The financial statements have been prepared using the significant accounting policies and measurement basis summarised below. These were used throughout all periods presented in the financial statements, except where the Company has applied certain accounting policies and exemptions upon transition to Ind AS as summarised in note 65.
a) Current and non-current classification
All assets and liabilities have been classified as current or non-current as per the Company’s normal operating cycle and other criteria set-out in the Act. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and non-current liabilities, as the case may be.
b) Property, plant and equipment Recognition and initial measurement
Property, plant and equipment are stated at their cost of acquisition. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing cost if capitalization criteria are met and directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Any trade discount and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price. Subsequent costs are included in the asset’s carrying amount or recognized as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Company. All other repair and maintenance costs are recognized in statement of profit or loss as incurred.
Subsequent measurement (depreciation and useful lives)
Property, plant and equipment are subsequently measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses. Depreciation on property, plant and equipment is provided on a straight-line basis, computed on the basis of useful lives (as set-out below) prescribed in Schedule II to the Act:
The residual values, useful lives and method of depreciation are reviewed at the end of each financial year.
An item of property, plant and equipment and any significant part initially recognized is de-recognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Any gain or loss arising on de-recognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset) is recognized in the statement of profit and loss, when the asset is de-recognized.
c) Capital work-in-progress and intangible assets under development
Capital work-in-progress and intangible assets under development represents expenditure incurred in respect of capital projects/intangible assets under development and are carried at cost. Cost includes land, related acquisition expenses, development/ construction costs, borrowing costs and other direct expenditure.
d) Investment properties
Recognition and initial measurement
Investment properties are properties held to earn rentals or for capital appreciation, or both. Investment properties are measured initially at their cost of acquisition. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing cost, if capitalization criteria are met and directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Any trade discount and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price.
Subsequent costs are included in the asset’s carrying amount or recognized as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Company. All other repair and maintenance costs are recognized in statement of profit or loss as incurred.
Subsequent measurement (depreciation and useful lives)
Investment properties are subsequently measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses. Depreciation on investment properties is provided on the straight-line method, computed on the basis of useful lives (as set-out below) prescribed in Schedule II to the Act:
* Apart from all the assets, the Company has developed commercial space (in addition to automated multi-level car parking) over the land parcel received under the build, own, operate and transfer scheme of the public private partnership (as mentioned in the intangible assets policy below) which has been depreciated in the proportion in which the actual revenue received during the accounting year bears to the projected revenue from such assets till the end of concession period.
The residual values, useful lives and method of depreciation are reviewed at the end of each financial year.
Investment properties are de-recognized either when they have been disposed off or when they are permanently withdrawn from use and no future economic benefit is expected from their disposal. The difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset is recognized in profit or loss in the period of de-recognition.
e) Intangible assets
Recognition and initial measurement
Intangible assets are stated at their cost of acquisition. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing cost, if capitalization criteria are met and directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use.
The Company has acquired exclusive usage rights for 30 years under the build, own, operate and transfer scheme in respect of properties developed as automated multi-level car parking and commercial space and classified them under the “Intangible Assets - Right on Building and Right on Plant and Machinery”.
Subsequent measurement (amortisation)
The cost of capitalized software is amortized over a period of 5 years from the date of its acquisition.
The cost of usage rights is being amortised over the concession period in the proportion in which the actual revenue received during the accounting year bears to the projected revenue from such intangible assets till the end of concession period.
f) Investment in equity instruments of subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates
Investment in equity instruments of subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates are stated at cost as per Ind AS 27 ‘Separate Financial Statements’.
- Land and plots other than area transferred to constructed properties at the commencement of construction are valued at lower of cost/approximate average cost/ as re-valued on conversion to stock and net realisable value. Cost includes land (including development rights and land under agreement to purchase) acquisition cost, borrowing cost, estimated internal development costs and external development charges.
- Construction work-in-progress of constructed properties other than Special Economic Zone (SEZ) projects includes the cost of land (including development rights and land under agreements to purchase), internal development costs, external development charges, construction costs, overheads, borrowing cost, development/ construction materials and is valued at lower of cost/ estimated cost and net realisable value.
- In case of SEZ projects, construction work-in-progress of constructed properties include internal development costs, external development charges, construction costs, overheads, borrowing cost, development/ construction materials and is valued at lower of cost/ estimated cost and net realisable value.
- Development rights represent amount paid under agreement to purchase land/development rights and borrowing cost incurred by the Company to acquire irrevocable and exclusive licenses/development rights in identified land and constructed properties, the acquisition of which is either completed or is at an advanced stage.
- Construction/ development material is valued at lower of cost and net realisable value.
Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
h) Revenue recognition
Revenue is recognized when it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and it can be reliably measured. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received/receivable net of rebate and taxes. The Company applies the revenue recognition criteria to each nature of revenue transaction as set-out below:
Revenue from real estate projects
Revenue from constructed properties for all projects is recognized in accordance with the “Guidance Note on Accounting for Real Estate Transactions” (‘Guidance Note’). As per this Guidance Note, the revenue has been recognized on percentage of completion method and on the percentage of actual project costs incurred thereon to total estimated project cost, provided the conditions specified in Guidance Note are satisfied.
For projects other than SEZ, revenue is recognized in accordance with the terms of duly executed agreements to sell/application forms (containing salient terms of agreement to sell). Estimated project cost includes cost of land/ development rights, borrowing costs, overheads, estimated construction and development cost of such properties.
For SEZ projects, revenue from development charges is recognized in accordance with the terms of the co-developer agreements/memorandum of understanding (‘MOU’), read with addendum, if any. The estimated project cost includes construction cost, development and construction material, internal development cost, external development charges, borrowing cost and overheads of such project. Revenue from lease of land pertaining to such projects is recognized in accordance with the terms of the co-developer agreements/ MOU on accrual basis.
The estimates of the saleable area and costs are reviewed periodically and effect of any changes in such estimates is recognized in the period such changes are determined. However, when the total project cost is estimated to exceed total revenues from the project, the loss is recognized immediately.
Sale of land and plots
Sale of land and plots (including development rights) is recognized in the financial year in which the agreement to sell/application forms (containing salient terms of agreement to sell) is executed and there exists no uncertainty in the ultimate collection of consideration from buyers. Where the Company has any remaining substantial obligations as per agreements, revenue is recognized on ‘percentage of completion method’ as explained above under ‘revenue from real estate projects’.
Rental income is recognized on a straight-line basis over the terms of the lease, except for contingent rental income which is recognized when it arises and where scheduled increase in rent compensates the lessor for expected inflationary costs. Parking income and fit out rental income is recognized in statement of profit and loss on accrual basis.
Sale of development rights
Sale of development rights is recognized in the financial year in which the agreements of sale are executed and there exists no uncertainty in the ultimate collection of consideration from buyers.
Share of profit/ loss from partnership
Share of profit/ loss from firms in which the Company is a partner is accounted for in the financial year ending on (or immediately before) the date of the balance sheet.
Revenue from golf course operations
Income from golf operations, course capitation, sponsorship etc. is fixed and recognized as per the agreement with the parties, as and when services are rendered.
- Revenue in respect of maintenance services is recognized on an accrual basis, in accordance with the terms of the respective contract.
- Service receipts, income from forfeiture of properties and interest from customers under agreements to sell is accounted for on an accrual basis except in cases where ultimate collection is considered doubtful.
Interest income is recorded on accrual basis using the effective interest rate (EIR) method.
Dividend income is recognized at the time when the right to receive is established by the reporting date.
i) Unbilled receivables
Unbilled receivables represent:
- Revenue recognized based on percentage of completion method, as per policy on revenue, over and above the amount due as per the payment plans agreed with the customers; and
- Balance on account of straight lining of rental income over the estimated rent free period.
j) Cost of revenue
Cost of real estate projects
Cost of constructed properties other than SEZ projects, includes cost of land (including cost of development rights/land under agreements to purchase), estimated internal development costs, external development charges, borrowing costs, overheads, construction costs and development/construction materials, which is charged to the statement of profit and loss based on the revenue recognized as explained in accounting policy for revenue from real estate projects above, in consonance with the concept of matching costs and revenue. Final adjustment is made on completion of the specific project.
Cost of SEZ projects
Cost of constructed properties includes estimated internal development costs, external development charges, overheads, borrowing cost, construction costs and development/ construction materials, which is charged to the statement of profit and loss based on the revenue recognized as explained in accounting policy for revenue from real estate SEZ projects above, in consonance with the concept of matching costs and revenue. Final adjustment is made on completion of the specific project.
Cost of land and plots
Cost of land and plots includes land (including development rights), acquisition cost, estimated internal development costs and external development charges, which is charged to the statement of profit and loss based on the percentage of land/ plotted area in respect of which revenue is recognized as explained in accounting policy for revenue from ‘Sale of land and plots’, in consonance with the concept of matching cost and revenue. Final adjustment is made on completion of the specific project.
Cost of development rights
Cost of development rights includes proportionate development rights cost, borrowing costs and other related cost.
k) Borrowing costs
Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition and/or construction of a qualifying asset are capitalized during the period of time that is necessary to complete and prepare the asset for its intended use or sale. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to the statement of profit and loss as incurred.
Tax expense recognized in statement of profit and loss comprises the sum of deferred tax and current tax except the ones recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity.
Current tax is determined as the tax payable in respect of taxable income for the year and is computed in accordance with relevant tax regulations. Current income tax relating to items recognized outside profit or loss is recognized outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity).
Minimum alternate tax (‘MAT’) credit entitlement is recognized as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that normal income tax will be paid during the specified period. In the year in which MAT credit becomes eligible to be recognized as an asset, the said asset is created by way of a credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as MAT credit entitlement. This is reviewed at each balance sheet date and the carrying amount of MAT credit entitlement is written down to the extent it is not reasonably certain that normal income tax will be paid during the specified period.
Deferred tax is recognized in respect of temporary differences between carrying amount of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and corresponding amount used for taxation purposes. Deferred tax assets on unrealised tax loss are recognized to the extent that it is probable that the underlying tax loss will be utilised against future taxable income. This is assessed based on the Company’s forecast of future operating results, adjusted for significant non-taxable income and expenses and specific limits on the use of any unused tax loss. Unrecognized deferred tax assets are re-assessed at each reporting date and are recognized to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the year when the asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Deferred tax relating to items recognized outside statement of profit and loss is recognized outside statement of profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity).
m) Foreign currency transactions
Functional and presentation currency
The financial statements are presented in Indian Rupees (T) which is also the functional and presentation currency of the Company.
Transactions and balances
Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the functional currency, by applying the exchange rate between the functional currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.
Foreign currency monetary items outstanding at the balance sheet date are converted to functional currency using the closing rate. Non-monetary items denominated in a foreign currency which are carried at historical cost are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transactions.
Exchange differences arising on monetary items on settlement, or restatement as at reporting date, at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded, are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the year in which they arise.
n) Employee benefits
The Company makes contribution to statutory provident fund in accordance with the Employees’ Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952. The provident fund trust set-up by the Company is treated as a defined benefit plan to the extent the Company has to meet the interest shortfall, if any. Accordingly, the contribution paid or payable and the interest shortfall, if any is recognized as an expense in the period in which services are rendered by the employee.
Gratuity is a post-employment benefit and is in the nature of a defined benefit plan. The liability recognized in the balance sheet in respect of gratuity is the present value of the defined benefit/obligation at the balance sheet date, together with adjustments for unrecognized actuarial gains or losses and past service costs. The defined benefit/obligation is calculated at or near the balance sheet date by an independent actuary using the projected unit credit method. This is based on standard rates of inflation, salary growth rate and mortality. Discount factors are determined close to each year-end by reference to market yields on government bonds that have terms to maturity approximating the terms of the related liability. Service cost on the Company’s defined benefit plan is included in employee benefits expense. Net interest expense on the net defined benefit liability is included in finance costs. Actuarial gains/losses resulting from re-measurements of the liability are included in other comprehensive income.
Other long-term employee benefits
Liability in respect of compensated absences becoming due or expected to be availed within one year from the balance sheet date is recognized on the basis of discounted value of estimated amount required to be paid or estimated value of benefit expected to be availed by the employees. Liability in respect of compensated absences becoming due or expected to be availed more than one year after the balance sheet date is estimated on the basis of an actuarial valuation performed by an independent actuary using the projected unit credit method.
Actuarial gains and losses arising from past experience and changes in actuarial assumptions are charged to statement of profit and loss in the year in which such gains or losses are determined.
Short-term employee benefits
Expense in respect of short-term benefits is recognized on the basis of the amount paid or payable for the period during which services are rendered by the employee. Contribution made towards superannuation fund (funded by payments to Life Insurance Corporation of India) is charged to statement of profit and loss on accrual basis.
o) Share based payments
Employee Stock Option Plan
The fair value of options granted under Employee Stock Option Plan is recognized as an employee benefits expense with a corresponding increase in equity. The total amount to be expensed is determined by reference to the fair value of the options. The total expense is recognized over the vesting period, which is the period over which all of the specified vesting conditions are to be satisfied. At the end of each period, the entity revises its estimates of the number of options that are expected to vest based on the non-market vesting and service conditions. It recognizes the impact of the revision to original estimates, if any, in profit or loss, with a corresponding adjustment to equity. Upon exercise of share options, the proceeds received are allocated to share capital up to the par value of the shares issued with any excess being recorded as share premium.
Employee Shadow Option Scheme (cash settled options)
Fair value of cash settled options granted to employees under the Employee Shadow Option Scheme is determined on the basis of excess of the average market price, during the month before the reporting date, over the exercise price of the shadow option. This fair value is expensed over the vesting period with recognition of a corresponding liability. The liability is re-measured to fair value at each reporting date up to and including the settlement date, with changes in fair value recognized in employee benefits expense over the vesting period.
p) Impairment of non-financial assets
At each reporting date, the Company assesses whether there is any indication based on internal/external factors, that an asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset or the cash generating unit is estimated. If such recoverable amount of the asset or cash generating unit to which the asset belongs is less than its carrying amount. The carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount and the reduction is treated as an impairment loss and is recognized in the statement of profit and loss. If, at the reporting date, there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reflected at the recoverable amount. Impairment losses previously recognized are accordingly reversed in the statement of profit and loss.
q) Impairment of financial assets
In accordance with Ind AS 109, the Company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss for financial assets.
ECL is the weighted-average of difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the Company expects to receive, discounted at the original effective interest rate, with the respective risks of default occurring as the weights. When estimating the cash flows, the Company is required to consider:
- All contractual terms of the financial assets (including prepayment and extension) over the expected life of the assets.
- Cash flows from the sale of collateral held or other credit enhancements that are integral to the contractual terms.
In respect of trade receivables, the Company applies the simplified approach of Ind AS 109, which requires measurement of loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses. Lifetime expected credit losses are the expected credit losses that result from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial instrument.
Other financial assets
In respect of its other financial assets, the Company assesses if the credit risk on those financial assets has increased significantly since initial recognition. If the credit risk has not increased significantly since initial recognition, the Company measures the loss allowance at an amount equal to 12-month expected credit losses, else at an amount equal to the lifetime expected credit losses.
When making this assessment, the Company uses the change in the risk of a default occurring over the expected life of the financial asset. To make that assessment, the Company compares the risk of a default occurring on the financial asset as at the balance sheet date with the risk of a default occurring on the financial asset as at the date of initial recognition and considers reasonable and supportable information, that is available without undue cost or effort, that is indicative of significant increases in credit risk since initial recognition. The Company assumes that the credit risk on a financial asset has not increased significantly since initial recognition if the financial asset is determined to have low credit risk at the balance sheet date.
r) Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash in hand, demand deposits and short-term highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into known amount of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.
s) Provisions, contingent assets and contingent liabilities
Provisions are recognized only when there is a present obligation, as a result of past events and when a reliable estimate of the amount of obligation can be made at the reporting date. These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Provisions are discounted to their present values, where the time value of money is material.
Contingent liability is disclosed for:
- Possible obligations which will be confirmed only by future events not wholly within the control of the Company or
- Present obligations arising from past events where it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation or a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation cannot be made.
Contingent assets are neither recognized nor disclosed except when realisation of income is virtually certain, related asset is disclosed.
t) Operating leases
Leases in which the lessor does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of an asset to the lessee are classified as operating leases.
Company as a lessee
Lease rental are charged to statement of profit and loss on straight-line basis except where scheduled increase in rent compensates the lessor for expected inflationary costs.
Company as a lessor
Rental income is recognized on straight-line basis over the lease term except where scheduled increase in rent compensates the Company with expected inflationary costs.
u) Financial instruments
Initial recognition and measurement
Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognized when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the financial instrument and are measured initially at fair value adjusted for transaction costs, except for those carried at fair value through profit or loss which are measured initially at fair value. Subsequent measurement of financial assets and financial liabilities is described below:
Non-derivative financial assets
i. Financial assets carried at amortised cost - a financial asset is measured at the amortised cost, if both the following conditions are met:
- The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and
- Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.
After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method.
ii. Investments in equity instruments of subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates - Investments in equity instruments of subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates are accounted for at cost in accordance with Ind AS 27 Separate Financial Statements.
iii. Investments in other equity instruments - Investments in equity instruments which are held for trading are classified as at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL). For all other equity instruments, the Company makes an irrevocable choice upon initial recognition, on an instrument by instrument basis, to classify the same either as at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI) or fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL). Amounts presented in other comprehensive income are not subsequently transferred to profit or loss. However, the Company transfers the cumulative gain or loss within equity. Dividends on such investments are recognized in profit or loss unless the dividend clearly represents a recovery of part of the cost of the investment.
iv. Investments in mutual funds - Investments in mutual funds are measured at fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL).
De-recognition of financial assets
A financial asset is primarily de-recognized when the contractual rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired or the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset.
Non-derivative financial liabilities
Subsequent to initial recognition, all non-derivative financial liabilities are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method.
De-recognition of financial liabilities
A financial liability is de-recognized when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the de-recognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognized in the statement of profit or loss.
Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting
The Company holds derivative financial instruments to hedge its foreign currency exposure for underlying external commercial borrowings (‘ECB’). Derivative financial instruments are accounted for at FVTPL except for derivatives designated as hedging instruments. To qualify for hedge accounting, the hedging relationship must meet conditions with respect to documentation, strategy and economic relationship of the hedged transaction. The Company has designated the changes in spot element of the derivative as hedging instrument to mitigate variability in cash flows associated with the foreign exchange risk of the said ECB.
The changes in fair value of the forward element of the derivative are recognized in other comprehensive income and are accumulated in ‘Cash Flow Hedge Reserve’. The difference between forward and spot element at the date of designation of the hedging instrument is amortised over the period of the hedge. Hence, in each reporting period, the amortisation amount shall be reclassified from the separate component of equity to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment. However, if hedge accounting is discontinued for the hedging relationship that includes the changes in forward element of the hedging instrument, the net amount (i.e. including cumulative amortisation) that has been accumulated in the separate component of equity shall be immediately reclassified into profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment.
Financial guarantee contracts
Financial guarantee contracts are those contracts that require a payment to be made to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because the specified party fails to make a payment when due in accordance with the terms of a debt instrument. Financial guarantee contracts are recognized as a financial liability at the time the guarantee is issued at fair value, adjusted for transaction costs that are directly attributable to the issuance of the guarantee. Subsequently, the liability is measured at the higher of the amount of expected loss allowance determined as per impairment requirements of Ind AS 109 and the amount recognized less cumulative amortization.
Offsetting of financial instruments
Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognized amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.
v) Earnings per share
Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting attributable taxes) by the weighted-average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. The weighted-average number of equity shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for events including a bonus issue.
For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted-average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.
w) Significant management judgement in applying accounting policies and estimation uncertainty
The preparation of the Company’s financial statements requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities and the related disclosures.
Significant management judgements
Recognition of deferred tax assets - The extent to which deferred tax assets can be recognized is based on an assessment of the probability of the future taxable income against which the deferred tax assets can be utilized.
Evaluation of indicators for impairment of assets – The evaluation of applicability of indicators of impairment of assets requires assessment of several external and internal factors which could result in deterioration of recoverable amount of the assets.
Classification of leases - The Company enters into leasing arrangements for various assets. The classification of the leasing arrangement as a finance lease or operating lease is based on an assessment of several factors, including, but not limited to, transfer of ownership of leased asset at end of lease term, lessee’s option to purchase and estimated certainty of exercise of such option, proportion of lease term to the asset’s economic life, proportion of present value of minimum lease payments to fair value of leased asset and extent of specialized nature of the leased asset.
Impairment of financial assets - At each balance sheet date, based on historical default rates observed over expected life, the management assesses the expected credit loss on outstanding financial assets.
Provisions - At each balance sheet date basis the management judgment, changes in facts and legal aspects, the Company assesses the requirement of provisions against the outstanding contingent liabilities. However, the actual future outcome may be different from this judgement.
Revenue and inventories - The Company recognizes revenue using the percentage of completion method. This requires forecasts to be made of total budgeted cost with the outcomes of underlying construction and service contracts, which require assessments and judgements to be made on changes in work scopes, claims (compensation, rebates etc.) and other payments to the extent they are probable and they are capable of being reliably measured. For the purpose of making estimates for claims, the Company used the available contractual and historical information.
Useful lives of depreciable/ amortisable assets -
Management reviews its estimate of the useful lives of depreciable/amortisable assets at each reporting date, based on the expected utility of the assets. Uncertainties in these estimates relate to technical and economic obsolescence that may change the utility of assets.
Valuation of investment property - Investment property is stated at cost. However, as per Ind AS 40, there is a requirement to disclose fair value as at the balance sheet date. The Group engaged independent valuation specialists to determine the fair value of its investment property as at reporting date.
The determination of the fair value of investment properties requires the use of estimates such as future cash flows from the assets (such as lettings, future revenue streams, capital values of fixtures and fittings, any environmental matters and the overall repair and condition of the property) and discount rates applicable to those assets. In addition, development risks (such as construction and letting risk) are also taken into consideration when determining the fair value of the properties under construction. These estimates are based on local market conditions existing at the balance sheet date.
Defined benefit obligation (DBO) - Management’s estimate of the DBO is based on a number of underlying assumptions such as standard rates of inflation, mortality, discount rate and anticipation of future salary increases. Variation in these assumptions may significantly impact the DBO amount and the annual defined benefit expenses.
Fair value measurements - Management applies valuation techniques to determine the fair value of financial instruments (where active market quotes are not available). This involves developing estimates and assumptions consistent with how market participants would price the instrument.