowing cost.
1.3 Revenue recognition Sale of goods
Revenue is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the buyer, there is no continuing management involvement with the goods, the amount of revenue can be measured reliably, recovery of the consideration is probable and the associated costs and possible return of goods can be estimated reliably. Revenue from the sale of goods is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of returns, value added tax and applicable trade discounts and allowances, but inclusive of excise duty. Revenue includes shipping and handling costs billed to the customer.
Sales of active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates in India are made directly to customers. Significant risks and rewards in respect of ownership of active pharmaceuticals ingredients are transferred upon delivery of the products to the customers.
Revenue from contract research is recognised in the statement of profit and loss when right to receive a non- refundable payment from out-licensing partner is established.
Revenue from services rendered is recognised in the statement of profit and loss over the period the underlying services are performed.
Export entitlements from government authorities are recognised in the statement of profit and loss when the right to receive credit as per the terms of the scheme is established in respect of the exports made by the Company, and where there is no significant uncertainty regarding the ultimate collection of the relevant export proceeds.
Other income consists of interest income on funds invested (including available-for-sale financial assets), dividend income and gains on the disposal of available-for-sale financial assets. Interest income is recognised as it accrues in the statement of profit and loss, using the effective interest rate method on time proportion basis. Dividend income is recognised in the statement of profit and loss on the date that the Company’s right to receive payment is established.
1.4. Property, Plant and Equipment Recognition and measurement
Items of property, plant and equipment are measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. Cost includes expenditure that are directly attributable to the acquisition of the asset. The cost of self-constructed assets includes the cost of materials and other costs directly attributable to bringing the asset to a working condition for its intended use.
When parts of an item of property, plant and equipment have significant cost in relation to total cost and different useful lives, they are accounted for as separate items (major components) of property, plant and equipment.
Profits and losses upon disposal of an item of property, plant and equipment are determined by comparing the proceeds from disposal with the carrying amount of property, plant and equipment and are recognised within “other income/expense in the statement of profit and loss”
The cost of replacing part of an item of property, plant and equipment is recognised in the carrying amount of the item if it is probable that the future economic benefits embodied within the part will flow to the Company and its cost can be measured reliably. The costs of repairs and maintenance are recognised in the statement of profit and loss as incurred.
On transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its property, plant and equipment recognised as at 1 April 2015 measured as per the previous GAAP and use that carrying value as the deemed cost of the property, plant and equipment.
Depreciation is recognised in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of property, plant and equipment. Leased assets are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term or their useful lives, unless it is reasonably certain that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term. Land is not depreciated.
The estimated useful lives are as follows:
Factory and other buildings 30 -55 years
Plant and machinery 8 - 21 years
Furniture, fixtures and office equipment 4 - 21 years Vehicles 5 -6 years
Depreciation methods, useful lives and residual values are reviewed at each reporting date. Advances paid towards the acquisition of property, plant and equipment outstanding at the reporting date and the cost of property, plant and equipment not put to use before such date are disclosed under capital work in progress.
1.5 Borrowing Costs
Borrowing costs primarily comprise interest on the Company’s borrowings. Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset are capitalised during the period of time that is necessary to complete and prepare the asset for its intended use or sale. Other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they are incurred and reported in ‘finance costs’. Borrowing costs are recognised using the effective interest rate method.
1.6 Intangible Assets
Research and development
Expenses on research activities undertaken with the prospect of gaining new scientific or technical knowledge and understanding are recognised in the statement of profit and loss as incurred.
Development activities involve a plan or design for the production of new or substantially improved products and processes. Development expenditures is capitalised only if development costs can be measured reliably, the product or process is technically and commercially feasible, future economic benefits are probable the assets are controlled by the Company, and the Company intends to and has sufficient resources to complete development and to use or sell the asset. The expenditure capitalised includes the cost of materials and other costs directly attributable to preparing the asset for its intended use. Other development expenditure is recognised in the statement of profit and loss as incurred.
The Company’s internal drug development expenditure is capitalised only if they meet the recognition criteria as mentioned above. Where uncertainties exist that the said criteria may not be met, the expenditure is recognised in the statement of profit and loss as incurred. Where, however, the recognition criteria are met, intangible assets are recognised. Based on the management estimate of the useful lives indefinite useful life assets are tested for impairment and assets with limited life amortised on a straight-line basis over their useful economic lives from when the asset is available for use. During the periods prior to their launch (including periods when such products have been out-licenced to other companies), these assets are tested for impairment on an annual basis, as their economic useful life is indeterminable till then.
Payments to in-license products and compounds from third parties generally taking the form of upfront payments and milestones are capitalised and amortised, on a straight-line basis, over their useful economic lives from when the asset is available for use. During the periods prior to their launch, these assets are tested for impairment on an annual basis, as their economic useful life is indefinite till then.
De-recognition of intangible assets
Intangible assets are de-recognised either on their disposal or where no future economic benefits are expected from their use or disposal. Losses arising on such de-recognition are recorded in the statement of profit and loss and are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds, if any, and the carrying amount of respective intangible assets as on the date of de-recognition.
Intangible assets relating to products under development, other intangible assets not available for use and intangible assets having indefinite useful life are subject to impairment testing at each reporting date. All other intangible assets are tested for impairment when there are indications that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Any impairment losses are recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss.
Other intangible assets
Other intangible assets that are acquired by the Company, which have finite useful lives, are measured at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses.
Subsequent expenditure is capitalised only when it increases the future economic benefits embodied in the specific asset to which they relate.
Software for internal use, which is primarily acquired from third-party vendors, including consultancy charges for implementing the software, is capitalised. Subsequent costs are charged to the statement of profit and loss as incurred. The capitalised costs are amortised over the estimated useful life of the software.
Amortisation of intangible assets, other than for goodwill, intangible assets not available for use and intangible assets having indefinite life, is recognised in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives from the date that they are available for use.
The estimated useful lives of Intangible assets are 5 - 10 years.
1.7 Impairment Testing of Property, Plant and Equipment, Goodwill and Intangible Assets
The carrying amounts of the Company’s non-financial assets, other than inventories and deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, then the asset’s recoverable amount is estimated. Goodwill and intangible assets that have indefinite lives or that are not yet available for use are tested for impairment annually; their recoverable amount is estimated annually each year at the reporting date.
For the purpose of impairment testing, assets are grouped together into the smallest group of assets that generates cash inflows from continuing use that are largely independent of the cash inflows of other assets or groups of assets (the ‘cash-generating unit’). The recoverable amount of an asset or cash-generating unit is the greater of its value in use or its fair value less costs to sell. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. The goodwill acquired in a business combination is, for the purpose of impairment testing, allocated to cash-generating units that are expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination. Intangibles with indefinite useful lives are tested for impairment individually.
An impairment loss is recognised if the carrying amount of an asset or its cash-generating unit exceeds its estimated recoverable amount. Impairment losses recognised in respect of cash-generating units are allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the units and then to reduce the carrying amount of the other assets in the unit on a pro-rata basis. Impairment losses are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.
Impairment losses recognised in prior periods are assessed at each reporting date for any indications that the loss has decreased or no longer exists.
An impairment loss is reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. An impairment loss is reversed only to the extent that the asset’s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortisation, if no impairment loss had been recognised.
1.8 Investments and financial assets Classification
The Company classifies its financial assets in the following measurement categories:
- those to be measured subsequently at fair value (either through other comprehensive income, or through profit or loss), and
- those measured at amortised cost. The classification depends on the entity’s business model for managing the financial assets and the contractual terms of the cash flows.
For assets measured at fair value, gains and losses will either be recorded in the statement of profit and loss or other comprehensive income. For investments in debt instruments, this will depend on the business model in which the investment is held. For investments in equity instruments, this will depend on whether the Company has made an irrevocable election at the time of initial recognition to account for the equity investment at fair value through other comprehensive income. The Company reclassifies debt investments when and only when its business model for managing those assets changes.
At initial recognition, the Company measures a financial asset at its fair value plus, in the case of a financial asset not at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Transaction costs of financial assets carried at fair value through profit or loss are expensed in the statement of profit or loss. Financial assets with embedded derivatives are considered in their entirety when determining whether their cash flows are solely payment of principal and interest.
Measurement of debt instruments
Subsequent measurement of debt instruments depends on the Company’s business model for managing the asset and the cash flow characteristics of the asset. There are three measurement categories into which the Company classifies its debt instruments:
- Amortised cost: Assets that are held for collection of contractual cash flows where those cash flows represent solely payments of principal and interest are measured at amortised cost. A gain or loss on a debt investment that is subsequently measured at amortised cost and is not part of a hedging relationship is recognised in profit or loss when the asset is derecognised or impaired. Interest income from these financial assets is included in other income using the effective interest rate method.
- Fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI): Assets that are held for collection of contractual cash flows and for selling the financial assets, where the assets’ cash flows represent solely payments of principal and interest, are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI). Movements in the carrying amount are taken through OCI, except for the recognition of impairment gains or losses, interest income and foreign exchange gains and losses which are recognised in the statement of profit and loss. When the financial asset is derecognised, the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI is reclassified from equity to the statement of profit and loss and recognised in other income / expenses. Interest income from these financial assets is included in other income using the effective interest rate method.
- Fair value through profit or loss: Assets that do not meet the criteria for amortised cost or FVOCI are measured at fair value through profit or loss. A gain or loss on a debt investment that is subsequently measured at fair value through profit or loss and is not part of a hedging relationship is recognised in the statement of profit and loss and presented net in the statement of profit and loss within other income / expenses in the period in which it arises. Interest income from these financial assets is included in other income.
Measurement of equity instruments
The Company subsequently measures all equity investments at fair value. Where the Company’s management has elected to present fair value gains and losses on equity investments in other comprehensive income, there is no subsequent reclassification of fair value gains and losses to profit or loss. Dividends from such investments are recognised in the statement of profit and loss as other income when the Company’s right to receive payments is established.
Changes in the fair value of financial assets at fair value through profit or loss are recognised in other income / expenses in the statement of profit and loss. Impairment losses (and reversal of impairment losses) on equity investments measured at FVOCI are not reported separately from other changes in fair value.
Impairment of financial assets
The Company assesses on a forward looking basis the expected credit losses associated with its assets carried at amortised cost and FVOCI debt instruments. The impairment methodology applied depends on whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk. Note 38 details how the Company determines whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk.
For trade receivables only, the Company applies the simplified approach permitted by Ind AS 109 Financial Instruments, which requires expected lifetime losses to be recognised from initial recognition of the receivables.
De-recognition of financial assets
A financial asset is derecognised only when
- The Company has transferred the rights to receive cash flows from the financial asset or
- retains the contractual rights to receive the cash flows of the financial asset, but assumes a contractual obligation to pay the cash flows to one or more recipients.
Where the entity has transferred an asset, the Company evaluates whether it has transferred substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset. In such cases, the financial asset is derecognised. Where the entity has not transferred substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, the financial asset is not derecognised.
Where the entity has neither transferred a financial asset nor retains substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, the financial asset is derecognised if the Company has not retained control of the financial asset. Where the Company retains control of the financial asset, the asset is continued to be recognised to the extent of continuing involvement in the financial asset.
Interest income from financial assets
Interest income from debt instruments is recognised using the effective interest rate method. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to the gross carrying amount of a financial asset. When calculating the effective interest rate, the Company estimates the expected cash flows by considering all the contractual terms of the financial instrument (for example, prepayment, extension, call and similar options) but does not consider the expected credit losses.
1.9 Financial Liabilities
Non derivative financial liabilities include trade and other payables.
Borrowings and other financial liabilities are initially recognised at fair value (net of transaction costs incurred). Difference between the fair value and the transaction proceeds on initial is recognised as an asset / liability based on the underlying reason for the difference.
Subsequently all financial liabilities are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method
Borrowings are derecognised from the balance sheet when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged, cancelled or expired. The difference between the carrying amount of a financial liability that has been extinguished or transferred to another party and the consideration paid, including any non-cash assets transferred or liabilities assumed, is recognised in the statement of profit and loss. The gain / loss is recognised in other equity in case of transaction with shareholders.
Borrowings are classified as current liabilities unless the Company has an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting period. Where there is a breach of a material provision of a long-term loan arrangement on or before the end of the reporting period with the effect that the liability becomes payable on demand on the reporting date, the entity does not classify the liability as current, if the lender agreed, after the reporting period and before the approval of the financial statements for issue, not to demand payment as a consequence of the breach.
Trade payables are recognised initially at their transaction values which also approximate their fair values and subsequently measured at amortised cost less settlement payments.
Inventories of finished goods, consumable store and spares are valued at cost or net realisable value, whichever is lower. Cost of raw materials and packing materials is ascertained on a specific identification method. Cost of work-in-process and finished goods include the cost of materials consumed, labour and manufacturing overheads. Excise and customs duty accrued on production or import of goods, as applicable, is included in the valuation of inventories.
Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and selling expenses.
The factors that the Company considers in determining the allowance for slow moving, obsolete and other non-saleable inventory includes estimated shelf life, planned product discontinuances, price changes, ageing of inventory and introduction of competitive new products, to the extent each of these factors impact the Company’s business and markets. The Company considers all these factors and adjusts the inventory provision to reflect its actual experience on a periodic basis.
1.11 Accounting for Income Taxes
Income tax expense consists of current and deferred tax. Income tax expense is recognised in the statement of profit and loss except to the extent that it relates to items recognised in Other Comprehensive Income, in which case it is recognised in Other Comprehensive Income. Current tax is the expected tax payable on the taxable income for the year, using tax rates enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date, and any adjustment to tax payable in respect of previous years.
Deferred tax is recognised for temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for taxation purposes.
Deferred tax is not recognised for the following temporary differences:
- The initial recognition of assets or liabilities in a transaction that is not a business combination and that affects neither accounting nor taxable profit, and
- Taxable temporary differences relating to investments in subsidiaries to the extent the Company is probable that the temporary difference will reverse in the foreseeable future and taxable profit will be available against which the temporary difference can be utilised.
In addition, deferred tax is not recognised for taxable temporary differences arising upon the initial recognition of goodwill. Deferred tax is measured at the tax rates that are expected to be applied to the temporary differences when they reverse, based on the laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date.
Deferred tax liabilities are not recognised for temporary differences between the carrying amount and tax bases of investments in subsidiaries, where the Company is able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences and it is probable that the differences will not reverse in the foreseeable future.
Deferred tax assets are not recognised for temporary differences between the carrying amount and tax bases of investments in subsidiaries, where it is not probable that the differences will reverse in the foreseeable future and taxable profit will not be available against which the temporary difference can be utilised.
A deferred tax asset is recognised to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which the temporary difference can be utilised. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realised.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if there is a legally enforceable right to offset current tax liabilities and assets, and they relate to income taxes levied by the same tax authority on the same taxable entity, or on different tax entities, but they intend to settle current tax liabilities and assets on a net basis or their tax assets and liabilities will be realised simultaneously.
1.12 Leasing Activities
At the inception of a lease, the lease arrangement is classified as either a finance lease or an operating lease, based on the substance of the lease arrangement.
A finance lease is recognised as an asset and a liability at the commencement of the lease, at the lower of the fair value of the asset or the present value of the minimum lease payments. Initial direct costs, if any, are also capitalised and, subsequent to initial recognition, the asset is accounted for in accordance with the accounting policy applicable to that asset. Minimum lease payments made under finance leases are apportioned between the finance expense and the reduction of the outstanding liability. The finance expense is allocated to each period during the lease term so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability.
Land acquired on long term leases
The Company has capitalised the land acquired on long term lease. Such leases are acquired on payment of an upfront amount and do not carry any other minimum lease payments/other rentals over the lease term. The asset is initially recognised at the value of the upfront premium/charges paid to acquire the lease.
Leases other than finance leases are operating leases, and the leased assets are not recognised on the Company’s balance sheet. Payments made under operating leases are recognised in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.
Share capital is determined using the nominal value of shares that are issued. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of ordinary shares are recognised as a deduction from equity, net of any tax effects.
Share premium includes any premium received on the issue of share capital. Any transaction costs associated with the issue of shares is deducted from Share premium, net of any related income tax benefits.
Retained earnings include all current and prior period results, as disclosed in the statement of profit and loss.
1.14 Employee Benefits Short-term benefits
Short-term benefit obligations are measured on an undiscounted basis and are expensed as the related service is provided. A liability is recognised for the amount expected to be paid under short-term cash bonus or profit-sharing plans if the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation to pay this amount as a result of past service provided by the employee and the obligation can be estimated reliably.
Defined contribution plans
A defined contribution plan is a post-employment benefit plan under which the Company pays fixed contributions into a separate entity and will have no legal or constructive obligation to pay further amounts. Obligations for contributions to recognised provident funds, approved superannuation schemes and other social securities, which are defined contribution plans, are recognised as an employee benefit expense in the statement of profit and loss as incurred.
Defined benefit plans
A defined benefit plan is a post-employment benefit plan other than a defined contribution plan. The Company’s net obligation in respect of an approved gratuity plan, which is a defined benefit plan, and certain other defined benefit plans is calculated separately for each material plan by estimating the ultimate cost to the entity of the benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior periods. This requires an entity to determine how much benefit is attributable to the current and prior periods and to make estimates (actuarial assumptions) about demographic variables and financial variables that will affect the cost of the benefit. The cost of providing benefits under the defined benefit plan is determined using actuarial valuation performed annually by a qualified actuary using the projected unit credit method.
The benefit is discounted to determine the present value of the defined benefit obligation and the current service cost. The discount rate is the yield at the reporting date on risk free government bonds that have maturity dates approximating the terms of the Company’s obligations and that are denominated in the same currency in which the benefits are expected to be paid.
The fair value of any plan assets is deducted from the present value of the defined benefit obligation to determine the amount of deficit or surplus. The net defined benefit liability / (asset) is determined as the amount of the deficit or surplus, adjusted for any effect of limiting a net defined benefit asset to the asset ceiling. The net defined benefit liability / (asset) is recognised in the balance sheet.
Defined benefit costs are recognised as follows:
- Service cost in the statement of profit and loss
- Net interest on the net defined benefit liability (asset) in the statement of profit and loss
- Remeasurement of the net defined benefit liability / (asset) in other comprehensive income
Service costs comprise of current service cost, past service cost, as well as gains and losses on curtailment and settlements. The benefit attributable to current and past periods of service is determined using the plan’s benefit formula. However, if an employee’s service in later years will lead to a materially higher level of benefit than in earlier years, the benefit is attributed on a straight-line basis. Past service cost is recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the period of plan amendment. A gain or loss on the settlement of a defined benefit plan is recognised when the settlement occurs.
Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate at the beginning of the period to the net defined benefit liability / (asset) at the beginning of the period, taking account of any changes in the net defined benefit liability / (asset) during the period as a result of contribution and benefit payments.
Remeasurement comprises of actuarial gains and losses, the return on plan assets (excluding interest), and the effect of changes to the asset ceiling (if applicable). Remeasurement recognised in other comprehensive income is not reclassified to the statement of profit and loss.
Compensated leave of absence
Eligible employees are entitled to accumulate compensated absences up to prescribed limits in accordance with the Company’s policy and receive cash in lieu thereof. The Company measures the expected cost of accumulating compensated absences as the additional amount that the Company expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the date of balance sheet. Such measurement is based on actuarial valuation as at the date of balance sheet carried out by a qualified actuary.
Termination benefits are recognised as an expense when the Company is demonstrably committed, without realistic possibility of withdrawal, to a formal detailed plan to either terminate employment before the normal retirement date, or to provide termination benefits as a result of an offer made to encourage voluntary redundancy. Termination benefits for voluntary redundancies are recognised as an expense if the Company has made an offer encouraging voluntary redundancy, it is probable that the offer will be accepted, and the number of acceptances can be estimated reliably.
1.15 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets
Provisions are recognised when present obligations as a result of past events will probably lead to an outflow of economic resources from the Company and they can be estimated reliably. Timing or amount of the outflow may still be uncertain. A present obligation arises from the presence of a legal or constructive obligation that has resulted from past events.
Provisions are measured at the best estimate of expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the reporting date, based on the most reliable evidence, including the risks and uncertainties associated with the present obligation.
In those cases where the possible outflow of economic resource as a result of present obligations is considered improbable or remote, or the amount to be provided for cannot be measured reliably, no liability is recognised in the balance sheet.
Any amount that the Company can be virtually certain to collect from a third party with respect to the obligation is recognised as a separate asset upto the amount of the related provisions. All provisions are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimate.
Contingent assets are not recognised.
1.16 Share based Compensation
All employee services received in exchange for the grant of any equity-settled share-based compensation are measured at their fair values. These are indirectly determined by reference to the fair value of the share options awarded. Their value is appraised at the grant date and excludes the impact of any non-market vesting conditions (for example, profitability and sales growth targets).
All share-based compensation is ultimately recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss with a corresponding credit to equity. If vesting periods or other vesting conditions apply, the expense is allocated over the vesting period, based on the best available estimate of the number of share options expected to vest. Non-market vesting conditions are included in assumptions about the number of options that are expected to become exercisable. Estimates are subsequently revised, if there is any indication that the number of share options expected to vest differs from previous estimates.
No adjustment is made to expense recognised in prior periods if fewer share options are ultimately exercised than originally estimated. Upon exercise of share options, the proceeds received net of any directly attributable transaction costs up to the nominal value of the shares issued are allocated to share capital with any excess being recorded as share premium.