1. CORPORATE INFORMATION
Eicher Motors Limited (“the Company”) is a public company domiciled and incorporated under the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. The Company is engaged in the manufacturing and selling of motorised two-wheelers, spare parts and related services. The Company has its registered office at New Delhi, India and its corporate office at Gurugram, Haryana, India. The Company has its primary listings on the BSE Limited and National Stock Exchange of India Limited.
2. BASIS OF PREPARATION AND PRESENTATION
2.1 Statement of compliance
The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Ind AS notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015.
Upto the year ended March 31, 2016, the Company prepared its financial statements in accordance with the requirements of previous GAAP, which includes Standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006. These are Company’s first Ind AS financial statements. The date of transition to Ind AS is January 1, 2015. Refer Note 3.21 for the details of first-time adoption exemptions availed by the Company.
2.2 Accounting convention
The financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except for certain financial instruments that are measured at fair values at the end of each reporting period, as explained in the accounting policies below. Historical cost is generally based on the fair value of the consideration given in exchange for goods and services.
2.3 Operating cycle
Based on the nature of products/activities of the Company and the normal time between acquisition of assets and their realisation in cash or cash equivalents, the Company has determined its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of classification of its assets and liabilities as current and non-current.
3.CRITICAL ACCOUNTING JUDGEMENTS AND KEY SOURCES OF ESTIMATION UNCERTAINTY
In the application of the Company accounting policies, which are described in note 3, the management of the Company are required to make judgements, estimates and assumptions about the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. The estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and other factors that are considered to be relevant. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision affects only that period, or in the period of the revision and future periods if the revision affects both current and future periods.
The following are the areas of estimation uncertainty and critical judgements that the management has made in the process of applying the Company’s accounting policies and that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognised in the financial statements:-
Recoverability of intangible asset
Capitalisation of cost in intangible assets and intangible assets under development is based on management’s judgement that technological and economic feasibility is confirmed and asset under development will generate economic benefits in future. Based on evaluations carried out, the Company’s management has determined that there are no factors which indicates that these assets have suffered any impairment loss.
Provision and contingent liability
On an ongoing basis, Company reviews pending cases, claims by third parties and other contingencies. For contingent losses that are considered probable, an estimated loss is recorded as an accrual in financial statements. Loss contingencies that are considered possible are not provided for but disclosed as Contingent liabilities in the financial statements. Contingencies the likelihood of which is remote are not disclosed in the financial statements. Gain contingencies are not recognised until the contingency has been resolved and amounts are received or receivable.
Useful lives of depreciable assets
Management reviews the useful lives of depreciable assets at each reporting. As at March 31, 2017 management assessed that the useful lives represent the expected utility of the assets to the Company. Further, there is no significant change in the useful lives as compared to previous year.
Investment in equity instruments of subsidiary and joint venture companies
During the year, the Company assessed the investment in equity instrument of subsidiary and joint venture companies carried at cost for impairment testing. Some of these companies are at early stage of their operations and are expected to generate positive cash flows in the future years. Detailed analysis has been carried out on the future projections and the Company is confident that the investments do not require any impairment.
FAIR VALUE OF THE INVESTMENT PROPERTY
The fair value of the Company’s investment properties as at March 31, 2017, March 31, 2016 and January 1, 2015 have been arrived at on the basis of valuation carried out on the respective dates by Purshotam Khandelwal, independent valuers not related to the Company. Purshotam Khandelwal is a registered valuer with the authority which governs the valuers in India, and they have appropriate qualifications and experience in the valuation of properties in the relevant location.
For the building located in Jaipur, India, the fair value of structure as on January 1, 2015 was determined based on S.O. No.X-3/2011 dated 24/04/2011 of State P.W.D. B&R issued by Chief Engineer, PWD Building and Roads, Government of Rajasthan, Jaipur with suitable adjustments for rise in cost index since April 2011 to average mean period of construction. The items not covered under Standing Order No. X-3/2011 have been valued on the rates of State PWD BSR. The fair value of structure as on March 31, 2016 and March 31, 2017 was determined based on S.O. No. X-3/2015 dated 15/07/2015 of State P.W.D.B&R issued by Chief Engineer, PWD Building and Roads, Government of Rajasthan, Jaipur with suitable adjustments for rise in cost index since July 2015 to average mean period of construction. The items not covered under Standing Order No. X-3/2015 have been valued on the rates of State PWD BSR.
(At lower of cost and net realisable value)
- The cost of inventories recognised as an expense during the year was Rs 4,140.86 crores (previous period Rs 3,880.64 crores).
- The cost of inventories recognised as an expense includes Rs.5.60 crores (during January 1, 2015 to March 31, 2016 Rs.10.87 crores) in respect of write-downs of inventory to net realisable value, and has been reduced by Rs.7.69 crores (during January 1, 2015 to March 31, 2016 Rs.0.58 crores) in respect of the reversal of such write-downs. Previous writedowns have been reversed as a result of material consumed/sold.
- Inventories of Rs 6.27 crores (March 31, 2016 Rs 5.83 crores and January 1, 2015 Rs 1.18 crores) are expected to be recovered after more than 12 months.
- The mode of valuation of inventories has been stated in Note no. 3.13.
6. Estimated amount of contracts remaining to be executed on capital account and not provided for Rs. 397.57 crores (Rs. 96.92 crores).
The Company has other commitments, for purchase/sales orders which are issued after considering requirements per operating cycle for purchase/sale of goods and services, employees’ benefits including union agreement in normal course of business. The Company does not have any long-term commitments or material non-cancellable contractual commitments/ contracts, which might have material impact on the financial statements.
7. Research and development expenses:
Revenue expenditure on research and development incurred and expensed off during the year/period through the appropriate heads of account aggregate Rs. 36.78 crores (previous period Rs. 32.20 crores). The capital expenditure incurred during the year/period for research and development purposes aggregate Rs. 91.29 crores (previous period Rs. 59.33 crores). The details of capital expenditure and revenue expenditure are as below:
All the above matters other than guarantee given by the Company are subject to legal proceedings in the ordinary course of business. The legal proceeding when ultimately concluded will not, in the opinion of management, have a material effect on the result of operations or the financial position of the Company.
8. EMPLOYEE BENEFIT PLANS
The details of various employee benefits provided to employees are as under:
A. Defined Contribution Plans
Out of the total contribution made for employees’ provident fund, Rs. 2.59 crores (Rs. 2.28 crores) is made to Eicher Executive Provident Fund Trust, while the remainder contribution is made to government-administered provident fund.
The total plan liabilities under the Eicher Executive Provident Fund Trust as at March 31, 2017 is Rs. 154.36 crores as against the total plan assets of Rs. 155.97 crores. The funds of the trust have been invested under various securities as prescribed under the rules of the trust.
B. Defined benefit plans:
The Defined benefit plan of the Company includes entitlement of gratuity for each year of service until the retirement age.
This plan typically expose the Company to actuarial risks such as: investment risk, interest rate risk, longevity risk and salary risk.
The most recent actuarial valuation of the plan assets and the present value of the defined benefit obligation were carried out as at March 31, 2017 by Mr. K.K. Dharni (FIAI M. No. 00051), Fellow of the Institute of Actuaries of India. The present value of the defined benefit obligation, and the related current service cost, were measured using the projected unit credit method.
The fair values of the above instruments are determined based on quoted market prices in active market. The actual return on plan assets was Rs. 1.27 crores for the year ended March 31, 2017.
Significant actuarial assumptions for the determination of the defined obligation are discount rate, expected salary increase and mortality. The sensitivity analysis below have been determined based on reasonable possible changes of the respective assumptions occurring at the end of the reporting period, while holding all other assumptions constant.
- If the discount rate is 50 basis points higher (lower), the defined benefit obligation would decrease by Rs. 0.62 crore (increase by Rs. 0.68 crore) (as at March 31, 2016: Decrease by Rs. 0.46 crore (increase by Rs. 0.51 crore))(as at January 1, 2015: Decrease by Rs. 0.29 crore (increase by Rs. 0.32 crore)).
- If the expected salary growth increases (decreases) by 50 basis points, the defined benefit obligation would increase by Rs. 0.68 crore (decrease by Rs. 0.62 crore) (as at March 31, 2016: Increase by Rs. 0.51 crore (decrease by Rs. 0.46 crore))(as at January 1, 2015: increase by Rs. 0.32 crore (increase by Rs. 0.30 crore)).
Sensitivities due to change in mortality rate and change in withdrawal rate are not material and hence impact of such change is not calculated.
The sensitivity analysis presented above may not be representative of the actual change in the defined benefit obligation as it is unlikely that the change in assumptions would occur in isolation of one another as some of the assumptions may be correlated.
Furthermore, in presenting the above sensitivity analysis, the present value of the defined benefit obligation has been calculated using the projected unit credit method at the end of reporting period, which is same as that applied in calculating the defined benefit obligation liability recognised in the balance sheet.
9. SEGMENT REPORTING DISCLOSURE
The Company primarily operates in the automotive segment. The automotive segment includes all activities related to development, design, manufacture, assembly and sale of two-wheelers as well as sale of related parts and accessories.
As defined in Ind AS 108, the chief operating decision maker (CODM), evaluates the Company’s performance, allocate resources based on the analysis of the various performance indicator of the Company as a single unit. Therefore, there is no reportable segment for the Company as per the requirement of Ind AS 108 “Operating Segments”.
The “Geographical Segments” comprises of domestic segment which includes sales to customers located in India and the overseas segment includes sales to customers located outside India.
a) Domestic segment includes sales and services to customers located in India.
b) Overseas segment includes sales and services rendered to customers located outside India.
c) Non-current segment assets include property, plant and equipment, non-current financial assets and other noncurrent assets.
d) The accounting policies adopted for segment reporting are in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for the Company. Revenue have been identified to segments on the basis of their relationship to the operating activities of the segment.
Information about major customers
No customer individually accounted for more than 10% of the revenue.
10. FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
The Company manages its capital to ensure that the Company will be able to continue as going concern, while maximising the return to stakeholders through efficient allocation of capital towards expansion of business, optimisation of working capital requirements and deployment of surplus funds into various investment options. The Company does not have any debt to meet its capital requirement and uses the operational cash flows and equity to meet its capital requirements.
The Company is not subject to any externally imposed capital requirements.
The management of the Company reviews the capital structure of the Company on regular basis. As part of this review, the management of the Company considers risks associated with the movement in the working capital.
The following table summarises the capital of the Company:
10.1 Fair value measurements
The Company uses the following hierarchy for determining and/or disclosing the fair value of financial instruments by valuation techniques.
The following is the basis for categorising the financial instruments measured at fair value into Level 1 to Level 3 :
Level 1: This level includes financial assets that are measured by reference to quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2: This level includes financial assets and liabilities, measured using inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly (i.e., as prices) or indirectly (i.e., derived from prices).
Level 3: This level includes financial assets and liabilities measured using inputs that are not based on observable market data (unobservable inputs). Fair values are determined in whole or in part, using a valuation model based on assumptions that are neither supported by prices from observable current market transactions in the same instrument nor are they based on available market data.
Fair value of the Company’s financial assets that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis:
There are certain Company’s financial assets which are measured are fair value at the end of each reporting period. Following table gives information about how the fair values of these financial assets are determined:
Fair value of the Company’s financial assets and financial liabilities that are not measured at fair value (but fair value disclosures are required)
Except as detailed out in the following table, the management considers that the carrying amounts of financial assets and financial liabilities recognised in the standalone financial statements approximate their fair values.
The fair value of the financial assets and liabilities are included at the amount that would be received to sell an asset and paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. The following methods and assumptions were used to estimate the fair values:
- Investments traded in active markets are determined by reference to quotes from the financial institutions; for example: Net asset value (NAV) for investments in mutual funds declared by mutual fund house.
- The fair value of bonds is based on quoted prices and market observable inputs.
- Trade receivables, cash and cash equivalents, other bank balances, loans, other current financial assets, current borrowings, trade payables and other current financial liabilities: Approximate their carrying amounts largely due to the short-term maturities of these instruments.
- Management uses its best judgment in estimating the fair value of its financial instruments. However, there are inherent limitations in any estimation technique. Therefore, for substantially all financial instruments, the fair value estimates presented above are not necessarily indicative of all the amounts that the Company could have realised or paid in sale transactions as of respective dates. As such, the fair value of the financial instruments subsequent to the respective reporting dates may be different from the amounts reported at each year/period end.
- There were no transfers between Level 1 and Level 2 during the year.
11. FINANCIAL RISK MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES
Financial risk management objectives
The Company’s management monitors and manages the financial risks relating to the operations of the Company. These risks include market risk (including currency risk, interest rate risk and other price risk), credit risk and liquidity risk.
The management reviews cash resources, implements strategies for foreign currency exposures and ensuring market risk limit and policies.
The Company does not enter into or trade financial instruments, including derivative financial instruments, for speculative purposes.
Market risk is the risk of any loss in future earnings, in realisable fair values or in future cash flows that may result from a change in the price of a financial instrument. The Company’s activities expose it primarily to the financial risks of changes in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates risk/liquidity risk which impact returns on investments. Market risk exposures are measured using sensitivity analysis.
Foreign currency risk management
The Company undertakes transactions denominated in foreign currencies; consequently, exposures to exchange rate fluctuations arise. The carrying amounts of the Company’s foreign currency denominated monetary assets and monetary liabilities at the end of the reporting period are as follows:
Foreign currency sensitivity
The following table details the Company’s sensitivity to a 5% increase and decrease in the Rs. against the relevant foreign currencies. 5% is the sensitivity rate used when reporting foreign currency risk internally to key management personnel and represents management’s assessment of the reasonably possible change in foreign exchange rates. The sensitivity analysis includes only outstanding foreign currency denominated monetary items and adjusts their translation at the period end for a 5% change in foreign currency rates. A positive number below indicates an increase in profit or equity where the Rs. strengthens 5% against the relevant currency. For a 5% weakening of the Rs. against the relevant currency, there would be a comparable impact on the profit or equity, and the balances below would be negative.
In management’s opinion, the sensitivity analysis is unrepresentative of the inherent foreign exchange risk because the exposure at the end of the reporting period does not reflect the exposure during the year.
Credit risk management
Credit risk refers to the risk that a counterparty will default on its contractual obligations resulting in financial loss to the Company.
Financial instruments that are subject to concentrations of credit risk, principally consist of balance with banks, investments in debt instruments/bonds, trade receivables, loans and advances. None of the financial instruments of the Company result in material concentrations of credit risks.
Balances with banks were not past due or impaired as at the year end. In other financial assets that are not past dues and not impaired, there were no indication of default in repayment as at the year end.
The age analysis of trade receivables as of the balance sheet date have been considered from the due date and disclosed in the Note no. 16 above.
The Company has used a practical expedient by computing the expected loss allowance for financial assets based on historical credit loss experience and adjustments for forward looking information.
Other price risks including interest rate risk
The Company has deployed its surplus funds into various financial instruments including units of mutual funds, bonds, etc. The Company is exposed to NAV (net asset value) price risks arising from investments in these funds. The value of these investments is impacted by movements in interest rates , liquidity and credit quality of underlying securities.
NAV price sensitivity analysis
The sensitivity analysis below have been determined based on the exposure to NAV price risks at the end of the reporting period. If NAV prices had been 1% higher/lower:
• profit for the year ended March 31, 2017 would increase/decrease by Rs. 31.97 crores (for the fifteen months ended March 31, 2016: increase/decrease by Rs. 18.08 crores).
Interest rate risk
Interest rate risk is the risk that the fair value or future cash flows of a financial instrument will fluctuate because of changes in market interest rate. Since the Company’s borrowings which are affected by interest rate fluctuation is very insignificant to the size and operations of the Company, therefore, a change in interest rate risk does not have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements in relation to fair value of financial instruments.
The Company manages liquidity risk by maintaining adequate reserves, banking facilities and reserve borrowing facilities, by continuously monitoring forecast and actual cash flows, and by matching the maturity profiles of financial assets and liabilities.
The surplus funds with the Company and operational cash flows will be sufficient to dispose the financial liabilities within the maturity period..
12. SHARE-BASED PAYMENTS
Employee share option plan of the Company
Eicher Employee Stock Option Plan is applicable to all permanent and full-time employees (as defined in the Plan), excluding promoters of the Company. The eligibility of employees to receive grants under the Plan has to be decided by the Nomination and Remuneration Committee from time to time at its sole discretion.
Each employee share option converts into one equity share of the Company on exercise. No amounts are paid or payable by the recipient on receipt of the option. The options carry neither rights to dividends nor voting rights. Options may be exercised at any time from the date of vesting to the date of their expiry.
Details of the employee share option plan of the company
The following share-based payment arrangements were in existence during the current and prior years :
Fair value of share options granted in the year
The weighted average fair value of the share options granted during the financial year is Rs. 22,751.16 (previous period:
Rs. 15,599.37). Options were priced using a binomial option pricing model. Where relevant, the expected life used in the model has been adjusted based on management’s best estimate for the effects of non-transferability, exercise restrictions (including the probability of meeting market conditions attached to the option), and behavioral considerations. Expected volatility is based on the historical share price volatility over the past 3 years.
13. DISCLOSURE IN RESPECT OF OPERATING LEASES
(A) Assets taken on lease:
The Company has taken certain premises under various operating lease agreements. The total lease rental recognised as expense aggregate to Rs. 28.40 crores (Rs. 27.93 crores).
Future minimum lease payments under non-cancellable operating leases in the aggregate and for each of the following year/period:
(B) Assets given on lease:
The Company has given assets under operating lease agreement to its joint venture company “Eicher Polaris Private Limited” . The total lease rental recognised as income aggregate to Rs. 2.78 crores (Rs. 3.28 crores).
Future minimum lease payments under non-cancellable operating leases in the aggregate and for each of the following year:
14. The details of disputed excise duty, sales tax, service tax and income tax dues as on March 31, 2017 which have not been deposited or deposited under protest are as follows:
15. The figures for the current year are for twelve months from April 1, 2016 to March 31, 2017, whereas the corresponding previous period figures are for fifteen months from January 1, 2015 to March 31, 2016. As such corresponding figures for the previous period are not directly comparable with those of current year.
16. The Company did not have any long-term contracts including derivative contracts for which there were any material foreseeable losses.
17. There were no amounts which were required to be transferred to the Investor Education and Protection Fund by the Company.