DCB Bank Limited (“DCB” or “the Bank”), incorporated in Mumbai, India is a publicly held banking company engaged in providing banking and financial services and governed by the Banking Regulation Act, 1949.
2. BASIS OF PREPARATION
The financial statements have been prepared and presented under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis of accounting unless otherwise stated, and comply with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (‘GAAP''''), statutory requirements prescribed under the Banking Regulation Act, 1949, circulars and guidelines issued by the Reserve Bank of India (the “RBI”) from time to time and the notified Accounting Standards prescribed under Section 133 of the Companies Act 2013, to the extent applicable and the current practices prevailing within the banking industry in India.
3. USE OF ESTIMATES
The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires the management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period. Although these estimates are based upon the management''''s best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates. Any revisions to the accounting estimates are recognized prospectively in the current and future periods.
The investment portfolio comprising approved securities (predominantly Government Securities) and other securities (Shares, Debentures and Bonds, etc.) is classified at the time of acquisition in accordance with the RBI guidelines under three categories viz. ‘Held to Maturity7 (‘HTM''''), ‘Available for Sale'''' (‘AFS'''') and ‘Held for Trading'''' (‘HFT''''). For the purposes of disclosure in the Balance Sheet, they are classified under six groups viz. Government Securities, Other Approved Securities, Shares, Debentures and Bonds, Subsidiaries and/or joint ventures and Other Investments.
The Bank follows ‘Settlement Date'''' accounting for recording purchase and sale transactions.
4.2 Basis of Classification:
Investments that are held principally for resale within 90 days from the date of purchase are classified as HFT securities. As per the RBI guidelines, HFT securities, which remain unsold for a period of 90 days are reclassified as AFS securities as on that date.
Investments which the Bank intends to hold till maturity are classified as HTM securities.
Investments which are not classified in the above categories are classified as AFS securities.
4.3 Transfer of Securities between Categories:
The transfer/shifting of securities between categories of investments is accounted as per the RBI guidelines.
4.4 Acquisition Cost:
Cost including brokerage, commission pertaining to investments, paid at the time of acquisition, is charged to the Profit and Loss Account. Broken period interest is charged to the Profit and Loss Account.
Cost of investments is computed based on the weighted average cost method.
Held for Trading and Available for Sale categories:
Investments classified under HFT and AFS are marked to market as per the RBI guidelines. These securities are valued scrip-wise and any resultant depreciation or appreciation is aggregated for each category. The net depreciation for each category within each group is provided for, whereas the net appreciation for each category is ignored. The book value of individual securities is not changed consequent to periodic valuation of investments.
Traded investments are valued based on the trades / quotes from the recognized stock exchanges, price list of RBI or prices declared by Primary Dealers Association of India (‘PDAI'''') jointly with Fixed Income Money Market and Derivatives Association (‘FIMMDA''''), periodically.
The market value of unquoted government securities which qualify for determining the Statutory Liquidity Ratio (‘SLR'''') included in the AFS and HFT categories is computed as per the Yield-to-Maturity (‘YTM'''') rates published by FIMMDA.
The valuation of other unquoted fixed income securities (viz. State government securities, Other approved securities, Bonds and debentures, Pass through Certificates) wherever linked to the YTM rates, is computed with a mark-up (reflecting associated credit and liquidity risk) over the YTM rates for government securities with similar maturity profile published by FIMMDA. Unquoted equity shares are valued at the break-up value, if the latest Balance Sheet is available or at '''' 1 as per the RBI guidelines. Units of mutual funds are valued at the latest repurchase price / net asset value declared by the mutual fund. Treasury bills, commercial papers and certificate of deposits, being discounted instruments, are valued at carrying cost.
In the event provisions recognized on account of depreciation in the AFS or HFT categories are found to be in excess of the required amount in any year, such excess is recognized in the Profit and Loss Account and subsequently appropriated, from profit available for appropriation, if any, to Investment Reserve Account in accordance with the RBI guidelines after adjusting for income tax and appropriation to Statutory Reserve. Held to Maturity:
These are carried at their acquisition cost and are not marked to market. Any premium on acquisition is amortized over the remaining maturity period of the security on a straight-line basis. Provision is recognized for diminution other than temporary in the value of such investments for each investment individually.
Non-performing investments are identified and provision is recognized as per the RBI guidelines.
4.6 Security Receipts (SR)
Security receipts issued by the Asset Reconstruction Companies (‘ARC’) are valued at the net asset value declared by ARC and valued in accordance with the guidelines applicable to such instruments, prescribed by the RBI from time to time.
4.7 Disposal of Investments:
Profit/Loss on sale of investment under the aforesaid three categories is recognized in the Profit and Loss Account. The profit on sale of investment in HTM category, net of taxes and transfer to Statutory Reserve, is appropriated to Capital Reserve.
4.8 Repo and reverse repo transactions under Liquidity Adjustment Facility (‘LAF’):
Repo transactions under LAF with RBI are accounted for as secured borrowing/ lending transactions. Borrowing cost on repo transactions is treated as interest expense and income on reverse repo transactions is treated as interest income.
5.1 In pursuance of guidelines issued by the RBI, advances are classified as Standard, Sub-Standard, Doubtful and Loss Assets and are stated net of specific provisions made towards NPAs and floating provisions.
5.2 Advances are net of bills rediscounted, Inter-bank participation with risk, claims realized from Export Credit Guarantee Corporation (‘ECGC’), provisions for non- performing advances, floating provisions, unrealized fees and unrealized interest held in suspense account.
5.3 Credit facility/investment, where interest and/or installment of principal has remained overdue for more than 90 days, is classified as nonperforming asset. However, in respect of Equated Monthly Installment (‘EMI’) based advances, those accounts where more than 3 EMIs are overdue are classified as NPAs.
5.4 In case of NPAs other than retail EMI loans, recoveries effected are first adjusted towards the principal amount. In case of retail EMI loans, recoveries effected are adjusted towards the EMI and within the EMI first towards the principal amount.
5.5 Provision for non-performing advances (‘NPAs’) comprising sub-standard, doubtful and loss assets is made in accordance with the RBI guidelines which prescribe minimum provision levels and encourage banks to make a higher provision based on sound commercial judgment. NPAs are identified by periodic appraisals of the loan portfolio by the management. In respect of identified NPAs in Retail portfolio, provision is recognized on the homogeneous retail loans and advances assessed at borrower level on the basis of ageing of loans in the non-performing category and in respect of identified NPAs in other cases, provision is recognized account by account. The provisioning done is at or higher than the minimum rate prescribed under the RBI guidelines.
5.6 In case of restructured/rescheduled assets, provision is made in accordance with the guidelines issued by the RBI, which require the diminution in the fair value of the assets to be provided in the Profit and Loss Account at the time of restructuring.
5.7 In addition to the above, the Bank, on a prudent basis, recognizes provisions on advances or exposures which are performing assets as per the IRAC norms, but has reasons to believe on the basis of the extant environment impacting a specific exposure or any specific information, the possible deterioration of a specific advance or a group of advances or exposures or potential exposures. These provisions are recognized as per Board approved policy and are classified as Provision for Specific Standard Assets, included under Provision for Standard Assets and reported under Other Liabilities. These provisions are not reversed to the Profit and Loss Account but are transferred as provision on the same specific advance / exposure in case the asset slips into non-performing asset, except in case of full repayment of the exposure when such provision will be reversed and recognized in the Profit and Loss Account.
5.8 The Bank maintains general provision for Standard Assets, including credit exposures computed as per the current marked to market values of foreign exchange forward contracts, at levels stipulated by the RBI from time to time. These provisions on Standard Assets are included under Other Liabilities.
5.9 The Bank estimates the inherent risk of the unhinged foreign currency exposures of its borrowers as per the regulatory guidelines stipulated by the RBI from time to time and recognizes incremental provisions on exposures to such entities as per methodology prescribed. These provisions are included in Provision for Standard Assets and reported under Other Liabilities.
5.10 The RBI guidelines further permit banks to create floating provisions on Advances up to levels as per a Board approved policy over and above the regulatory provisions required on standard assets. These floating provisions are netted from Advances. These provisions are not reversed by credit to the Profit and Loss Account without prior approvals of the Board and the RBI under specific circumstances.
6. FIXED ASSETS
Premises and other fixed assets are stated at historical cost (or revalued amounts, as the case may be), less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Subsequent expenditure incurred on assets put to use is capitalized only when it increases the future benefit / functioning capability from / of such assets.
7. REVALUATION OF FIXED ASSETS
Portfolio of immovable properties is revalued periodically by an independent value to reflect current market valuation. All land and building owned by the Bank and used as branches or offices or god owns are grouped under “Office Premises” in the fixed assets category. Appreciation, if any, on revaluation is credited to Revaluation Reserve under Capital Reserves. Additional Depreciation on the revalued asset is charged to the Profit and Loss Account and appropriated from the Revaluation Reserves to Profit and Loss Account i.e. revenue reserves.
8. DEPRECIATION & AMORTISATION
Depreciation on fixed assets, including amortization of software, is charged over the estimated useful life of the fixed assets on a straight-line basis at the rates and in the manner prescribed in Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013, except as mentioned below. The useful life of an asset is the period over which an asset is expected to be available for use to the Bank.
- Computer Hardware and Servers - 33.33% p.a.
- Air conditioners — 11.11% p.a.
- Application Software and System Development Expenditure - 33.33% p.a.
- Improvements (Civil) to Leased Premises and Fixed Furniture in Leased Premises such as work-stations, etc. — over the contracted period of the lease
- Vehicles — 19% p.a. over 5 years with 5% residual value.
- Cash safe and Safe Deposit Vaults — 4.75% p.a.
Assets purchased/sold during the year are depreciated on a pro-rata basis, based on the actual number of days the assets have been put to use. Assets individually costing upto '''' 5,000/- are depreciated fully over a period of one year from the date of purchase.
9. IMPAIRMENT OF ASSETS
The carrying amount of assets is reviewed at each Balance Sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset’s net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and risks specific to the asset. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the asset over remaining useful life.
10. RECOGNITION OF INCOME AND EXPENDITURE
10.1 Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefit will flow to the Bank and the revenue can be reliably measured.
10.2 Items of income and expenditure are generally accounted on accrual basis.
10.3 Interest income is recognized in the Profit and Loss Account on accrual basis, except in the case of non-performing assets where it is recognized on receipt basis as per the RBI and Accounting Standard norms.
10.4 Interest income on investments in Pass Through Certificates (PTC) is recognized at the coupon rate, net of tax on distributed income.
10.5 Interest income on loans bought out through the direct assignment route is recognized at the effective interest rate i.e. after amortizing premium, if any, on the bought out portfolio as per Guidelines on Securitized Transactions issued by the RBI.
10.6 Processing fees on loans are recognized as income, however processing overheads on loans are expensed at the inception of the loan.
10.7 Overdue rent on safe deposit lockers is accounted for when there is certainty of receipts.
10.8 Guarantee commission, annual safe deposit locker rent fees are recognized on a straight-line basis over the period of contract. Letters of credit (‘LC’) are generally issued for a shorter tenor, typically of 90 days. The commission on such LC is recognized when due.
11. FOREIGN CURRENCYTRANSACTIONS
11.1 Initial recognition:
Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the reporting currency by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the reporting currency and foreign currency on the date of the transaction.
Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing rate notified by Foreign Exchange Dealers’ Association of India (‘FEDAI’) at the Balance Sheet date and the resulting profit or loss is recognized in the Profit and Loss Account, as per the guidelines issued by the RBI.
11.3 Exchange differences:
Exchange difference arising on settlement of monetary items is recognized as income or as expense in the year in which it arises. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction and non-monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuations denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.
Foreign exchange forward contracts not intended for trading that are entered into to establish the amount of reporting currency required or available at the settlement date of transactions, which are outstanding at the Balance Sheet date are effectively valued at the closing spot rate. The premium or discount arising at the inception of such a forward exchange contract is amortized as expense or income over the life of the contract.
11.4 Outstanding forward exchange contracts are revalued at the Balance Sheet date at the rates notified by FEDAI and at interpolated rates for contracts of interim maturities. The resultant gain/loss on revaluation is recognized in the Profit and Loss Account in accordance with the RBI/ FEDAI guidelines.
11.5 Contingent liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are disclosed in the Balance Sheet at the rates notified by FEDAI.
11.6 Forward exchange contracts and other derivative contracts which have overdue receivables remaining unpaid over 90 days or more are classified as non-performing assets and provided for as per the extant master circular on Prudential Norms on Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning issued by the RBI.
12. EMPLOYEE BENEFITS
12.1 Defined Benefit Plan
Provision in respect of future liability for payment of gratuity is made on the basis of actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of the year. Gratuity is funded with the Gratuity Trust duly registered under the provisions of Income tax Act, 1961. Actuarial gains/ losses are recognized immediately in the Profit and Loss Account and are not deferred.
12.2 Defined Contribution Scheme
Retirement benefit in the form of provident fund is a defined contribution scheme and the contributions are charged to the Profit and Loss Account of the year when the contributions to the fund are due. There is no other obligation other than the contribution payable to the fund.
13. TAXES ON INCOME
13.1 Tax expense comprises current and deferred taxes. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income Tax Act, 1961. Deferred Income Tax reflects the impact of current year timing differences between the taxable income and the accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.
13.2 Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the Balance Sheet date. Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities relate to taxes levied by same governing taxation laws. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. In situations where the Bank has unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward tax losses, all deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that they can be realized against future taxable profits.
13.3 At each Balance Sheet date, the Bank re-assesses unrecognized deferred tax assets and recognizes deferred tax asset to the extent that it has become reasonably certain or virtually certain, as the case may be, that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.