Basis of preparation
The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015. For periods up to and including the year ended 31st March, 2016, the Company prepared its financial statements in accordance with accounting standards notified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013, read together with paragraph 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 (‘Indian GAAP’). These financial statements for the year ended 31stMarch, 2017 are the first Financial Statements prepared in accordance with Ind AS. Refer to note 53 for information on how the Company has adopted Ind AS. The financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis, except for certain financial assets and liabilities (including derivative instruments) and contingent consideration; assets and liabilities assumed on business combination, defined benefit plans, plan assets and share-based payments. The consolidated financial statements are presented in Indian Rupee and all values are rounded to the nearest crore, except when otherwise indicated.
Use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements requires the management of the Company to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported assets and liabilities, revenue and expenses and disclosures relating to contingent liabilities. Management believes that the estimates used in the preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Examples of such estimates include estimation of useful lives of tangible and intangible assets, valuation of inventories, sales return, employee costs, assessments of recoverable amounts of deferred tax assets and cash generating units, provisions against litigations and contingencies. Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed by management at each reporting date. Actual results could differ from these estimates. Any revision of these estimates is recognised prospectively in the current and future periods.
Operating Cycle & Current Non-current Classification
Based on the nature of products and the time between acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash and cash equivalents, the Company has ascertained its operating cycle as twelve months for the purpose of current/ non-current classification of assets and liabilities.
The Company presents assets and liabilities in the Balance Sheet based on current/ non-current classification. An asset is current when it is:
- Expected to be realised or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle.
- Held primarily for the purpose of trading.
- Expected to be realised within twelve months after the reporting period, or
- Cash or Cash Equivalent.
All other assets are classified as non-current.
A liability is current when:
- It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle.
- It is held primarily for the purpose of trading.
- It is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or
- There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.
The Company classifies all other liabilities as noncurrent.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as noncurrent assets and liabilities.
Foreign currency transactions and balances
Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the remeasurement of monetary items denominated in foreign currency at year-end exchange rates are recognised in profit or loss.
Non-monetary items are not retranslated at year-end and are measured at historical cost (translated using the exchange rates at the transaction date), except for nonmonetary items measured at fair value which are translated using the exchange rates at the date when fair value was determined.
Income and expenses have been translated into Indian Rupee at the average rate over the reporting period. Exchange differences are charged or credited to other comprehensive income and recognised in the currency translation reserve in equity. On disposal of a foreign operation, the related cumulative translation differences recognised in equity are reclassified to Statement of Profit and Loss and are recognised as part of the gain or loss on disposal.
Fair value measurement
The Company measures financial instruments at fair value at each reporting date.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:
- in the principal market for the asset or liability, or
- in the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability.
The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the Company.
The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.
A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant’s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use.
The Company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data is available to measure fair value, maximising the use of relevant observable inputs and minimising the use of unobservable inputs.
All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorised within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:
- Level 1 — Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
- Level 2 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable.
- Level 3 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable.
For assets and liabilities that are recognised in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorisation (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.
At each reporting date, the Company analyses the movements in the values of assets and liabilities which are required to be re-measured or re-assessed as per the Company’s accounting policies.
For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the Company has determined classes of assets and liabilities on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy as explained above.
This note summarises accounting policy for fair value. Other fair value related disclosures are given in the relevant notes.
- Disclosures for valuation methods, significant estimates and assumptions.
- Contingent consideration.
- Quantitative disclosures of fair value measurement hierarchy.
- Financial instruments (including those carried at amortised cost).
(i) Sale of goods and rendering of services
Revenue is recognized when it is probable that economic benefits associated with a transaction flows to the Company in the ordinary course of its activities and the amount of revenue can be measured reliably. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of returns, trade discounts, chargebacks and volume rebates allowed by the Company. Accrual for sales returns, chargebacks and other allowances are provided at the point of sale based upon past experience. Adjustments to such returns, chargebacks and other allowances are made as new information becomes available. Revenue includes only the gross inflows of economic benefits, including excise duty, received and receivable by the Company, on its own account. Amounts collected on behalf of third parties such as sales tax and value added tax are excluded from revenue.
Profit sharing revenues are generally recognized under the terms of a license and supply agreement in the period such amounts can be reliability measured and collectability is reasonably assured.
Revenue from sale of goods is recognized when the following conditions are satisfied:
- The Company has transferred the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods to the buyer;
- The Company retains neither continuing managerial involvement to the degree usually associated with ownership nor effective control over goods sold;
- The amount of revenue can be measured reliably;
- It is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the Company;
- The costs incurred or to be incurred in respect of the transaction can be measured reliably.
Revenue resulting from the achievement of milestone events stipulated in agreements is recognized when the milestone is achieved. Milestones are based upon the occurrence of a substantive element specified in the contract or as a measure of substantive progress towards completion under the contract.
Other Operating revenue is recognised on accrual basis.
(ii) Interest income
Interest income from a financial asset is recognised when it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably. Interest income is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principle outstanding and at the effective interest rate applicable, which is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to that asset’s net carrying amount on initial recognition.
Dividend income from investments is recognised when the right to receive payment has been established, provided that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably.
Income tax expense comprises of current tax expense and deferred tax expenses. Current and deferred taxes are recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss, except when they relate to items that are recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case, the current and deferred tax are also recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, respectively.
(i) Current income tax:
Current tax is the amount of tax payable on the taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the provisions of the Income Tax Act of the respective jurisdiction. The current tax is calculated using tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date.
(ii) Deferred tax:
Deferred tax is recognized using the Balance Sheet approach on temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts.
Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all taxable temporary differences.
Deferred tax assets are recognised for all deductible temporary differences, the carry forward of unused tax credits and any unused tax losses. Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilised, except when the deferred tax asset relating to the deductible temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss.
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be utilised. Unrecognised deferred tax assets are re-assessed at each reporting date and are recognised to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using substantively enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which the temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled.
Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) credit is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent it is reasonably certain that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. Such asset is reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and the carrying amount of the MAT credit asset is written down to the extent there is no longer a convincing evidence to the effect that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period.
Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities.
(iii) Sales tax
Expenses and assets are recognised net of the amount of sales tax, except, when the sales tax incurred on a purchase of assets or services is not recoverable from the taxation authority, in which case, the sales tax is recognised as part of the cost of acquisition of the asset or as part of the expense item, as applicable.
Property, Plant and Equipment
All items of property, plant and equipment, including freehold land, are initially recorded at cost. Cost of property, plant and equipment comprises purchase price, non-refundable taxes, levies and any directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Expenses directly attributable to new manufacturing facility during its construction period are capitalized if the recognition criteria is met. Subsequent to initial recognition, property, plant and equipment other than freehold land are measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses. Freehold land has an unlimited useful life and therefore is not depreciated. The carrying values of property, plant and equipment are reviewed for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable.
The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment is recognized as an asset if, and only if, it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. The cost includes the cost of replacing part of the property, plant and equipment and borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying property, plant and equipment. The accounting policy for borrowing costs is set out in note below. Items such as spare parts, stand-by equipment and servicing equipment that meet the definition of property, plant and equipment are capitalized at cost and depreciated over their useful life. Costs in nature of repairs and maintenance are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss as and when incurred. The present value of the expected cost for the decommissioning of an asset after its use is included in the cost of the respective asset if the recognition criteria for a provision is met.
Capital work-in-progress includes cost of property, plant and equipment that are not ready for their intended use.
Depreciation on tangible assets is provided based on useful life of the assets as prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013.
Capital work-in-progress included in Note 3 property, plant and equipment are not depreciated as these assets are not yet available for use.
The residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation of property, plant and equipment are reviewed at each financial year end and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.
Property that is held for non-current rental yields or for capital appreciation or both, and that is not occupied by the Company, is classified as investment property. Investment property is measured initially at its cost, including related transaction costs and borrowing costs where applicable. Subsequent expenditure is capitalised to the asset’s carrying amount only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the Company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. All other repairs and maintenance costs are expensed when incurred. When part of an investment property is replaced, the carrying amount of the replaced part is de-recognised.
Investment properties are depreciated using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives. Investment properties generally have a useful life of 2540 years. The useful life has been determined based on technical evaluation performed by management’s expert.
Intangible assets such as marketing intangibles, trademarks, technical know-how, brands and computer software acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Intangible assets arising on acquisition of business are measured at fair value as at date of acquisition. Internally generated intangibles including research cost are not capitalised and the related expenditure is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which the expenditure is incurred. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment loss, if any.
Expenditure on Regulatory Approval
Expenditure incurred for obtaining regulatory approvals and registration of products for overseas markets is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Amortisation methods and periods
The Company amortises intangible assets with a finite useful life using the straight-line method over the following periods:
- Marketing intangibles, Trademarks, Technical KnowHow and Brands 2-10 years.
- Computer software 3 years.
Borrowing costs consists of interest, ancillary costs and other costs in connection with the borrowing of funds and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs.
Borrowing costs attributable to acquisition and/or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as a part of the cost of such assets, up to the date such assets are ready for their intended use. Other borrowing costs are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Impairment of non-financial assets
The Company assesses, at each reporting date, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset’s recoverable amount. An asset’s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s or cash-generating unit’s (CGU) fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. Recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or Groups of assets. When the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount.
Impairment losses of continuing operations, including impairment on inventories, are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfillment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.
For arrangements entered into prior to 1st April, 2015, the date of inception is deemed to be 1st April, 2015 in accordance with Ind-AS 101 First-time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standard.
(i) Company as a lessee
A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Company is classified as a finance lease.
Finance leases are capitalised at the commencement of the lease at the inception date fair value of the leased property or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognised in finance costs in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
A leased asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term.
Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on accrual basis as escalation in lease arrangements are for expected inflationary cost.
(ii) Company as a lessor
Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of an asset are classified as operating leases. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating and arranging an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognised over the lease term on the same basis as rental income. Contingent rents are recognised as revenue in the period in which they are earned.
Leases are classified as finance leases when substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership transfer from the Company to the lessee. Amounts due from lessees under finance leases are recorded as receivables at the Company’s net investment in the leases. Finance lease income is allocated to accounting periods so as to reflect a constant periodic rate of return on the net investment outstanding in respect of the lease.
Raw materials and packing materials are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value after providing for obsolescence, if any. However, these items are considered to be realisable at cost if the finished products, in which they will be used, are expected to be sold at or above cost.
Work-in-process, stores, spares and consumables are valued at cost. Stock-in-trade and finished goods are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value.
Finished goods and work-in-process include costs of raw material, labour, conversion costs and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.
Cost of finished goods includes excise duty, wherever applicable.
Cost of inventories is computed on weighted moving average basis.
A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.
(i) Financial Assets
Initial recognition and measurement
All financial assets are recognised initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within a time frame established by regulation or convention in the market place (regular way trades) are recognised on the trade date, i.e., the date that the Company commits to purchase or sell the asset.
For purposes of subsequent measurement, financial assets are classified in four categories:
- Debt instruments at amortised cost.
- Debt instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI).
- Debt instruments, derivatives and equity instruments at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL).
- Equity instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income FVTOCI.
Debt instruments at amortised cost A ‘debt instrument’ is measured at the amortised cost if both the following conditions are met:
- The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and
- Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.
After initial measurement, financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included in finance income in the profit or loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Debt Instrument at FVTPL
FVTPL is a residual category for debt instruments. Any debt instrument, which does not meet the criteria for categorization as at amortized cost or as FVTOCI, is classified as at FVTPL.
Debt instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
All equity investments in scope of Ind-AS 109 are measured at fair value. Equity instruments which are held for trading are classified as at FVTPL. For all other equity instruments, the Company decides to classify the same either as at FVTOCI or FVTPL. The Company makes such election on an instrument-by-instrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable.
If the Company decides to classify an equity instrument as at FVTOCI, then all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognized in the OCI. There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to Statement of Profit and Loss, even on sale of investment. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity.
Equity instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
The Company de-recognises a financial asset only when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expires or it transfers the financial asset and substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the asset.
When the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into a pass-through arrangement, it evaluates if and to what extent it has retained the risks and rewards of ownership. When it has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the asset, nor transferred control of the asset, the Company continues to recognise the transferred asset to the extent of the Company’s continuing involvement. In that case, the Company also recognises an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained.
Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured at the lower of the original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration that the Company could be required to repay.
Impairment of Financial Assets
The Company assesses at each reporting date whether there is any objective evidence that a financial asset or a Group of financial assets is impaired. A financial asset or a Group of financial assets is deemed to be impaired if, there is objective evidence of impairment as a result of one or more events that has occurred after the initial recognition of the asset (an expected ‘loss event’) and that loss event has an impact on the estimated future cash flows of the financial asset or the Group of financial assets that can be reliably estimated. Evidence of impairment may include indications that the debtors or a Group of debtors is experiencing significant financial difficulty, default or delinquency in interest or principal payments, the probability that they will enter bankruptcy or other financial reorganization and where observable data indicate that there is a measurable decrease in the estimated future cash flows, such as changes in arrears or economic conditions that correlate with defaults.
(ii) Financial Liabilities
Initial recognition and measurement Financial liabilities are classified, at initial recognition, as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss.
All financial liabilities are recognised initially at fair value and, in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs.
The Company’s financial liabilities include trade and other payables, loans and borrowings including bank overdrafts, financial guarantee contracts and derivative financial instruments.
The measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification, as described below:
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss. Financial liabilities are classified as held for trading if they are incurred for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term. This category also includes derivative financial instruments entered into by the Company that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as defined by Ind-AS 109. Separated embedded derivatives are also classified as held for trading unless they are designated as effective hedging instruments.
Gains or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognised in the profit or loss.
Loans and Borrowings
After initial recognition, interest-bearing loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the EIR method. Gains and losses are recognised in profit or loss when the liabilities are derecognised as well as through the EIR amortisation process.
Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included as finance costs in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
This category generally applies to interest-bearing loans and borrowings.
A financial liability is de-recognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognised in the Statement of Profit or Loss.
(iii) Derivative Financial Instruments
The Company uses derivative financial instruments, such as forward currency contracts and interest rate swaps, to hedge its foreign currency risks and interest rate risks, respectively. Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at fair value. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.
(iv) Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and Cash Equivalents represent cash and bank balances and fixed deposits with banks. Cash and cash equivalent are readily convertible into known amounts of cash and are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.
(v) Trade Receivables
Trade receivables are recognised initially at fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, less provision for impairment.
Provisions for legal claims, chargebacks and sales returns are recognised when the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of past events, it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation and the amount can be reliably estimated. Provisions are not recognised for future operating losses.
Where there are a number of similar obligations, the likelihood that an outflow will be required in settlement is determined by considering the class of obligations as a whole. A provision is recognised even if the likelihood of an outflow with respect to any one item included in the same class of obligations may be small.
Provisions are measured at the present value of management’s best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period. The discount rate used to determine the present value is a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability. The increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as interest expense.
Disclosure of contingent liabilities is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. Where there is possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.
Liability on account of short term employee benefits is recognised on an undiscounted and accrual basis during the period when the employee renders service/ vesting period of the benefit.
Post retirement contribution plans such as Employees’ Pension scheme and Employees’ Provident Fund (for employees other than those who are covered under Employees’ provident fund trust) are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss for the year when the contributions to the respective funds accrue.
Post retirement benefit plans such as gratuity and provident fund are determined on the basis of actuarial valuation made by an independent actuary as at the balance sheet date. Re-measurement, comprising actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the changes to the asset ceiling (if applicable) and the return on plan assets (excluding net interest), is reflected immediately in the consolidated balance sheet with a charge or credit recognised in other comprehensive income in the period in which they occur. Re-measurement recognised in other comprehensive income is reflected immediately in retained earnings and will not be reclassified to Statement of Profit and Loss.
(i) Gratuity Obligations
The liability or asset recognised in the balance sheet in respect of defined benefit gratuity plans is the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the end of the reporting period less the fair value of plan assets. The defined benefit obligation is calculated annually by actuaries.
The present value of the defined benefit obligation denominated in INR is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows by reference to market yields at the end of the reporting period on government bonds that have terms approximating to the terms of the related obligation.
The net interest cost is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net balance of the defined benefit obligation and the fair value of plan assets. This cost is included in employee benefit expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Re-measurement gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognised in the period in which they occur, directly in other comprehensive income. They are included in retained earnings in the statement of changes in equity and in the balance sheet. Changes in the present value of the defined benefit obligation resulting from plan amendments or curtailments are recognised immediately in Statement of Profit and Loss as past service cost.
(ii) Other Benefit Plan - Leave Encashment
Liability in respect of leave encashment becoming due or expected to be availed within one year from the balance sheet date is recognised on the basis of undiscounted value of estimated amount required to be paid or estimated value of benefit expected to be availed by the employees. Liability in respect of leave encashment becoming due or expected to be availed more than one year after the balance sheet date is estimated on the basis of an actuarial valuation performed by an independent actuary.
(iii) Termination Benefits
Termination benefits arising are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss when:
- the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event;
- a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation; and
- it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation.
Government Grants are recognised where there is reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and all attached conditions will be complied with. When the grant relates to an asset, it is recognised as income in equal amounts over the expected useful life of the related asset.
When the Company receives grants of non-monetary assets, the asset and the grant are recorded at fair value amounts and released to profit and loss accounts over the expected useful life in a pattern of consumption of the benefit of the underlying asset i.e. by equal annual installments. When loans or similar assistance are provided by the government or related institutions, with an interest rate below the current applicable market rate, the effect of this favourable interest is regarded as a government grant.
The loan or assistance is initially recognised and measured at fair value and the government grant is measured as the difference between initial carrying value of the loan and the proceeds received. The loan is subsequently measured as per the accounting policy applicable to financial liabilities.
Earnings Per Share
Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period.
For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding are adjusted for the effect of all dilutive potential equity shares from the exercise of options on unissued share capital. The number of equity shares is the aggregate of the weighted average number of equity shares and the weighted average number of equity shares which are to be issued in the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares into equity shares.
Non-current assets and liabilities classified as held for sale and discontinued operations
Non-current assets classified as held for sale are presented separately and measured at the lower of their carrying amounts immediately prior to their classification as held for sale and their fair value less costs to sell. However, some held for sale assets such as financial assets or deferred tax assets, continue to be measured in accordance with the Company’s relevant accounting policy for those assets. Once classified as held for sale, the assets are not subject to depreciation or amortisation.
Any profit or loss arising from the sale or re-measurement of discontinued operations is presented as part of a single line item, profit or loss from discontinued operations.
Share-based employee remuneration
The Company operates equity-settled share-based remuneration plans for its employees.
All goods and services received in exchange for the grant of any share-based payment are measured at their fair values on the grant date. Grant date is the date when the Company and employees have shared an understanding of terms and conditions on the arrangement.
Where employees are rewarded using share-based payments, the fair value of employees’ services is determined indirectly by reference to the fair value of the equity instruments granted. This fair value is appraised at the grant date and excludes the impact of non-market vesting conditions (for example profitability and sales growth targets and performance conditions).
All share-based remuneration is ultimately recognised as an expense in Statement of Profit and Loss. If vesting periods or other vesting conditions apply, the expense is allocated over the vesting period, based on the best available estimate of the number of share options expected to vest.
Non-market vesting conditions are included in assumptions about the number of options that are expected to become exercisable. Estimates are subsequently revised if there is any indication that the number of share options expected to vest differs from previous estimates. Any adjustment to cumulative share-based compensation resulting from a revision is recognised in the current period. The number of vested options ultimately exercised by holder does not impact the expense recorded in any period.
Market conditions are taken into account when estimating the fair value of the equity instruments granted. Services received from employees satisfying another vesting condition irrespective of whether market conditions are satisfied.
Upon exercise of share options, the proceeds received, net of any directly attributable transaction costs, are allocated to share capital up to the nominal (or par) value of the shares issued with any excess being recorded as share premium.
Trade and other payables
These amounts represent liabilities for goods and services provided to the Company prior to the end of financial year which are unpaid. The amounts are unsecured and are usually paid as per agreed terms. Trade and other payables are presented as current liabilities unless payment is not due within 12 months after the reporting period. They are recognised initially at their fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method.
Key accounting estimates and judgements
The preparation of the Company’s financial statements requires the management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities, and the accompanying disclosures, and the disclosure of contingent liabilities. Uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in outcomes that require a material adjustment to the carrying amount of assets or liabilities affected in future periods.
Critical accounting estimates and assumptions
The key assumptions concerning the future and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the reporting date, that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year, are described below:
The Company has evaluated each lease agreement for its classification between finance lease and operating lease. The Company has reached its decisions on the basis of the principles laid down in Ind AS 17 “Leases" for the said classification. The Company has also used appendix C of Ind AS 17 for determining whether an arrangement is, or contains, a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement and based on the assessment whether:
- fulfillment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets (the asset); and
- the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset.
(ii) Deferred Income Taxes
The assessment of the probability of future taxable profit in which deferred tax assets can be utilized is based on the Company’s latest approved forecast, which is adjusted for significant non-taxable profit and expenses and specific limits to the use of any unused tax loss or credit. The tax rules in the numerous jurisdictions in which the Company operates are also carefully taken into consideration. If a positive forecast of taxable profit indicates the probable use of a deferred tax asset, especially when it can be utilized without a time limit, that deferred tax asset is usually recognized in full.
(iii) Research and Developments Costs
Management monitors progress of internal research and development projects by using a project management system. Significant judgement is required in distinguishing research from the development phase. Development costs are recognised as an asset when all the criteria are met, whereas research costs are expensed as incurred. Management also monitors whether the recognition requirements for development costs continue to be met. This is necessary due to inherent uncertainty in the economic success of any product development.
(i) Useful lives of various assets
Management reviews the useful lives of depreciable assets at each reporting date, based on the expected utility of the assets to the Company.
(ii) Current Income Taxes
The major tax jurisdictions for the Company are India, US and South Africa, though the Company companies also files tax returns in other foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgments are involved in determining the provision for income taxes including judgment on whether tax positions are probable of being sustained in tax assessments. A tax assessment can involve complex issues, which can only be resolved over extended time periods. The recognition of taxes that are subject to certain legal or economic limits or uncertainties is assessed individually by management based on the specific facts and circumstances.
(iii) Sales Returns
The Company accounts for sales returns accrual by recording an allowance for sales returns concurrent with the recognition of revenue at the time of a product sale. This allowance is based on the Company’s estimate of expected sales returns. The Company deals in various products and operates in various markets. Accordingly, the estimate of sales returns is determined primarily by the Company’s historical experience in the markets in which the Company operates.
Chargebacks are estimated and provided for in the year of sales and recorded as reduction from revenue. Provisions for such chargebacks are accrued and estimated based on historical average chargebacks rate actually claimed over a period of time, current contract prices with distributors/other customers and estimated inventory holding by the distributors.
(v) Expected Credit Loss
The Company applies expected credit losses (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of loss allowance on the following:
i Trade receivables and lease receivables.
ii Financial assets measured at amortized cost (other than trade receivables and lease receivables).
iii Financial assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI).
In case of trade receivables and lease receivables, the Company follows a simplified approach wherein an amount equal to lifetime ECL is measured and recognized as loss allowance.
In case of other assets (listed as ii and iii above), the Company determines if there has been a significant increase in credit risk of the financial asset since initial recognition. If the credit risk of such assets has not increased significantly, an amount equal to twelve month ECL is measured and recognized as loss allowance. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, an amount equal to lifetime ECL is measured and recognized as loss allowance.
(vi) Accounting for Defined Benefit Plans
In accounting for post-retirement benefits, several statistical and other factors that attempt to anticipate future events are used to calculate plan expenses and liabilities. These factors include expected return on plan assets, discount rate assumptions and rate of future compensation increases. To estimate these factors, actuarial consultants also use estimates such as withdrawal, turnover, and mortality rates which require significant judgment. The actuarial assumptions used by the Company may differ materially from actual results in future periods due to changing market and economic conditions, regulatory events, judicial rulings, higher or lower withdrawal rates, or longer or shorter participant life spans.
An impairment loss is recognised for the amount by which an asset’s or cash-generating unit’s carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount to determine the recoverable amount, management estimates expected future cash flows from each asset or cash-generating unit and determines a suitable interest rate in order to calculate the present value of those cash flows. In the process of measuring expected future cash flows, management makes assumptions about future operating results. These assumptions relate to future events and circumstances. The actual results may vary, and may cause significant adjustments to the Company’s assets.
In most cases, determining the applicable discount rate involves estimating the appropriate adjustment to market risk and the appropriate adjustment to asset-specific risk factors.
(viii) Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Management uses valuation techniques in measuring the fair value of financial instruments where active market quotes are not available. Details of the assumptions used are given in the notes regarding financial assets and liabilities. In applying the valuation techniques, management makes maximum use of market inputs and uses estimates and assumptions that are, as far as possible, consistent with observable data that market participants would use in pricing the instrument. Where applicable data is not observable, management uses its best estimate about the assumptions that market participants would make. These estimates may vary from the actual prices that would be achieved in an arm’s length transaction at the reporting date.
Standards issued but not yet effective
In March 2017, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs issued the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendments) Rules, 2017, notifying amendments to Ind AS 7, ‘Statement of cash flows’ and Ind AS 102, ‘Share-based payment.’ These amendments are in accordance with the recent amendments made by International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) to IAS 7, ‘Statement of cash flows’ and IFRS 2, ‘Share-based payment,’ respectively. The amendments are applicable to the Company from 1st April, 2017.
(i) Amendment to Ind AS 7:
The amendment to Ind AS 7 requires the entities to provide disclosures that enable users of financial statements to evaluate changes in liabilities arising from financing activities, including both changes arising from cash flows and non-cash changes, suggesting inclusion of a reconciliation between the opening and closing balances in the balance sheet for liabilities arising from financing activities, to meet the disclosure requirement.
The Company is evaluating the requirements of the amendment and the effect on the financial statements is being evaluated.
(ii) Amendment to Ind AS 102:
The amendment to Ind AS 102 provides specific guidance to measurement of cash-settled awards, modification of cash-settled awards and awards that include a net settlement feature in respect of withholding taxes.
It clarifies that the fair value of cash-settled awards is determined on a basis consistent with that used for equity-settled awards. Market-based performance conditions and non-vesting conditions are reflected in the ‘fair values’, but non-market performance conditions and service vesting conditions are reflected in the estimate of the number of awards expected to vest. Also, the amendment clarifies that if the terms and conditions of a cash-settled share-based payment transaction are modified with the result that it becomes an equity-settled share-based payment transaction, the transaction is accounted for as such from the date of the modification. Further, the amendment requires the award that include a net settlement feature in respect of withholding taxes to be treated as equity-settled in its entirety. The cash payment to the tax authority is treated as if it was part of an equity settlement.
The Company is evaluating the requirements of the amendment and the impact on the financial statements is being evaluated.
Terms and Rights attached to Equity Shares
The Company has only one class of equity shares having a par value of Rs.2 per share. Each holder of equity share is entitled to one vote per share. The Company declares and pays dividends in Indian Rupees. The dividend proposed by the Board of Directors is subject to the approval of the shareholders in the ensuing Annual General Meeting. In the event of liquidation of the Company, the holders of equity shares will be entitled to receive remaining assets of the Company, after distribution of all preferential amounts. The distribution will be in proportion to the number of equity shares held by the shareholder.
Equity shares reserved for issue under employee stock options
Refer Note 46 for number of stock options against which equity shares to be issued by the Company upon vesting and exercise of those stock options by the option holders as per the relevant schemes.
Nature and Purpose of Reserve:-Securities Premium Reserve
Securities Premium Reserve is used to record the premium on issue of shares. These reserve is utilised in accordance with the provisions of the Act.
The General Reserve is used from time to time to transfer profit from retained earning for appropriation purpose.
Outstanding Employee stock options
The Company has established various equity settled share based payment plan for certain categories of employees.