In terms of revised Accounting Standard (AS) 4 “Contingencies and Events occurring after the Balance sheet date” as notified by the Ministry of Corporate affairs through amendments to Companies (Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2016 dated March 30, 2016, Bank has not accounted for proposed dividend as a liability as at March 31, 2017. Proposed dividend was however accounted as a liability as at March 31, 2016, in line with existing accounting standard applicable at that time.
1.1 Revenue Recognition
- Interest income is recognised on an accrual basis except interest income on non-performing assets, loans under Scheme for Sustainable Structuring of Stressed Assets (S4A) and Strategic Debt restructuring (SDR) scheme of RBI which is recognised upon receipt in accordance with AS-9, Revenue Recognition as prescribed under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 and as specified in RBI guidelines.
- Interest on income tax refund is recognised in the year of passing of Assessment Orders.
- The recoveries made from NPA accounts are appropriated first towards unrealized interest/income debited to borrowers accounts, then expenditure/out of pocket expenses incurred and lastly towards principal dues.
- Processing fees collected on loans disbursed, along with related loan acquisition costs are recognised at inception/ Renewal of the loan.
- Income on discounted instruments is recognised over the tenure of the instrument on a straight line basis.
- Guarantee commission, commission on letter of credit and annual locker rent fees are recognised on a straight line basis over the period of contract. Other fees and commission income are recognised when due, except in cases where the bank is uncertain of ultimate collection.
- Dividend on Equity Shares, Preference Shares and on Mutual Funds is recognised as Income when the right to receive the dividend is established.
- Loan Syndication fee is accounted for on completion of the agreed service and when right to receive is established.
- In compromise settlement cases, sacrifice on settlement is accounted upfront.
- Unpaid funded interest on term loans are accounted on realisation as per the guidelines of RBI.
- The difference between the sale price and purchase cost of gold coins, received on consignment basis is included in other income.
Advances are classified into performing assets (Standard) and nonperforming assets (''''NPAs'''') as per the RBI guidelines and are stated net of bills rediscounted, specific provisions made towards NPAs, floating provisions and unrealized interest on NPAs. Interest on Non Performing advances is transferred to an unrealized interest account and not recognized in profit and loss account until received. Further, NPAs are classified into sub-standard, doubtful and loss assets based on the criteria stipulated by the RBI. The Bank has made provision for Non-Performing Assets as stipulated under Reserve Bank of India (RBI) norms.
The Bank also maintains provisions on loans under Scheme for Sustainable Structuring of Stressed Assets (S4A) and Strategic Debt restructuring (SDR) scheme as per the RBI guidelines. Amounts recovered against debts written off are recognised in the profit and loss account and included under “Other Income”.
For restructured/rescheduled assets, provision is made in accordance with the guidelines issued by the RBI, which requires the diminution in the fair value of the assets to be provided at the time of restructuring. In respect of loans and advances accounts subjected to restructuring, the account is upgraded to standard only after the specified period i.e. a period of one year after the date when first payment of interest or of principal, whichever is later, falls due, subject to satisfactory performance of the account during the period.
Provision for Unhedged Foreign currency Exposure (UFCE) of borrower entities, is made in accordance with the guidelines issued by RBI, which requires the Bank to ascertain the amount of UFCE, estimate the extent of likely loss and estimate the riskness of unhedged position of those entities. The Provision is classified under Schedule 5 - Other Liabilities in the Balance Sheet The Bank maintains general provision for standard assets including credit exposures computed as per the current marked to market values of interest rate and foreign exchange derivative contracts, in accordance with the guidelines and at levels stipulated by RBI from time to time - Farm Credit to agricultural activities and Small and Micro Enterprises (SMEs) 0.25%, Commercial Real Estate at 1%, restructured advances at 5%, teaser rate housing loans at 2%, commercial real estate- residential housing at 0.75% and for other sectors at 0.40%.
The bank transfers advances through inter-bank participation with and without risk. In accordance with the RBI guidelines, in the case of participation with risk, the aggregate amount of the participation issued by the Bank is reduced from advances and where bank is participating, the aggregate amount of participation is classified under advances. In the case of participation without risk, the aggregate amount of participation issued by the Bank is classified under borrowings and where the bank is participating, the aggregate amount of participation is shown as due from banks under advances.
Loss on sale of assets to Asset Reconstruction Companies
The RBI issued guidelines on sale of non-performing advances on February 26, 2014. In accordance with these guidelines, if the sale of non- performing advances is at a price below the net book value, the shortfall is charged to the Profit and Loss Account spread over a period of two years. If the sale is for a value higher than the net book value, the excess provision is credited to the Profit and Loss Account in the year the amounts are received.
1.3 Country risk
In addition to the provisions required to be held according to the asset classification status, provisions are held for individual country exposure (other than for home country). The countries are categorised into seven risk categories namely insignificant, low, moderate, high, very high, restricted and off-credit as per Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India Limited (“ECGC”) guidelines and provision is made in respect of the country where the net funded exposure is 1% or more of the bank''''s total funded assets.
1.4 Investments Classification
In accordance with the RBI guidelines, investments are categorised at the time of purchase as:
- Held for Trading (HFT);
- Available for Sale (AFS); and
- Held to Maturity (HTM)
Investments which are primarily held for sale within 90 days from the date of purchase are classified as “Held for Trading”. As per RBI guidelines, HFT Securities which remain unsold for a period of 90 days are classified as AFS Securities on that date. Investments which the bank intends to hold till maturity are classified as “Held to Maturity”.
Investments which are not classified in either of the above two categories are classified as “Available for Sale”.
Under each of these categories, investments are further classified under six groups (hereinafter called groups) - Government Securities, Other Approved Securities, Shares, Debentures and Bonds, Investments in Subsidiaries/ Joint Ventures and Other Investments for the purposes of disclosure in the Balance Sheet.
Transfer of securities between Categories
Transfer of securities between categories is done at the lower of the acquisition cost / book value / market value on the date of the transfer and the depreciation, if any, on such transfer is fully provided for, as per RBI guidelines.
In determining the acquisition cost of the Investment:
- Transaction costs including brokerage and commission pertaining to acquisition of Investments are charged to the Profit and Loss Account.
- Broken period interest is charged to the Profit and Loss Account.
- Cost of investments is computed based on the weighted average cost method.
The valuation of investments is made in accordance with the RBI Guidelines as follows:
a) Held for Trading /Available for Sale - Investments classified under the AFS and HFT categories are marked-to-market. The market/fair value of quoted investments included in the ''''AFS'''' and ''''HFT'''' categories is the Market Price of the Scrip as available from the trades/ quotes on the stock exchanges or prices declared by Primary Dealers Association of India (''''PDAI'''') jointly with Fixed Income Money Market and Derivative Associations of India (''''FIMMDA''''), periodically. Net depreciation, if any, within each category of each investment classification is recognised in Profit and Loss Account. The net appreciation, if any, under each category of each Investment is ignored. Except in cases where provision for diminution other than temporary is created, the Book value of individual securities is not changed consequent to the periodic valuation of Investments.
b) Held to Maturity- These are carried at their acquisition cost. Any premium on acquisition of government securities are amortised over the remaining maturity period of the security on a straight line basis. Any diminution, other than temporary, in the value of such securities is provided for.
c) Treasury Bills and Certificate of Deposits being discounted instruments, are valued at carrying cost.
d) Units of Mutual Funds are valued at the latest repurchase price/net asset value declared by Mutual Fund.
e) Market value of investments where current quotations are not available, is determined as per the norms prescribed by the RBI as under:
- in case of unquoted bonds, debentures and preference shares where interest/dividend is received regularly (i.e. not overdue beyond 90 days), the market price is derived based on the Yield to Maturity (YTM) for Government Securities as published by FIMMDA/ PDAI and suitably marked up for credit risk applicable to the credit rating of the instrument. The matrix for credit risk mark-up for each categories and credit ratings along with residual maturity issued by FIMMDA are adopted for this purpose;
- in case of bonds and debentures (including Pass Through Certificates or PTCs) where interest is not received regularly (i.e. overdue beyond 90 days), the valuation is in accordance with prudential norms for provisioning as prescribed by RBI;
- Equity shares, for which current quotations are not available or where the shares are not quoted on the stock exchanges, are valued at break-up value (without considering revaluation reserves, if any) which is ascertained from the company''''s latest Balance Sheet. In case the latest Balance Sheet is not available, the shares are valued at Re. 1/- per company;
- Depreciation on equity shares acquired and held by the Bank under SDR scheme is provided over a period of four calendar quarters from the date of conversion of debt into equity in accordance with the RBI guidelines.
- Units of Venture Capital Funds (VCF) held under AFS category where current quotations are not available are marked to market based on the Net Asset Value (NAV) shown by VCF as per the latest audited financials of the fund. In case the audited financials are not available for a period beyond 18 months, the investments are valued at Re.1/- per VCF. Investment in unquoted VCF after 23rd August, 2006 are categorised under HTM category for the initial period of three years and valued at cost as per RBI guidelines;
- Investment in security receipts are valued as per the Net Asset Value (NAV) obtained from the issuing Reconstruction Company /Securitisation Company.
f) Investments in subsidiaries/associates are categorised as HTM and assessed for impairment to determine permanent diminution, if any, in accordance with the RBI guidelines.
g) The Bank follows trade date method of accounting for purchase and sale of investments, except for Government of India and State Government securities where settlement date method of accounting is followed in accordance with RBI Guidelines.
h) Non Performing Investments are identified and valued based on RBI Guidelines.
Disposal of Investments
a) Held for Trading and Available for Sale - Profit or loss on sale / redemption is included in the Profit and Loss account.
b) Held to Maturity - Profit on sale /redemption of investments is included in the Profit and Loss Account and is appropriated to Capital Reserve after adjustments for tax and transfer to statutory Reserve. Loss on sale / redemption is charged to the Profit and Loss account.
Repo and Reverse Repo transactions
In accordance with the RBI guidelines repo and reverse repo transactions in government securities are reflected as borrowing and lending transactions respectively. Borrowing cost on repo transactions is accounted for as interest expense and revenue on reverse repo is accounted for as interest income.
Pursuant to RBI Circular FMRD.DIRD.10/14.03.002/2015-16 dated May 19, 2016, as amended, the bank has considered its repo/ reverse repo transactions under Liquidity Adjustment Facility (LAF) and Marginal Standing Facility (MSF) of RBI as Borrowings/Lending, as the case may be. Hitherto, the repo/ reverse repo transactions under Liquidity Adjustment Facility (LAF) and Marginal Standing Facility (MSF) of RBI were included under Investments.
In accordance with the RBI guidelines, the Bank undertakes short sale transactions in Central Government dated securities. The Short Sales positions are reflected in ''''Securities Short Sold (''''SSS'''') A/C'''', specifically created for this purpose. Such short positions are categorized under HFT category. These positions are marked -to-market along with the other securities under HFT Portfolio and resultant mark-to-market gains/losses are accounted for as per the relevant RBI guidelines for valuation of Investments discussed earlier.
1.5 Transactions involving foreign exchange
Foreign currency income and expenditure items of domestic operations are translated at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction. Income and expenditure items of nonintegral foreign operations (foreign branches) are translated at quarterly average closing rates.
Foreign currency monetary items of domestic operation are translated at the closing exchange rates notified by Foreign Exchange Dealer''''s Association of India (FEDAI) as at the Balance sheet date and the resulting net valuation profit or loss is recognized in the profit and loss account.
Both Monetary and Non- Monetary foreign currency Assets and liabilities of Non- Integral Foreign Operations are translated at closing exchange rates notified by FEDAI at the balance sheet date and the resulting profit/loss arising from exchange differences are accumulated in Foreign currency translation Reserve until remittance or the disposal of the net investment in the nonintegral foreign operations in accordance with AS-11.
Foreign exchange spot and forward Contracts (Other than Foreign exchange swaps taken to hedge Federal Rupee plus deposits denominated in JPY) outstanding as at the Balance Sheet date are revalued at the closing Spot and Forward Rates respectively as notified by FEDAI and at interpolated rates for contracts of interim maturities. For valuation of contracts having longer maturities i.e. greater than one year, the forward points (for rates/tenures not published by FEDAI) are obtained from Reuters for valuation of the FX Deals. As directed by FEDAI to consider profit or loss on present value basis, the forward profit or loss on the deals are discounted till the valuation date using the discounting yields. The resulting profit or loss on valuation is recognised in the Profit and Loss Account.
Foreign exchange swaps taken to hedge Federal Rupee plus deposits denominated in JPY are translated at the prevailing spot rate at the time of swap. The Premium/ Discount on the swap arising out of the difference in the exchange rate of the swap date and maturity date of the underlying forward exchange contract is amortised over the period of the swap and the same is recognised in the Profit and Loss Account.
Contingent liabilities on account of foreign exchange contracts, guarantees, letters of credit, acceptances and endorsements are reported at closing rates of exchange notified by FEDAI as at the Balance Sheet date
1.6 Derivative transactions
The Bank recognises all derivative contracts at fair value, on the date on which the derivative contracts are entered into and are remeasured at fair value as at the Balance sheet or reporting dates. Derivatives are classified as assets when the fair value is positive (Positive marked-to-market) or as liabilities when the fair value is negative (negative marked-to-market). Changes in the fair value of derivatives other than those designated as hedges are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account.
1.7 Fixed assets and depreciation
Fixed assets are carried at cost of acquisition less accumulated depreciation and impairment, if any. Cost includes cost of purchase and all expenditure like freight, duties, taxes and incidental expenses related to the acquisition and installation of the asset. Capital work-in-progress includes cost of fixed assets that are not ready for their intended use and also includes advances paid to acquire fixed assets.
Depreciation on fixed assets, including amortisation of software, is charged over the estimated useful life of fixed assets on a straight-line basis at the rates and manner prescribed in Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013, except as mentioned below:
- Premises are depreciated under the written down value method, using the same useful life as in Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013. Improvement to leased Premises are depreciated over 5 years based on technical evaluation.
- Depreciation on premises revalued has been charged on their written-down value including the addition made on revaluation.
- Assets individually costing Rs.2,000/- or less are fully depreciated in the year of purchase.
Depreciation on assets sold during the year is recognised on a pro-rata basis till the date of sale.
Profit on sale of premises is appropriated to Capital Reserve account in accordance with RBI instructions.
1.8 Impairment of Assets
The carrying values of assets at each balance sheet date are reviewed for impairment, if any indication of impairment exists. If the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the estimated recoverable amount, an impairment is recognised for such excess amount. The impairment loss is recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss Account, unless the asset is carried at revalued amount, in which case any impairment loss of the revalued asset is treated as a revaluation decrease to the extent a revaluation reserve is available for that asset.
The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor.
When there is indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset (other than a revalued asset) in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognised in the Profit and Loss Account, to the extent the amount was previously charged to the Profit and Loss Account. In case of revalued assets such reversal is not recognized.
1.9 Non-Banking Assets
Non-Banking assets acquired in settlement of debts / dues are accounted at the lower of their cost of acquisition or net realisable value.
1.10 Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash in hand, balances with Reserve Bank of India and Balances with Other Banks / institutions and money at call and short notice (including the effect of changes in exchange rates on cash and cash equivalents in foreign currency).
1.11 Lease transactions Operating Lease
Leases where the lessor effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership over the lease term are classified as operating lease. Lease payments for assets taken on operating lease are recognised as an expense in the Profit and Loss Account as per the lease terms.
1.12 Retirement and other employee benefits
a) Provident Fund
The contribution made by the bank to The Federal Bank Employees Provident Fund, administered by the trustees is charged to the Profit and Loss account.
b) Pension Fund
The contribution towards The Federal Bank Employees'''' Pension Fund, managed by trustees, is determined on actuarial basis on projected unit credit method as on the Balance Sheet date and is recognised in the profit and loss accounts.
Employees who had joined the services of the Bank with effect from April 01, 2010 are covered under Defined Contributory Pension Scheme (DCPS). In respect of such employees the bank contributes 10% of the Basic Pay plus Dearness Allowance and the expenditure thereof is charged to the Profit and Loss account.
The bank makes annual contribution to The Federal Bank Employees'''' Gratuity Trust Fund administered and managed by the Trustees. The cost of providing such benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each balance sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account in the period in which they occur. The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the Balance Sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognised past service cost, as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets. Any asset resulting from this calculation is limited to past service cost, plus the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the schemes.
d) Compensation for absence on Privilege / Sick / Casual Leave and Leave Travel Concession (LTC)
The employees of the bank are entitled to compensated absence on account of privilege / sick / casual leave as per the leave rules. The bank measures the long term expected cost of compensated absence as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the balance sheet date based on actuarial valuation and such costs are recognised in the profit and loss accounts.
The employees are also eligible for LTC as per the rules. The estimated cost of unused entitlement as on the Balance Sheet date based on actuarial valuation is provided for.
e) Other employee Benefits
The undiscounted amount of Short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees is recognised during the period when the employees render the service. These benefits include performance incentives.
1.13 Debit card reward points
The Bank runs a loyalty program which seeks to recognise and reward customers based on their relationship with the Bank. Under the program, eligible customers are granted loyalty points redeemable in future, subject to certain conditions. The Bank estimates the probable redemption of such loyalty/reward points using an actuarial method at the Balance Sheet date by employing independent actuary. Provision for said reward points is then made based on the actuarial valuation report as furnished by the said independent Actuary.
1.14 Employee Stock Option Scheme
The Bank has formulated Employee Stock Option Scheme (ESOS) 2010 in accordance with Securities and Exchange Board of India (Employee Stock Option Scheme) Guidelines, 1999. The Scheme provides for grant of options to Employees of the Bank to acquire Equity Shares of the Bank that vest in a graded manner and that are to be exercised within a specified period. In accordance with the SEBI Guidelines and the guidance note on “Accounting for Employee Share based payments” issued by the ICAI, the excess, if any, of the market price of the share preceding the date of grant of the option under ESOS over the exercise price of the option is amortised on a straight line basis over the vesting period.
Income tax expense is the aggregate amount of current tax and deferred tax charge.
Current tax is the amount of tax payable on the taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the applicable tax rates and the provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961 and other applicable tax laws.
Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which gives future economic benefits in the form of adjustment to future income tax liability, is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Bank will pay normal income tax. Accordingly, MAT is recognised as an asset in the Balance Sheet when it is highly probable that future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Bank.
Deferred tax is recognised on timing differences, being the differences between the taxable income and the accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent periods. Deferred tax is measured using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted as at the reporting date. Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all timing differences. Deferred tax assets are recognised for timing differences of items other than unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward losses only to the extent that reasonable certainty exists that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which these can be realised. However, if there are unabsorbed depreciation and carry forward of losses and items relating to capital losses, deferred tax assets are recognised only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that there will be sufficient future taxable income available to realise the assets. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if such items relate to taxes on income levied by the same governing tax laws and the Bank has a legally enforceable right for such set off. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date for their readability. Current and deferred tax relating to items directly recognised in reserves are adjusted in reserves and not in Profit and Loss Account.
1.16 Earnings per Share
The Bank reports basic and diluted earnings per share in accordance with AS 20, Earnings per Share, as prescribed under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013. Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the net profit after tax by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding for the year.
Diluted earnings per share reflect the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue equity shares were exercised or converted during the year. Diluted earnings per share is computed using the weighted average number of equity shares and dilutive potential equity shares outstanding at the year end.
1.17 Share issue expenses
Share issue expenses are adjusted from Share Premium Account in terms of Section 52 of the Companies Act, 2013.
1.18 Segment information
The disclosure relating to segment information is in accordance with the guidelines issued by RBI.
1.19 Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets
A provision is recognised when the Bank has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.
A disclosure of contingent liability is made when there is:
- a possible obligation arising from a past event, the existence of which will be confirmed by occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not within the control of the Bank; or
- a present obligation arising from a past event which is not recognised as it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation or a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation cannot be made.
Contingent assets are not recognised in the financial statements. However, contingent assets are assessed continually and if it is virtually certain that an inflow of economic benefits will arise, the asset and related income are recognised in the period in which the change occurs.
1.20 Corporate Social Responsibility
Spends towards corporate social responsibility, in accordance with Companies Act, 2013 are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account.
1.21 CENVAT Credit
Service tax input credit is accounted for in the books within the time limit prescribed under CENVAT Credit Rules, 2004, as amended.
1.22 Priority Sector Lending Certificates (PSLC)
The Bank vide RBI circular FIDD.CO.Plan.BC.23/ 04.09.01/2015-16 dated April 7, 2016 trades in priority sector portfolio by selling or buying PSLC. There is no transfer of risks or loan assets in these transactions. The fee paid for purchase of the PSLC is treated as an ''''Expense'''' and the fee received from the sale of PSLCs is treated as ''''Other Income''''.