1. Significant Accounting Policies
1.1 Property, Plant and Equipments (PPE)
A. Tangible Assets
(i) Property, Plant and Equipment are stated at original cost net of tax/duty credit availed, less accumulated depreciation. All costs relating to acquisition of fixed assets till commissioning of such assets are capitalized. In the case of commissioned assets where final payment to the Contractors is pending, capitalization is made on provisional basis, including provisional liability pending approval of Competent Authority, subject to necessary adjustment in cost and depreciation in the year of settlement.
(ii) Stores & Spares which meet the definition of PPE (whether as component or otherwise) and satisfy the recognition criteria, are capitalized as PPE in the underlying asset. Major inspection/ overhaul/repair is recognized in the carrying amount of respective assets as a replacement if the recognition criteria are satisfied. All other repair and maintenance costs are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss as incurred.
(iii) Technical know-how/license fee incurred at the time of procurement of PPE are capitalized as part of the underlying asset.
B. Intangible Assets
(iv) Intangible assets like Right of Use (RoU), Software, Licenses which are expected to provide future enduring economic benefits are capitalized as Intangible Assets and are stated at their cost of acquisition less accumulated amortization and any accumulated impairment loss.
1.2 Capital Work in Progress
(i) Crop compensation is accounted for under Capital Work-in-Progress on the basis of actual payments/estimated liability, as and when work commences where ROU is acquired.
(ii) The capital work in progress includes Construction Stores including Material in Transit/ Equipment / Services, etc. received at site for use in the projects.
(iii) All revenue expenses incurred during Construction Period, which are exclusively attributable to acquisition / construction of the asset, are capitalized at the time of commissioning of such assets.
1.3 Exploration and Development Costs
a. The Company follows Successful Efforts Method for accounting of Oil & Gas exploration and production activities carried out through Joint Ventures in the nature of Production Sharing Contracts (PSC) with respective host government and various body corporates for exploration, development and production activities, which includes:
(i) Survey Costs are recognized as revenue expenditure in the year in which these are incurred.
(ii) Cost of exploratory/development wells are carried as Intangible assets under development/Capital work in progress. Such exploratory wells in progress are capitalized in the year in which the Producing Property is created. Such costs are written off in the year when determined to be dry / abandoned.
(iii) Cost of all “exploratory wells in progress” is debited to Statement of Profits and Loss except of those wells for which there are reasonable indications of sufficient quantity of reserves and the enterprise is making sufficient progress assessing the reserves and the economic and operating viability of the project.
b. Capitalization of Producing Properties
(i) Producing Properties are capitalized as “completed wells / producing wells” when the wells in the area / field are ready to commence commercial production on establishment of proved developed oil and gas reserves.
(ii) Cost of Producing Properties includes cost of successful exploratory wells, development wells, initial depreciation of support equipments& facilities and estimated future abandonment cost.
c. Depletion of Producing Properties
Producing Properties are depleted using the “Unit of Production Method (UOP)” The depletion or unit of production charged for all the capitalized cost is calculated in the ratio of production during the year to the proved developed reserves at the year end.
d. Production cost of Producing Properties
Company’s share of production costs as indicated by Operator consists of pre well head and post well head expenses including depreciation and applicable operating cost of support equipment and facilities.
e. Accounting for joint operations
In relation to its interests in joint operations entered through Production Sharing Contracts (PSC), the company recognizes its proportionate share in assets, liabilities, revenue from the sale of the output, expenses of the joint operation entity, in the financial statements.
1.4 Foreign Currency Transaction
(i) Functional Currency of the Company is Indian Rupee (Rs.).
(ii) Transactions in foreign currency are initially accounted at the exchange rate prevailing on the transaction date.
(iii) Monetary items (such as Cash, Receivables, Loans, Payables, etc.) denominated in foreign currencies, outstanding at the year end, are translated at exchange rates (BC Selling Rate for Payables and TT Buying Rate for Receivables) prevailing at year end.
(iv) Non-monetary items (such as Investments, Property plant and equipment, etc.), denominated in foreign currencies are accounted at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of transaction(s).
(v) Any gains or loss arising on account of exchange difference either on settlement or on translation is adjusted in the Statement of Profit & Loss.
(vi) Non-monetary items measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value is determined. The gain or loss arising on translation of non-monetary items is recognized in line with the gain or loss of the item arising on determination of fair value of such item, either in other comprehensive income or the Statement of Profit and Loss as the case may be.
1.5 Borrowing Cost
Borrowing cost of the funds specifically borrowed for the purpose of obtaining qualifying assets and eligible for capitalization along with the cost of the assets, is capitalized up to the date when the asset is ready for its intended use after netting off any income earned on temporary investment of such funds. Other borrowing costs are recognized as expense in the year of incurrence.
In case of depreciable assets, the cost of the assets is shown at gross value and grant thereon is taken to deferred income which is recognised as income in the Statement of Profit and Loss over the useful life of the asset.
a) Stock of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Natural Gas in pipelines is valued at cost on First in First out (FIFO) basis or net realizable value, whichever is lower.
b) Raw materials and finished goods are valued at weighted average cost or net realizable value, whichever is lower. Finished goods include excise duty and royalty wherever applicable.
c) Stock in process is valued at weighted average cost or net realisable value, whichever is lower. It is valued at weighted average cost where the finished goods in which these are to be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above the weighted average cost.
d) Stores and spares and other material for use in production of inventories are valued at weighted average cost or net realisable value, whichever is lower. It is valued at weighted average cost where the finished goods in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at/or above cost.
e) Surplus / Obsolete Stores and Spares are valued at cost or net realisable value, whichever is lower.
f) Surplus / Obsolete Capital Stores, other than held for use in construction of a capital asset, are valued at lower of cost or net realisable value.
g) Imported LNG in transit is valued at CIF value or net realizable value whichever is lower.
h) Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) are valued at cost on First in First out (FIFO) basis or net realizable value, whichever is lower.
1.8 Revenue recognition
a) Sales are recognized on transfer of significant risks and rewards of ownership to the buyer, which generally coincides with the delivery of goods to customers. Sales include excise duty but exclude value added tax. Any retrospective revision in prices is accounted for in the year of such revision. It is measured at fair value of consideration received or receivable, net of returns and allowances, trade discounts and volume rebates.
b) Income from Consultancy/Contract Services, if any, is recognized based on percentage Completion Method.
c) Dividend income is accounted for when the right to receive is established.
d) Claims (including interest on delayed realization from customers) are accounted for, when there is significant certainty that the claims are realizable.
e) Insurance claims are accounted for on the basis of claims admitted by the insurers.
f) Liability in respect of Minimum Guaranteed Offtake (MGO) of Natural gas is not provided for where the same is secured by MGO recoverable from customers. Payments/receipts during the year on account of MGO are adjusted on receipt basis.
g) Minimum charges relating to transportation of LPG are accounted for on receipt basis.
h) Contributions by customers towards items of Property, Plant and Equipment, realized in pursuance of a contract after 01/04/2015 are credited to deferred revenue and are amortized over the period of contract. Any tangible assets built/to be built, wherever applicable, under such contract are stated at gross value thereof.
1.9 Depreciation /Amortisation
A. Tangible Assets
Depreciation on Tangible PPE (including enabling assets) is provided in accordance with the manner and useful life as specified in Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013, on straight line method (SLM) on pro-rata basis (monthly pro-rata for bought out assets), except for the assets as mentioned below where different useful life has been taken on the basis of external / internal technical evaluation:
(ii) Cost of the leasehold land is amortised over the lease period except perpetual leases.
(iii) Depreciation due to price adjustment in the original cost of fixed assets is charged prospectively.
B. Intangible Assets
(i) Intangible assets comprising software and licences are amortised on Straight Line Method (SLM) over the useful life from the date of capitalization which is considered not exceeding five years.
Right of use (ROU) having indefinite life (for which there is no foreseeable limit to the period over which they are expected to generate net cash flows given the fact that these rights can be used even after the life of respective pipelines) are not amortized, but are tested for impairment annually.
(ii) After impairment of assets, if any, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the assets over its remaining useful life.
C. Capital assets facilities installed at the consumers’ premises
Capital assets facilities installed at the consumers’ premises on the land whose ownership is not with the company, has been depreciated on SLM basis in accordance with the useful life as specified in Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013.
1.10 Employees Benefits
(a) All short term employee benefits are recognized at the undiscounted amount in the accounting period in which they are incurred.
(b) The Company’s contribution to the Provident Fund is remitted to a separate trust established for this purpose based on a fixed percentage of the eligible employee’s salary and debited to Statement of Profit and Loss. Further, the company makes provision as per actuarial valuation towards any shortfall in fund assets to meet statutory rate of interest in the future period, to be compensated by the company to the Provident Fund Trust.
(c) Employee Benefits under Defined Benefit Plans in respect of leave encashment, compensated absences, post-retirement medical scheme, long service award and other terminal benefits are recognized based on the present value of defined benefit obligation, which is computed on the basis of actuarial valuation using the Projected Unit Credit Method. Actuarial liability in excess of respective plan assets is recognized during the year.
(d) Re-measurement including actuarial gains and losses are recognized in the balance sheet with a corresponding debit or credit to retained earnings through Statement of Profit and Loss or Other Comprehensive Income in the year of occurrence, as the case may be. Re-measurements are not reclassified to the Statement of Profit and Loss in subsequent periods.
(e) Liability for gratuity as per actuarial valuation is funded with a separate trust.
1.11 Impairment of non-financial assets
The Carrying amount of cash generating unit are reviewed at each reporting date. In case there is any indication of impairment based on Internal/External factors, impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of asset exceeds its recoverable amount.
1.12 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities, Contingent Assets & Capital Commitments
(a) Provisions involving substantial degree of estimation in measurement are recognized when there is a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that there will be an outflow of resources. Contingent liabilities/ assets exceeding Rs.5 Lacs in each case are disclosed by way of notes to accounts except when there is remote possibility of settlement/realization.
(b) Estimated amount of contracts remaining to be executed on capital accounts are disclosed in each case above Rs.5 lacs.
1.13 Taxes on Income
Provision for current tax is made as per the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961. Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) credit is recognized as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal Income Tax during the specified period.
Deferred tax is provided, using the balance sheet method, on all temporary differences at the reporting date between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes considering the tax rate and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted as on the reporting date. Deferred tax relating to items recognized outside Statement of Profit and Loss is recognized outside Statement of Profit and Loss (either in Other Comprehensive Income or in Equity).
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and is adjusted to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.
1.14 R&D Expenditure
Revenue expenditure on Research and Development is charged to Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which it is incurred. Capital expenditure on Research and Development is capitalized in case the same qualifies as an asset.
1.15 Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash at bank and in hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value
1.16 Segment reporting
The Management of the company monitors the operating results of its business Segments for the purpose of making decisions about resource allocation and performance assessment. Segment performance is evaluated based on profit or loss and is measured consistently with profit or loss in the financial statements.
The Operating segments have been identified on the basis of the nature of products / services.
a) Segment revenue includes directly identifiable with/allocable to the segment including inter-segment revenue.
b) Expenses that are directly identifiable with / allocable to segments are considered for determining the segment result.
c) Expenses which relate to the Company as a whole and not allocable to segments are included under unallocable expenditure.
d) Income which relates to the Company as a whole and not allocable to segments is included in unallocable income.
e) Segment assets and liabilities include those directly identifiable with the respective segments. Unallocable assets and liabilities represent the assets and liabilities that relate to the Company as a whole and not allocable to any segment.
1.17 Earning per share
Basic earnings per equity share is computed by dividing the net profit after tax attributable to the equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per equity share is computed by dividing adjusted net profit after tax by the aggregate of weighted average number of equity shares and dilutive potential equity shares during the year.
A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of the Company is classified as a finance lease.
(A) Company as a lessee
Assets acquired on leases where a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are retained by lessor are classified as operating leases. Lease rentals are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss on straight line basis. However, rent expenses shall not be straight-lined, if escalation in rentals is in line with expected inflationary cost.
Finance leases are capitalized at the commencement of the lease at the inception date fair value of the leased property or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognized in finance costs in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
(B) Company as a lessor
Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of an asset are classified as operating leases. Rental income from operating lease is recognised on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Leases are classified as finance leases when substantially all of the risks and rewards incidental to ownership is transferred by the Company to the lessee.
1.19 Liquidated damages/ Price Reduction Schedule
Amount recovered towards Liquidated Damages/Price Reduction Schedule are adjusted/appropriated as and when the matter is settled.
1.20 Fair value measurement
The Company measures financial instruments including derivatives and specific investments (other than subsidiary, joint venture and associates), at fair value at each balance sheet date.
All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorized within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:
(i) Level 1 - Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
(ii) Level 2 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable
(iii) Level 3 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable.
For assets and liabilities that are recognized in the balance sheet on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by reassessing categorization (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.
For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the Company has determined classes of assets and liabilities on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy as explained above.
1.21 Financial instruments
A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.
(A) Financial assets
The Company classifies financial assets as subsequently measured at amortized cost, fair value through other comprehensive income or fair value through Statement of Profit and Loss on the basis of its business model for managing the financial assets and the contractual cash flows characteristics of the financial asset.
(ii) Initial recognition and measurement
All financial assets are recognized initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through Statement of Profit and Loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset.
(iii) Subsequent measurement
For purposes of subsequent measurement financial assets are classified in below categories:
(a) Financial assets carried at amortised cost
A financial asset other than derivatives and specific investments, is subsequently measured at amortised cost if it is held within a business model whose objective is to hold the asset in order to collect contractual cash flows and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
(b) Financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income
A financial asset comprising specific investment is subsequently measured at fair value through other comprehensive income if it is held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding. The Company has made an irrevocable election for its investments which are classified as equity instruments to present the subsequent changes in fair value in other comprehensive income based on its business model.
(c) Financial assets at fair value through Statement of Profit and Loss
A financial asset comprising derivatives which is not classified in any of the above categories are subsequently fair valued through profit or loss.
A financial asset is primarily derecognized when the rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired or the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset.
(v) Investment in subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates
The company has accounted for its investment in subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates at cost. The company assesses whether there is any indication that these investments may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the investment is considered for impairment based on the fair value thereof.
(vi) Impairment of other financial assets
The Company assesses impairment based on expected credit losses (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the financial assets that are trade receivables or contract revenue receivables and all lease receivables etc.
(B) Financial liabilities
The Company classifies all financial liabilities as subsequently measured at amortized cost, except for financial liabilities at fair value through Statement of Profit and Loss. Such liabilities, including derivatives shall be subsequently measured at fair value.
(ii) Initial recognition and measurement
All financial liabilities are recognized initially at fair value and, in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs. The Company’s financial liabilities include trade and other payables, loans and borrowings including bank overdrafts, and derivative financial instruments.
(iii) Subsequent measurement
The measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification, as described below:
(a) Financial liabilities at amortised cost
After initial recognition, interest-bearing loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Gains and losses are recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss when the liabilities are derecognized as well as through the EIR amortization process.
Amortized cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortization is included as finance costs in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
(b) Financial liabilities at fair value through Statement of Profit and Loss
Financial liabilities at fair value through Statement of Profit and Loss include financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through Statement of Profit and Loss. Financial liabilities are classified as held for trading if they are incurred for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term. This category comprises derivative financial instruments entered into by the Company that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as defined by Ind AS 109. Separated embedded derivatives are also classified as held for trading unless they are designated as effective hedging instruments. Gains or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
A financial liability is derecognized when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires.
(a) Offsetting of financial instruments
Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognized amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realize the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously
(b) Derivative financial instruments
The Company uses derivative financial instruments, such as forward currency contracts, interest rate swaps, full currency swaps and forward commodity contracts, to hedge its foreign currency risks, interest rate risks and commodity price risks, respectively. Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognized at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently remeasured at fair value. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.
Any gains or losses arising from changes in the fair value of derivatives are taken directly to Statement of Profit and Loss.
1.22 Standards Issued but not yet Effective
a) Ind - AS 115 “Revenue from Contract with Customers
Ind AS 115 was issued in February, 2015. The core principle of the new standard is that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to the customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. Further, the new standard requires enhanced disclosures about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from the entity’s contracts with customers.
This standard will come into force from accounting period commencing on or after 1st April, 2018. The company will adopt the new standard on the required effective date. The Company is in the process of making an assessment of the impact of Ind - AS 115 upon initial application, which is subject to changes arising from a more detailed ongoing analysis.
b) Amendments to Ind AS 7 “Statement of cash flows”
The amendment to Ind AS 7 requires the entities to provide disclosures that enable users of financial statements to evaluate changes in liabilities arising from financing activities, including both changes arising from cash flows and non-cash changes, suggesting inclusion of a reconciliation between the opening and closing balances in the balance sheet for liabilities arising from financing activities, to meet the disclosure requirement.
This amendment is effective for accounting period commencing on or after 1st April, 2017. The Company is evaluating the requirements of the amendment and the effect on the financial statements is being evaluated.