NOTE 1 DESCRIPTION OF THE COMPANY AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
1.1 Description of the Company
Dr. Reddy''''s Laboratories Limited ("Dr. Reddy''''s" or "the Company") is a leading India-based pharmaceutical company headquartered and having its registered office in Hyderabad, Telangana, India. Through its three businesses - Pharmaceutical Services and Active Ingredients, Global Generics and Proprietary Products - the Company offers a portfolio of products and services, including Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients ("APIs"), Custom Pharmaceutical Services ("CPS"), generics, biosimilars, differentiated formulations and New Chemical Entities ("NCEs"). The Company''''s principal research and development facilities are located in Andhra Pradesh, India; its principal manufacturing facilities are located in Telangana, India; Andhra Pradesh, India; Himachal Pradesh, India; and its principal markets are in India, Russia, the United States, the United Kingdom, Venezuela and Germany. The Company''''s shares trade on the Bombay Stock Exchange and the National Stock Exchange in India and, since 11 April 2001, also on the New York Stock Exchange in the United States.
1.2 Basis of preparation of financial statements
The financial statements of Dr. Reddy''''s Laboratories Limited ("Dr. Reddy''''s" or "the Company") have been prepared and presented in accordance with the Indian Accounting Standards ("Ind AS") notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 and Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2016. For all periods up to and including the year ended 31 March 2016, the Company prepared its financial statements in accordance with accounting standards notified under Section 133 of the Companies Act 2013, read with Rule 7 of Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014. These financial statements for the year ended 31 March 2017 are the first the Company has prepared in accordance with Ind AS.
Refer note 2.19 for information on how the Company adopted Ind AS.
These financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost convention and on an accrual basis, except for the following material items in the balance sheet:
- derivative financial instruments are measured at fair value;
- certain financial assets are measured either at fair value or at amortized cost depending on the classification;
- employee defined benefit assets/(liability) are recognized as the net total of the fair value of plan assets, plus actuarial losses, less actuarial gains and the present value of the defined benefit obligation; and
- long-term borrowings, except obligations under finance leases, are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest rate method.
1.3 Use of estimates and judgments
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Ind AS requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, income and expenses. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimates are revised and in any future periods affected. In particular, information about significant areas of estimation uncertainty and critical judgments in applying accounting policies that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognized in the financial statements is included in the following notes:
- Note 1.4 (a) — Assessment of functional currency;
- Note 1.4 (q) — Financial instruments;
- Note 1.4 (b) — Business combinations;
- Notes 1.4 (j) and 1.4 (k) — Useful lives of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets;
- Note 1.4 (m) — Valuation of inventories;
- Note 1.4 (n) — Measurement of recoverable amounts of cash-generating units;
- Note 1.4 (o) — Assets and obligations relating to employee benefits;
- Note 1.4 (o) — Share based payments;
- Note 1.4 (p) — Provisions and other accruals;
- Note 1.4 (e) — Sales returns provisions;
- Note 1.4 (h) — Evaluation of recoverability of deferred tax assets; and
- Note 1.4 (p) — Contingencies
1.4 Significant accounting policies
a) Functional currency
These financial statements are presented in Indian rupees, which is also the functional currency of the Company. All financial information presented in Indian rupees has been rounded to the nearest million.
b) Business combinations and goodwill
In accordance with Ind AS 101 provisions related to first time adoption, the Company has elected to apply Ind AS accounting for business combinations prospectively from transition date i.e., 1 April 2015. As such, Indian GAAP balances relating to business combinations entered into before that date, including goodwill, have been carried forward.
The Company uses the acquisition method of accounting to account for business combinations. The acquisition date is the date on which control is transferred to the acquirer. Judgment is applied in determining the acquisition date and determining whether control is transferred from one party to another. Control exists when the Company is exposed to, or has rights to variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through power over the entity. In assessing control, potential voting rights are considered only if the rights are substantive. The Company measures goodwill as of the applicable acquisition date at the fair value of the consideration transferred, including the recognized amount of any non-controlling interest in the acquire, less the net recognized amount of the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed. When the fair value of the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed exceeds the consideration transferred, the excess is recognized in equity as capital reserve. Consideration transferred includes the fair values of the assets transferred, liabilities incurred by the Company to the previous owners of the acquire, and equity interests issued by the Company. Consideration transferred also includes the fair value of any contingent consideration. Consideration transferred does not include amounts related to the settlement of pre-existing relationships. Any goodwill that arises on account of such business combination is tested annually for impairment.
Any contingent consideration is measured at fair value at the date of acquisition. If an obligation to pay contingent consideration that meets the definition of a financial instrument is classified as equity, then it is not re-measured and the settlement is accounted for within equity. Otherwise, other contingent consideration is re-measured at fair value at each reporting date and subsequent changes in the fair value of the contingent consideration are recorded in the statement of profit and loss.
A contingent liability of the acquire is assumed in a business combination only if such a liability represents a present obligation and arises from a past event, and its fair value can be measured reliably. On an acquisition-by-acquisition basis, the Company recognizes any non-controlling interest in the acquire either at fair value or at the non-controlling interest''''s proportionate share of the acquirer’s identifiable net assets. Transaction costs that the Company incurs in connection with a business combination, such as finder''''s fees, legal fees, due diligence fees and other professional and consulting fees, are expensed as incurred.
c) Current and noncurrent classification
All the assets and liabilities have been classified as current or noncurrent as per the Company''''s normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in the Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013.
An asset is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:
a) it is expected to be realized in, or is intended for sale or consumption in, the Company''''s normal operating cycle;
b) it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;
c) it is expected to be realized within twelve months after the reporting date; or
d) it is cash or cash equivalent unless it is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting date.
A liability is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:
a) it is expected to be settled in the Company''''s normal operating cycle;
b) it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;
c) it is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting date; or
d) the Company does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting date. Terms of a liability that could, at the option of the counterparty, result in its settlement by the issue of equity instruments do not affect its classification.
Current assets/ liabilities include the current portion of noncurrent assets/ liabilities respectively. All other assets/ liabilities are classified as noncurrent.
d) Foreign currency transactions
Transactions in foreign currencies are translated to the functional currency of the Company at exchange rates at the dates of the transactions. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at the reporting date are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rate at that date. Non-monetary items that are measured based on historical cost in a foreign currency are translated at the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary items that are measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value was measured. Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on translating monetary items at rates different from those at which they were translated on initial recognition during the period or in previous financial statements are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which they arise.
When several exchange rates are available, the rate used is that at which the future cash flows represented by the transaction or balance could have been settled if those cash flows had occurred at the measurement date.
e) Revenue Sale of goods
Revenue is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer, recovery of the consideration is probable, the associated costs and possible return of goods can be estimated reliably, there is no continuing management involvement with the goods and the amount of revenue can be measured reliably. Revenue from the sale of goods includes excise duty and is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of returns, sales tax and applicable trade discounts and allowances. Revenue includes shipping and handling costs billed to the customer.
Revenue from sales of generic products in India is recognized upon delivery of products to distributors by clearing and forwarding agents of the Company. Significant risks and rewards in respect of ownership of generic products are transferred by the Company when the goods are delivered to distributors from clearing and forwarding agents. Clearing and forwarding agents are generally compensated on a commission basis as a percentage of sales made by them. Revenue from sales of active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates in India is recognized on delivery of products to customers (generally formulation manufacturers), from the factories of the Company.
Revenue from export sales and other sales outside of India is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of products are transferred to the customers, which occurs upon delivery of the products to the customers unless the terms of the applicable contract provide for specific revenue generating activities to be completed, in which case revenue is recognized once all such activities are completed.
Profit share revenues
The Company from time to time enters into marketing arrangements with certain business partners for the sale of its products in certain markets. Under such arrangements, the Company sells its products to the business partners at a non-refundable base purchase price agreed upon in the arrangement and is also entitled to a profit share which is over and above the base purchase price. The profit share is typically dependent on the business partner''''s ultimate net sale proceeds or net profits, subject to any reductions or adjustments that are required by the terms of the arrangement. Such arrangements typically require the business partner to provide confirmation of units sold and net sales or net profit computations for the products covered under the arrangement.
Revenue in an amount equal to the base purchase price is recognized in these transactions upon delivery of products to the business partners. An additional amount representing the profit share component is recognized as revenue in the period which corresponds to the ultimate sales of the products made by business partners only when the collectability of the profit share becomes probable and a reliable measurement of the profit share is available. Otherwise, recognition is deferred to a subsequent period pending satisfaction of such collectability and measurability requirements. In measuring the amount of profit share revenue to be recognized for each period, the Company uses all available information and evidence, including any confirmations from the business partner of the profit share amount owed to the Company, to the extent made available before the date the Company''''s Board of Directors authorizes the issuance of its financial statements for the applicable period.
Milestone payments and out licensing arrangements
Revenues include amounts derived from product out-licensing agreements. These arrangements typically consist of an initial up-front payment on inception of the license and subsequent payments dependent on achieving certain milestones in accordance with the terms prescribed in the agreement. Non-refundable up-front license fees received in connection with product out-licensing agreements are deferred and recognized over the period in which the Company has continuing performance obligations. Milestone payments which are contingent on achieving certain clinical milestones are recognized as revenues either on achievement of such milestones, if the milestones are considered substantive, or over the period the Company has continuing performance obligations, if the milestones are not considered substantive. If milestone payments are creditable against future royalty payments, the milestones are deferred and released over the period in which the royalties are anticipated to be paid.
The Company accounts for sales returns accrual by recording an allowance for sales returns concurrent with the recognition of revenue at the time of a product sale. This allowance is based on the Company''''s estimate of expected sales returns. The Company deals in various products and operates in various markets. Accordingly, the estimate of sales returns is determined primarily by the Company''''s historical experience in the markets in which the Company operates. With respect to established products, the Company considers its historical experience of sales returns, levels of inventory in the distribution channel, estimated shelf life, product discontinuances, price changes of competitive products, and the introduction of competitive new products, to the extent each of these factors impact the Company''''s business and markets. With respect to new products introduced by the Company, such products have historically been either extensions of an existing line of product where the Company has historical experience or in therapeutic categories where established products exist and are sold either by the Company or the Company''''s competitors.
Revenue from services rendered, which primarily relate to contract research, is recognized in the statement of profit and loss as the underlying services are performed. Upfront non-refundable payments received under these arrangements are deferred and recognized as revenue over the expected period over which the related services are expected to be performed.
The Company enters into certain dossier sales, licensing and supply arrangements with various parties. Income from licensing arrangements is generally recognized over the term of the contract. Some of these arrangements include certain performance obligations by the Company. Revenue from such arrangements is recognized in the period in which the Company completes all its performance obligations.
f) Government grants
The Company recognizes government grants only when there is reasonable assurance that the conditions attached to them will be complied with, and the grants will be received. Government grants received in relation to assets are presented in the balance sheet by setting up the grant as deferred income. Grants related to income are deducted in reporting the related expense in the statement of profit and loss.
Export entitlements from government authorities are recognized in the statement of profit and loss as a reduction from "Cost of materials consumed" when the right to receive credit as per the terms of the scheme is established in respect of the exports made by the Company, and where there is no significant uncertainty regarding the ultimate collection of the relevant export proceeds.
g) Interest income and dividend
Interest income primarily comprises of interest from term deposits with banks and on loans to subsidiary companies. Interest income is recorded using the effective interest rate (EIR). EIR is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash receipts over the expected life of the financial instrument or a shorter period, where appropriate, to the gross carrying amount of the financial asset. Interest income is included in other income in the statement of profit and loss.
Dividend income is recognized when the Company''''s right to receive the payment is established, which is generally when shareholders approve the dividend.
h) Income tax
Income tax expense consists of current and deferred tax. Income tax expense is recognized in the statement of profit and loss except to the extent that it relates to items recognized directly in equity, in which case it is recognized in equity. Current tax is the expected tax payable on the taxable income for the year, using tax rates enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date, and any adjustment to tax payable in respect of previous years.
Deferred tax is recognized using the balance sheet method, providing for temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for taxation purposes. Deferred tax is not recognized for the following temporary differences: the initial recognition of assets or liabilities in a transaction that is not a business combination and that affects neither accounting nor taxable profit; differences relating to investments in subsidiaries and jointly controlled entities to the extent that it is probable that they will not reverse in the foreseeable future; and taxable temporary differences arising upon the initial recognition of goodwill. Deferred tax is measured at the tax rates that are expected to be applied to the temporary differences when they reverse, based on the laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if there is a legally enforceable right to offset current tax liabilities and assets, and they relate to income taxes levied by the same tax authority on the same taxable entity, or on different tax entities, but they intend to settle current tax liabilities and assets on a net basis or their tax assets and liabilities will be realized simultaneously.
A deferred tax asset is recognized to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which the temporary difference can be utilized. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realized.
The Company recognizes deferred tax liability for all taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates, and interests in joint arrangements, except to the extent that both of the following conditions are satisfied:
a) When the Company is able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary difference; and
b) it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.
Dividend distribution tax arising out of payment of dividends to shareholders under the Indian Income tax regulations is not considered as tax expense for the Company and all such taxes are recognized in the statement of changes in equity as part of the associated dividend payment.
i) Earnings per share
The Company presents basic and diluted earnings per share ("EPS") data for its ordinary shares. Basic EPS is calculated by dividing the profit or loss attributable to ordinary shareholders of the Company by the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the period. Diluted EPS is determined by adjusting the profit or loss attributable to ordinary shareholders and the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding for the effects of all dilutive potential ordinary shares, which includes all stock options granted to employees.
j) Property, plant and equipment Recognition and measurement
Items of property, plant and equipment are measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Cost includes expenditures that are directly attributable to the acquisition of the asset. The cost of self-constructed assets includes the cost of materials and other costs directly attributable to bringing the asset to a working condition for its intended use. Borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the construction or production of a qualifying asset are capitalized as part of the cost of that asset.
When parts of an item of property, plant and equipment have different useful lives, they are accounted for as separate items (major components) of property, plant and equipment.
Gains and losses upon disposal of an item of property, plant and equipment are determined by comparing the proceeds from disposal with the carrying amount of property, plant and equipment and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.
The cost of replacing part of an item of property, plant and equipment is recognized in the carrying amount of the item if it is probable that the future economic benefits embodied within the part will flow to the Company and its cost can be measured reliably. The costs of repairs and maintenance are recognized in the statement of profit and loss as incurred.
Items of property, plant and equipment acquired through exchange of non-monetary assets are measured at fair value, unless the exchange transaction lacks commercial substance or the fair value of either the asset received or asset given up is not reliably measurable, in which case the asset exchanged is recorded at the carrying amount of the asset given up.
Depreciation is recognized in the statement of profit and loss on a straight line basis over the estimated useful lives of property, plant and equipment. Leased assets are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and their useful lives. Land is not depreciated.
Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the period of the lease agreement or the useful life, whichever is shorter.
Depreciation methods, useful lives and residual values are reviewed at each reporting date and, if expectations differ from previous estimates, the change(s) are accounted for as a change in an accounting estimate in accordance with Ind AS 8, Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors.
Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 ("Schedule") prescribes the useful lives for various classes of tangible assets. For certain class of assets, based on the technical evaluation and assessment, the Company believes that the useful lives adopted by it best represent the period over which an asset is expected to be available for use. Accordingly, for these assets, the useful lives estimated by the Company are different from those prescribed in the Schedule.
Software for internal use, which is primarily acquired from third-party vendors and which is an integral part of a tangible asset, including consultancy charges for implementing the software, is capitalized as part of the related tangible asset. Subsequent costs associated with maintaining such software are recognized as expense as incurred. The capitalized costs are amortized over the estimated useful life of the software or the remaining useful life of the tangible fixed asset, whichever is lower.
Advances paid towards the acquisition of property, plant and equipment outstanding at each reporting date is disclosed as capital advances under other noncurrent assets. The cost of property, plant and equipment not ready to use before such date are disclosed under capital work-in-progress. Assets not ready for use are not depreciated.
k) Goodwill and other intangible assets Goodwill
Goodwill represents the excess of consideration transferred, together with the amount of non-controlling interest in the acquire, over the fair value of the Company''''s share of identifiable net assets acquired.
Goodwill is measured at cost less accumulated impairment losses.
Other intangible assets
Other intangible assets that are acquired by the Company and that have finite useful lives are measured at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses.
Subsequent expenditures are capitalized only when they increase the future economic benefits embodied in the specific asset to which they relate.
Research and development
Expenditures on research activities undertaken with the prospect of gaining new scientific or technical knowledge and understanding are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when incurred.
Development activities involve a plan or design for the production of new or substantially improved products and processes. Development expenditures are capitalized only if:
- development costs can be measured reliably;
- the product or process is technically and commercially feasible;
- future economic benefits are probable; and
- the Company intends to and has sufficient resources to complete development and to use or sell the asset.
The expenditures to be capitalized include the cost of materials and other costs directly attributable to preparing the asset for its intended use. Other development expenditures are recognized as expense in the statement of profit and loss as incurred.
Payments to third parties that generally take the form of up-front payments and milestones for in-licensed products, compounds and intellectual property are capitalized. The Company''''s criteria for capitalization of such assets are consistent with the guidance given in paragraph 25 of Ind AS 38 (i.e., receipt of economic benefits out of the separately purchased transaction is considered to be probable).
Acquired research and development intangible assets that are under development are recognized as Intangible assets under development. These assets are not amortized, but evaluated for potential impairment on an annual basis or when there are indications that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Any impairment charge on such assets is recorded as an expense in the statement of profit and loss.
Subsequent expenditure on an in-process research or development project acquired separately or in a business combination and recognized as an intangible asset is:
- recognized as an expense when incurred, if it is research expenditure;
- recognized as an expense when incurred, if it is development expenditure that does not satisfy the criteria for recognition as an intangible asset; and
- added to the carrying amount of the acquired in-process research or development project, if it is development expenditure that satisfies the recognition criteria.
Intangible assets relating to products in development, other intangible assets not available for use and intangible assets having indefinite useful life are subject to impairment testing at each reporting date. All other intangible assets are tested for impairment when there are indications that the carrying value may not be recoverable. All impairment losses are recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.
Amortization is recognized in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of intangible assets or on any other basis that reflects the pattern in which the asset''''s future economic benefits are expected to be consumed by the entity. Intangible assets that are not available for use are amortized from the date they are available for use.
The amortization period and the amortization method for intangible assets with a finite useful life are reviewed at each reporting date. De-recognition of intangible assets
Intangible assets are de-recognized either on their disposal or where no future economic benefits are expected from their use. Losses arising on such de-recognition are recorded in the statement of profit and loss, and are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds, if any, and the carrying amount of respective intangible assets as on the date of de-recognition.
At the inception of each lease, the lease arrangement is classified as either a finance lease or an operating lease, based on the substance of the l ease arrangement.
A finance lease is recognized as an asset and a liability at the commencement of the lease, at the lower of the fair value of the asset and the present value of the minimum lease payments. Initial direct costs, if any, are also capitalized and, subsequent to initial recognition, the asset is accounted for in accordance with the accounting policy applicable to that asset. Minimum lease payments made under finance leases are apportioned between the finance expense and the reduction of the outstanding liability. The finance expense is allocated to each period during the lease term so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability.
Other leases are operating leases, and the leased assets are not recognized on the Company''''s balance sheet. Payments made under operating leases are recognized in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.
Operating lease incentives received from the landlord are recognized as a reduction of rental expense on a straight line basis over the lease term.
Inventories consist of raw materials, stores and spares, work-in-progress and finished goods and are measured at the lower of cost and net realizable value. The cost of all categories of inventories is based on the weighted average method. Cost includes expenditures incurred in acquiring the inventories, production or conversion costs and other costs incurred in bringing them to their existing location and condition. In the case of finished goods and work-in-progress, cost includes an appropriate share of overheads based on normal operating capacity. Stores and spares, that do not qualify to be recognized as property, plant and equipment, consists of packing materials, engineering spares (such as machinery spare parts) and consumables (such as lubricants, cotton waste and oils), which are used in operating machines or consumed as indirect materials in the manufacturing process.
Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and selling expenses.
The factors that the Company considers in determining the allowance for slow moving, obsolete and other non-saleable inventory include estimated shelf life, planned product discontinuances, price changes, ageing of inventory and introduction of competitive new products, to the extent each of these factors impact the Company''''s business and markets. The Company considers all these factors and adjusts the inventory provision to reflect its actual experience on a periodic basis.
n) Impairment of non-financial assets
The carrying amounts of the Company''''s non-financial assets, other than inventories and deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, then the asset''''s recoverable amount is estimated. For goodwill and intangible assets that have indefinite lives or that are not yet available for use, an impairment test is performed each year at 31 March.
The recoverable amount of an asset or cash-generating unit (as defined below) is the greater of its value in use and its fair value less costs to sell. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset or the cash-generating unit. For the purpose of impairment testing, assets are grouped together into the smallest group of assets that generates cash inflows from continuing use that are largely independent of the cash inflows of other assets or groups of assets (the "cash-generating unit").
The goodwill acquired in a business combination is, for the purpose of impairment testing, allocated to cash-generating units that are expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination.
An impairment loss is recognized in the statement of profit and loss if the estimated recoverable amount of an asset or its cash-generating unit is lower than its carrying amount. Impairment losses recognized in respect of cash-generating units are allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the units and then to reduce the carrying amount of the other assets in the unit on a pro-rata basis.
An impairment loss in respect of goodwill is not reversed. In respect of other assets, impairment losses recognized in prior periods are assessed at each reporting date for any indications that the loss has decreased or no longer exists. An impairment loss is reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. An impairment loss is reversed only to the extent that the asset''''s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortization, if no impairment loss had been recognized. Goodwill that forms part of the carrying amount of an investment in an associate is not recognized separately, and therefore is not tested for impairment separately. Instead, the entire amount of the investment in an associate is tested for impairment as a single asset when there is objective evidence that the investment in an associate may be impaired.
An impairment loss in respect of equity accounted investee is measured by comparing the recoverable amount of investment with its carrying amount. An impairment loss is recognized in the statement of profit and loss, and reversed if there has been a favorable change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount.
o) Employee benefits
Short-term employee benefits
Short-term employee benefits are expensed as the related service is provided. A liability is recognized for the amount expected to be paid if the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation to pay this amount as a result of past service provided by the employee and the obligation can be estimated reliably.
Defined contribution plans
The Company''''s contributions to defined contribution plans are charged to the statement of profit and loss as and when the services are received from the employees.
Defined benefit plans
The liability in respect of defined benefit plans and other post-employment benefits is calculated using the projected unit credit method consistent with the advice of qualified actuaries. The present value of the defined benefit obligation is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows using interest rates of high-quality corporate bonds that are denominated in the currency in which the benefits will be paid, and that have terms to maturity approximating to the terms of the related defined benefit obligation. In countries where there is no deep market in such bonds, the market rates on government bonds are used. The current service cost of the defined benefit plan, recognized in the statement of profit and loss in employee benefit expense, reflects the increase in the defined benefit obligation resulting from employee service in the current year, benefit changes, curtailments and settlements. Past service costs are recognized immediately in income. The net interest cost is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net balance of the defined benefit obligation and the fair value of plan assets. This cost is included in employee benefit expense in the statement of profit and loss. Actuarial gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are charged or credited to equity in other comprehensive income in the period in which they arise.
Termination benefits are recognized as an expense when the Company is demonstrably committed, without realistic possibility of withdrawal, to a formal detailed plan to either terminate employment before the normal retirement date, or to provide termination benefits as a result of an offer made to encourage voluntary redundancy. Termination benefits for voluntary redundancies are recognized as an expense if the Company has made an offer encouraging voluntary redundancy, it is probable that the offer will be accepted, and the number of acceptances can be estimated reliably.
Other long-term employee benefits
The Company''''s net obligation in respect of other long-term employee benefits is the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and previous periods. That benefit is discounted to determine its present value. Remeasurements are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which they arise.
The Company''''s current policies permit certain categories of its employees to accumulate and carry forward a portion of their unutilized compensated absences and utilize them in future periods or receive cash in lieu thereof in accordance with the terms of such policies. The Company measures the expected cost of accumulating compensated absences as the additional amount that the Company incurs as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the balance sheet date. Such measurement is based on actuarial valuation as at the balance sheet date carried out by a qualified actuary.
The grant date fair value of options granted to employees is recognized as an employee expense, with a corresponding increase in equity, over the period that the employees become unconditionally entitled to the options. The expense is recorded for each separately vesting portion of the award as if the award was, in substance, multiple awards. The increase in equity recognized in connection with share-based payment transaction is presented as a separate component in equity under "share-based payment reserve". The amount recognized as an expense is adjusted to reflect the actual number of stock options that vest.
p) Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets
A provision is recognized if, as a result of a past event, the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows at a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability. Where discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognized as a finance cost.
A provision for restructuring is recognized when the Company has approved a detailed and formal restructuring plan, and the restructuring either has commenced or has been announced publicly. Future operating costs are not provided.
A provision for onerous contracts is recognized when the expected benefits to be derived by the Company from a contract are lower than the unavoidable cost of meeting its obligations under the contract. The provision is measured at the present value of the lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of continuing with the contract. Before a provision is established, the Company recognises any impairment loss on the assets associated with that contract.
Expected reimbursements for expenditures required to settle a provision are recognized only when receipt of such reimbursements is virtually certain. Such reimbursements are recognized as a separate asset in the balance sheet, with a corresponding credit to the specific expense for which the provision has been made.
A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. Where there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.
Contingent assets are not recognized in the financial statements. However, contingent assets are assessed continually and if it is virtually certain that an inflow of economic benefits will arise, the asset and related income are recognized in the period in which the change occurs.
q) Financial instruments
A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.
Initial recognition and measurement
All financial assets are recognized initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within a time frame established by regulation or convention in the market place (regular way trades) are recognized on the trade date, i.e., the date that the Company commits to purchase or sell the asset.
For purposes of subsequent measurement, financial assets are classified in four categories:
- Debt instruments at amortized cost
- Debt instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)
- Debt instruments, derivatives and equity instruments at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)
- Equity instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)
Debt instruments at amortized cost
A ''''debt instrument'''' is measured at the amortized cost if both the following conditions are met:
a) The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and
b) Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.
After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortized cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortization is included in other income in the statement of profit and loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognized in the statement of profit and loss. This category generally applies to trade and other receivables.
Debt instrument at FVTOCI
A ''''debt instrument'''' is classified as at the FVTOCI if both of the following criteria are met:
a) The objective of the business model is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling the financial assets, and
b) The asset''''s contractual cash flows represent SPPI.
Debt instruments included within the FVTOCI category are measured initially as well as at each reporting date at fair value. Fair value movements are recognized in the other comprehensive income (OCI). On derecognition of the asset, cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in OCI is reclassified to the state ent of profit and loss. Interest earned whilst holding FVTOCI debt instrument is reported as interest income using the EIR method.
Debt instrument at FVTPL
FVTPL is a residual category for debt instruments. Any debt instrument, which does not meet the criteria for categorization as at amortized cost or as FVTOCI, is classified as at FVTPL.
In addition, the Company may elect to designate a debt instrument, which otherwise meets amortized cost or FVTOCI criteria, as at FVTPL. However, such election is allowed only if doing so reduces or eliminates a measurement or recognition inconsistency (referred to as ''''accounting mismatch''''). The Company has not designated any debt instrument as at FVTPL.
Debt instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the statement of profit and loss.
All equity investments in scope of Ind AS 109 are measured at fair value. Equity instruments which are held for trading and contingent consideration recognized by an acquirer in a business combination to which Ind AS103 applies are classified as at FVTPL. For all other equity instruments, the Company may make an irrevocable election to present in other comprehensive income subsequent changes in the fair value. The Company makes such election on an instrument by-instrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable.
If the Company decides to classify an equity instrument as at FVTOCI, then all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognized in the OCI. There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to the statement of profit and loss, even on sale of investment. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity.
Equity instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the statement of profit and loss.
Investments in subsidiaries and joint venture
Investments in subsidiaries and joint venture are carried at cost less accumulated impairment losses, if any. Where an indication of impairment exists, the carrying amount of the investment is assessed and written down immediately to its recoverable amount. On disposal of investments in subsidiaries and joint venture, the difference between net disposal proceeds and the carrying amounts are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.
Upon first-time adoption of Ind AS, the Company has elected to measure its investments in subsidiaries and joint ventures at the Previous GAAP carrying amount as its deemed cost on the date of transition to Ind AS i.e., 1 April 2015.
A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a group of similar financial assets) is primarily derecognized (i.e., removed from the Company''''s balance sheet) when:
- The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or
- The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ''''pass-through'''' arrangement; and either (a) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.
When the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into a pass-through arrangement, it evaluates if and to what extent it has retained the risks and rewards of ownership. When it has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the asset, nor transferred control of the asset, the Company continues to recognize the transferred asset to the extent of the Company''''s continuing involvement. In that case, the Company also recognizes an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained.
Impairment of trade receivables
In accordance with Ind AS 109, the Company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 18.
For this purpose, the Company follows ''''simplified approach'''' for recognition of impairment loss allowance on the trade receivable balances. The application of simplified approach does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognizes impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition.
As a practical expedient, the Company uses a provision matrix to determine impairment loss allowance on portfolio of its trade receivables. The provision matrix is based on its historically observed default rates over the expected life of the trade receivables and is adjusted for forward-looking estimates. At every reporting date, the historical observed default rates are updated and changes in the forward-looking estimates are analyzed.
Initial recognition and measurement
Financial liabilities are classified, at initial recognition, as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, loans and borrowings, payables, or as derivatives designated as hedging instruments in an effective hedge, as appropriate.
All financial liabilities are recognized initially at fair value and, in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs.
The Company''''s financial liabilities include trade and other payables, loans and borrowings including bank overdrafts, financial guarantee contracts and derivative financial instruments.
The measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification, as described below:
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss. Financial liabilities are classified as held for trading if they are incurred for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term. This category also includes derivative financial instruments entered into by the Company that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as defined by Ind AS 109. Separated embedded derivatives are also classified as held for trading unless they are designated as effective hedging instruments.
Gains or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.
Financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition at fair value through profit or loss are designated as such at the initial date of recognition, and only if the criteria in Ind AS 109 are satisfied. For liabilities designated as FVTPL, fair value gains/ losses attributable to changes in own credit risk are recognized in OCI. These gains/ losses are not subsequently transferred to the statement of profit and loss. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity. All other changes in fair value of such liability are recognized in the statement of profit and loss. The company has not designated any financial liability as fair value through profit and loss.
Loans and borrowings
After initial recognition, interest-bearing loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the EIR method. Gains and losses are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the liabilities are derecognized as well as through the EIR amortization process.
Amortized cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortization is included as finance costs in the statement of profit and loss.
A financial liability is derecognized when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.
Derivative financial instruments
The Company is exposed to exchange rate risk which arises from its foreign exchange revenues and expenses, primarily in US dollars, UK pounds sterling, Russian roubles, Venezuelan bolivars and Euros, and foreign currency debt in US dollars, Russian rubles and Euros.
The Company uses foreign exchange forward contracts, option contracts and swap contracts (derivative financial instruments) to mitigate its risk of changes in foreign currency exchange rates. The Company also uses non derivative financial instruments as part of its foreign currency exposure risk mitigation strategy.
Hedges of highly probable forecasted transactions
The Company classifies its derivative financial instruments that hedge foreign currency risk associated with highly probable forecasted transactions as cash flow hedges and measures them at fair value. The effective portion of such cash flow hedges is recorded in the Company''''s hedging reserve as a component of equity and re-classified to the statement of profit and loss as revenue in the period corresponding to the occurrence of the forecasted transactions. The ineffective portion of such cash flow hedges is recorded in the statement of profit and loss as finance costs immediately.
The Company also designates certain non derivative financial liabilities, such as foreign currency borrowings from banks, as hedging instruments for hedge of foreign currency risk associated with highly probable forecasted transactions. Accordingly, the Company applies cash flow hedge accounting to such relationships. Remeasurement gain / loss on such non derivative financial liabilities is recorded in the Company''''s hedging reserve as a component of equity and reclassified to the statement of profit and loss as revenue in the period corresponding to the occurrence of the forecasted transactions.
If the hedging instrument no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, then hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively. The cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in other comprehensive income, remains there until the forecasted transaction occurs. If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, then the balance in other comprehensive income is recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.
Hedges of recognized assets and liabilities
Changes in the fair value of derivative contracts that economically hedge monetary assets and liabilities in foreign currencies, and for which no hedge accounting is applied, are recognized in the statement of profit and loss. The changes in fair value of such derivative contracts, as well as the foreign exchange gains and losses relating to the monetary items, are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.
Hedges of changes in the interest rates
Consistent with its risk management policy, the Company uses interest rate swaps to mitigate the risk of changes in interest rates. The Company does not use them for trading or speculative purposes.
r) Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on hand, demand deposits and short-term, highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash and which are subject to insignificant risk of changes in value. For this purpose, "short-term" means investments having maturity of three months or less from the date of investment. Bank overdrafts that are repayable on demand and form an integral part of our cash management are included as a component of cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of the statement of cash flows.
1.5 Determination of fair values
The Company''''s accounting policies and disclosures require the determination of fair value, for certain financial and non-financial assets and liabilities. Fair values have been determined for measurement and/or disclosure purposes based on the following methods. When applicable, further information about the assumptions made in determining fair values is disclosed in the notes specific to that asset or liability.
a) Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment, if acquired in a business combination or through an exchange of non-monetary assets, is measured at fair value on the acquisition date. For this purpose, fair value is based on appraised market values and replacement cost.
b) Intangible assets
The fair value of brands, technology related intangibles, and patents and trademarks acquired in a business combination is based on the discounted estimated royalty payments that have been avoided as a result of these brands, technology related intangibles, patents or trademarks being owned (the "relief of royalty method"). The fair value of customer related, product related and other intangibles acquired in a business combination has been determined using the multi-period excess earnings method after deduction of a fair return on other assets that are part of creating the related cash flows.
The fair value of inventories acquired in a business combination is determined based on its estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated costs of completion and sale, and a reasonable profit margin based on the effort required to complete and sell the inventories.
d) Investments in equity and debt securities and units of mutual funds
The fair value of marketable equity and debt securities is determined by reference to their quoted market price at the reporting date. For debt securities where quoted market prices are not available, fair value is determined using pricing techniques such as discounted cash flow analysis.
In respect of investments in mutual funds, the fair values represent net asset value as stated by the issuers of these mutual fund units in the published statements. Net asset values represent the price at which the issuer will issue further units in the mutual fund and the price at which issuers will redeem such units from the investors.
Accordingly, such net asset values are analogous to fair market value with respect to these investments, as transactions of these mutual funds are carried out at such prices between investors and the issuers of these units of mutual funds.
The fair value of foreign exchange forward contracts is estimated by discounting the difference between the contractual forward price and the current forward price for the residual maturity of the contract using a risk-free interest rate (based on government bonds). The fair value of foreign currency option and swap contracts and interest rate swap contracts is determined based on the appropriate valuation techniques, considering the terms of the contract.
f) Non derivative financial liabilities
Fair value, which is determined for disclosure purposes, is calculated based on the present value of future principal and interest cash flows, discounted at the market rate of interest at the reporting date. For finance leases the market rate of interest is determined by reference to similar lease agreements. In respect of the Company''''s borrowings that have floating rates of interest, their fair value approximates carrying value.
g) Share-based payment transactions
The fair value of employee stock options is measured using the Black-Scholes-Merton valuation model. Measurement inputs include share price on grant date, exercise price of the instrument, expected volatility (based on weighted average historical volatility), expected life of the instrument (based on historical experience), expected dividends, and the risk free interest rate (based on government bonds).
(a) (i) The balance of long-term loan, outstanding as at 31 March 2017, comprises of External Commercial Borrowing, carrying interest rate of
LIBOR plus 82.7 bps and is repayable in three equal installments in the years ending 31 March 2020 and 31 March 2021.
(ii) External Commercial Borrowing, outstanding as at 31 March 2016, carrying interest rate of LIBOR plus 125 bps, was repaid in the current financial year. As part of the aforesaid loan arrangements, the Company is required to comply with certain financial covenants and the Company was in compliance with such covenants as at 31 March 2017, 31 March 2016 and 1 April 2015.
(b) Finance lease obligations are towards lease rentals payable for the vehicles leased by the Company. (Refer note 2.33)
(c) Packing credit loans for the year ended 31 March 2017, comprised of US$ denominated loans carrying interest rates of LIBOR minus 30 to plus 1 bps, RUB denominated loans carrying fixed interest rate of 9.95%, and INR denominated loans carrying fixed interest rate of 6.92% to 6.95% and Treasury bill plus 30 bps and are repayable within 6 to 12 months from the date of drawdown. Packing credit loans, for the year ended 31 March 2016, comprised of US$ and EUR denominated loans carrying interest rates of LIBOR minus 5 to plus 15 bps and RUB denominated loans carrying fixed interest rate of 10.65% to 11.57%, and are repayable within 6 to 12 months from the date of drawdown.
(a) The principal amount remaining unpaid as at 31 March 2017 in respect of enterprises covered under the "Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act, 2006" (MSMED) is '''' 43 (31 March 2016: '''' 20; 1 April 2015: '''' 79). The interest amount computed based on the provisions under Section 16 of the MSMED is '''' 0.02 (31 March 2016: '''' 0.11; 1 April 2015: '''' 0.09) is remaining unpaid as of 31 March 2017. The interest amount of '''' 0.02 that remained unpaid as at 31 March 2016 was paid fully during the current year.
(b) The amount o