1. Corporate information
Century Textiles & Industries Limited is a public Company domiciled in India and is incorporated under the provisions of the Companies Act, applicable in India. The principal place of business of the Company is located at Century Bhawan, Dr. A. B. Road, Worli, Mumbai. The Company is principally engaged in manufacturing of Textiles, Cement, Pulp and Paper and Real estate.
The financial statements were authorized for issue in accordance with a resolution of the board of directors on 12 May 2017.
2A Significant Accounting Policies
2.1 Basis of preparation
The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 (as amended from time to time).
For all periods up to and including the year ended 31 March 2016, the Company prepared its financial statements in accordance with accounting standards notified under the section 133 of the Companies Act 2013, read together with paragraph 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 (Indian GAAP). These financial statements for the year ended 31 March 2017 are the first the Company has prepared in accordance with Ind AS.
The financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis, except for the following assets and liabilities which have been measured at fair value amount:
- Derivative financial instruments,
- Certain financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value (refer accounting policy regarding financial instruments).
The financial statements are presented in INR and all values are rounded to the nearest crores (INR 00,00,000), except when otherwise indicated.
2.2 Current versus non-current classification
The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current/ non-current classification. An asset is treated as current when it is:
- Expected to be realized or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle
- Held primarily for the purpose of trading
- Expected to be realized within twelve months after the reporting period, or
- Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.
All other assets are classified as non-current.
A liability is current when:
- It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle
- It is held primarily for the purpose of trading
- It is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or
- There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.
The Company classifies all other liabilities as non-current.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities. The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash and cash equivalents.
2.3 Fair value measurement
The Company measures financial instruments, such as derivatives, at fair value at each balance sheet date. Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:
- In the principal market for the asset or liability, or
- In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability
The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the Company. The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.
A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant''''s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use.
The Company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximizing the use of relevant observable inputs and minimizing the use of unobservable inputs.
All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorized within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:
- Level 1 — Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
- Level 2 —Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable
- Level 3 —Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable.
External Valuers are involved for valuation of significant assets such as certain items of property plant and equipment. For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the Company has determined classes of assets and liabilities on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy as explained above.
This note summarizes accounting policy for fair value. Other fair value related disclosures are given in the relevant notes.
2.4 Revenue recognition
Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured, regardless of when the payment is being made. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes or duties collected on behalf of the government. The Company has concluded that it is the principal in all of its revenue arrangements since it is the primary obligor in all the revenue arrangements as it has pricing latitude and is also exposed to inventory and credit risks.
Based on the Educational Material on Ind AS 18 issued by the ICAI, the Company has assumed that recovery of excise duty flows to the Company on its own account. This is for the reason that it is a liability of the manufacturer which forms part of the cost of production, irrespective of whether the goods are sold or not. Since the recovery of excise duty flows to the Company on its own account, revenue includes excise duty.
However, sales tax/ value added tax (VAT) is not received by the Company on its own account. Rather, it is tax collected on value added to the commodity by the seller on behalf of the government. Accordingly, it is excluded from revenue. The specific recognition criteria described below must also be met before revenue is recognized
Sale of goods
Revenue from the sale of goods is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer, usually on delivery of the goods. Revenue from the sale of goods is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of returns and allowances, trade discounts and volume rebates.
The Company''''s policy for recognition of revenue from operating leases is described in note 2.10 below.
For all debt instruments measured either at amortized cost, interest income is recorded using the effective interest rate (EIR). EIR is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash payments or receipts over the expected life of the financial instrument or a shorter period, where appropriate, to the gross carrying amount of the financial asset or to the amortized cost of a financial liability. When calculating the effective interest rate, the Company estimates the expected cash flows by considering all the contractual terms of the financial instrument (for example, prepayment, extension, call and similar options) but does not consider the expected credit losses.
Revenue is recognized when the Company''''s right to receive the payment is established, which is generally when shareholders approve the dividend.
2.5 Government grants
Government grants are recognized where there is reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and all attached conditions will be complied with. When the grant relates to an expense item, it is recognized as income on a systematic basis over the periods that the related costs, for which it is intended to compensate, are expensed. When the grant relates to an asset, it is recognized as income in equal amounts over the expected useful life of the related asset.
When the Company receives grants of non-monetary assets, the asset and the grant are recorded at fair value amounts and released to profit or loss over the expected useful life in a pattern of consumption of the benefit of the underlying asset
i.e. by equal annual installments.
Government grants such as sales tax incentive, export benefit schemes are recognized in the statement of profit and loss as a part of other operating revenues whereas grants related to royalty, power incentives and interest subsidies are netted of from the related expense.
The tax currently payable is based on taxable profit for the year. Taxable profit differs from ''''profit before tax'''' as reported in the statement of profit and loss because of items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and items that are never taxable or deductible. The Company''''s current tax is calculated using tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted, by the end of the reporting period.
Deferred tax is recognized on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit. Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are generally recognized for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which those deductible temporary differences can be utilized. Such deferred tax assets and liabilities are not recognized if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the taxable profit nor the accounting profit.
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.
Deferred tax liabilities and assets are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period in which the liability is settled or the asset realized, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.
The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and assets reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the end of the reporting period, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.
Current and deferred tax for the year
Current and deferred tax are recognized in profit or loss, except when they relate to items that are recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case, the current and deferred tax are also recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity respectively.
2.7 Property, plant and equipment
Land and buildings held for use in the production or supply of goods or services, or for administrative purposes, are stated in the balance sheet at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. Freehold land is not depreciated. The cost of mining land is amortized on unit of production method.
Properties in the course of construction for production, supply or administrative purposes are carried at cost, less any recognized impairment loss. Cost includes professional fees and, for qualifying assets, borrowing costs capitalized in accordance with the Company''''s accounting policy. Such properties are classified to the appropriate categories of property, plant and equipment when completed and ready for intended use. Depreciation of these assets, on the same basis as other property assets, commences when the assets are ready for their intended use.
Other property, plant and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses.
Depreciation is recognized so as to write off the cost of assets (other than freehold land and properties under construction) less their residual values over their useful lives, using the straight-line method. The estimated useful lives, residual values and depreciation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate accounted for on a prospective basis.
The management has estimated the above useful life and the same is supported by technical expert.
Assets held under finance leases are depreciated over their expected useful lives on the same basis as owned assets. However, when there is no reasonable certainty that ownership will be obtained by the end of the lease term, assets are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and their useful lives.
An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of the asset. Any gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an item of property, plant and equipment is determined as the difference between the sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognized in profit or loss.
2.8 Intangible Assets
Intangible assets with finite useful lives that are acquired separately are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses. Amortization is recognized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. The estimated useful life and amortization method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate being accounted for on a prospective basis. Intangible assets representing cost of software capitalized is amortized over its useful life which is estimated to be a period of five years.
2.9 Investment properties
Investment properties are properties held to earn rentals and/or for capital appreciation (including property under construction for such purposes). Investment properties are measured initially at cost, including transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, investment properties are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any.
The cost includes the cost of replacing parts and borrowing costs for long-term construction projects if the recognition criteria are met. When significant parts of the investment property are required to be replaced at intervals, the Company depreciates them separately based on their specific useful lives. All other repair and maintenance costs are recognized in profit or loss as incurred.
The Company, based on technical assessment made by management, depreciates the building over estimated useful lives of 60 years. The management believes that these estimated useful lives are realistic and reflect fair approximation of the period over which the assets are likely to be used.
Though the Company measures investment property using cost based measurement, the fair value of investment property is disclosed in notes. Fair value are determined based on an annual evaluation performed by an accredited external independent value.
Leases are classified as finance leases whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee. All other leases are classified as operating leases.
As a lessee
A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Company is classified as a finance lease. Finance leases are capitalized at the commencement of the lease at the inception date fair value of the leased property or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognized in finance costs in the statement of profit and loss.
A leased asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term.
Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
As a less or
Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of an asset are classified as operating leases. Rental income from operating lease is recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease.
2.11 Borrowing costs
Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized as part of the cost of the asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they occur. Borrowing cost also includes exchange differences to the extent regarded as an adjustment to the borrowing costs.
Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value.
Costs incurred in bringing each product to its present location and condition are accounted for as follows:
- Raw materials: cost includes cost of purchase and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost is determined on weighted average cost basis.
- Finished goods and work in progress: cost includes cost of direct materials and labor and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on the normal operating capacity, but excluding borrowing costs. Cost is determined on weighted average cost basis.
- Traded goods: cost includes cost of purchase and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost is determined on weighted average basis.
Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
2.13 Impairment of non-financial assets
The Company assesses, at each reporting date, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset''''s recoverable amount. An asset''''s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset''''s or cash-generating units (CGU) fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. Recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or group of assets. When the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount.
In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining fair value less costs of disposal, recent market transactions are taken into account. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used. These calculations are corroborated by valuation multiples, quoted share prices for publicly traded companies or other available fair value indicators.
The Company bases its impairment calculation on detailed budgets and forecast calculations, which are prepared separately for each of the Company''''s CGUs to which the individual assets are allocated. These budgets and forecast calculations generally cover a period of five years. For longer periods, a long-term growth rate is calculated and applied to project future cash flows after the fifth year. To estimate cash flow projections beyond periods covered by the most recent budgets/forecasts, the Company extrapolates cash flow projections in the budget using a steady or declining growth rate for subsequent years, unless an increasing rate can be justified. In any case, this growth rate does not exceed the long-term average growth rate for the products, industries, or country or countries in which the entity operates, or for the market in which the asset is used.
Impairment loss of continuing operations, including impairment on inventories is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.
Provisions are recognized when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that the Company will be required to settle the obligation, and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.
The amount recognized as a provision is the best estimate of the consideration required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period, taking into account the risks and uncertainties surrounding the obligation. When a provision is measured using the cash flows estimated to settle the present obligation, its carrying amount is the present value of those cash flows (when the effect of the time value of money is material).
When some or all of the economic benefits required to settle a provision are expected to be recovered from a third party, a receivable is recognized as an asset if it is virtually certain that reimbursement will be received and the amount of the receivable can be measured reliably.
2.15 Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalent in the balance sheet comprise cash at banks and on hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.
For the purpose of the statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and short-term deposits, as defined above, net of outstanding bank overdrafts as they are considered an integral part of the Company''''s cash management.
2.16 Employee Benefits Defined Contribution plans
For certain group of employees, employee benefit in the form of Provident fund, Superannuation, Employees State Insurance Contribution and Labour Welfare fund are defined contribution plans. The Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the respective fund. The Company recognizes contribution payable to the provident fund scheme as an expense, when an employee renders the related service. If the contribution payable to the scheme for service received before the balance sheet date exceeds the contribution already paid, the deficit payable to the scheme is recognized as a liability after deducting the contribution already paid. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for services received before the balance sheet date, then excess is recognized as an asset to the extent that the pre-payment will lead to, for example, a reduction in future payment or a cash refund.
Defined benefit plans
The Company provides for retirement benefit in the form of gratuity. The Company''''s liability towards this benefit is determined on the basis of actuarial valuation using Projected Unit Credit Method at the date of balance sheet.
In respect of certain employees, provident fund contributions are made to a trust administered by the Company. Periodic contributions to the Fund are charged to the Statement of profit and loss. The Company has an obligation to make good the shortfall, if any, between the return from the investment of the trust and interest rate notified by the Government of India. Such shortfall is recognized in the Statement of profit and loss. The Company''''s liability is determined on the basis of an actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method.
Remeasurement, comprising of actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the asset ceiling, excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability and the return on plan assets (excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability), are recognized immediately in the balance sheet with a corresponding debit or credit to retained earnings through OCI in the period in which they occur. Remeasurement is not reclassified to profit or loss in subsequent periods.
Past service costs are recognized in profit or loss on the earlier of:
- The date of the plan amendment or curtailment and
- The date that the Company recognizes related restructuring costs
Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net defined benefit liability or asset. The Company recognizes the following changes in the net defined benefit obligation as an expense in statement of profit and loss:
- Service costs comprising current service costs, past-service costs, gains and losses on curtailments and non-routine settlements; and
- Net interest expense or income Compensated absences
Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next 12 months, is treated as short-term employee benefit and this is shown under current provision in the Balance Sheet. The Company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.
The Company treats accumulated leave expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long-term employee benefit for measurement purposes and this is shown under long term provisions in the Balance Sheet. Such long-term compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the year-end. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the Statement of Profit and Loss and are not deferred. The Company presents the leave as a current liability in the balance sheet, to the extent it does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement for 12 months after the reporting date. Where the Company has the unconditional legal and contractual right to defer the settlement for a period beyond 12 months, the same is presented as non-current liability.
2.17 Research and Development
Research expenditure, including overheads, on research and development, is charged as an expense in the year in which incurred.
2.18 Foreign currencies
The Company''''s financial statements are presented in INR, which is also the Company''''s functional currency.
Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded by the Company at INR spot rate at the date the transaction first qualifies for recognition. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the functional currency spot rates of exchange at the reporting date.
Exchange differences arising on settlement or translation of monetary items are recognized in profit or loss.
Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the dates of the initial transactions.
2.19 Financial instruments
A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.
Initial recognition and measurement
All financial assets are recognized initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset.
For purposes of subsequent measurement, financial assets are classified in four categories:
- Financial Assets at amortized cost
- Financial Assets at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)
- Financial Assets including derivatives and equity instruments at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)
- Equity instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)
Debt instruments at amortized cost
A ''''debt instrument'''' is measured at the amortized cost if both the following conditions are met:
a) The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and
b) Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.
After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortized cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortization is included in finance income in the profit or loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognized in the profit or loss. This category generally applies to trade and other receivables, loans and other financial assets.
All equity investments in scope of Ind AS 109 are measured at fair value. For all equity instruments, the Company may make an irrevocable election to present in other comprehensive income subsequent changes in the fair value all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognized in the OCI. There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to P&L, even on sale of investment. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity. The Company has made such election on an instrument-by-instrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable.
A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a group of similar financial assets) is primarily derecognized when:
- The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired or
- The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ''''pass-through'''' arrangement; and either (a) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.
When the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into a pass-through arrangement, it evaluates if and to what extent it has retained the risks and rewards of ownership. When it has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the asset, nor transferred control of the asset, the Company continues to recognize the transferred asset to the extent of the Company''''s continuing involvement. In that case, the Company also recognizes an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained.
Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured at the lower of the original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration that the Company could be required to repay.
Impairment of financial assets
In accordance with Ind AS 109, the Company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the following financial assets and credit risk exposure:
a) Financial assets that are debt instruments, and are measured at amortized cost e.g., loans, debt securities, deposits, trade receivables and bank balance
b) Financial assets that are equity instruments and are measured as at FVTOCI
c) Lease receivables under Ind AS 17
d) Trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 18
The Company follows ''''simplified approach'''' for recognition of impairment loss allowance on:
- Trade receivables
- All lease receivables resulting from transactions within the scope of Ind AS 17
The application of simplified approach does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognises impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition.
For recognition of impairment loss on other financial assets and risk exposure, the Company determines that whether there has been a significant increase in the credit risk since initial recognition. If credit risk has not increased significantly, 12-month ECL is used to provide for impairment loss. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, lifetime ECL is used. If, in a subsequent period, credit quality of the instrument improves such that there is no longer a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, then the entity reverts to recognizing impairment loss allowance based on 12-month ECL.
Lifetime ECL are the expected credit losses resulting from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial instrument. The 12-month ECL is a portion of the lifetime ECL which results from default events that are possible within 12 months after the reporting date.
ECL is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the entity expects to receive (i.e., all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original EIR. When estimating the cash flows, an entity is required to consider:
- All contractual terms of the financial instrument (including prepayment, extension, call and similar options) over the expected life of the financial instrument. However, in rare cases when the expected life of the financial instrument cannot be estimated reliably, then the entity is required to use the remaining contractual term of the financial instrument
- Cash flows from the sale of collateral held or other credit enhancements that are integral to the contractual terms
As a practical expedient, the Company uses a provision matrix to determine impairment loss allowance on portfolio of its trade receivables. The provision matrix is based on its historically observed default rates over the expected life of the trade receivables and is adjusted for forward-looking estimates. At every reporting date, the historical observed default rates are updated and changes in the forward-looking estimates are analyzed.
ECL impairment loss allowance (or reversal) recognized during the period is recognized as income/ expense in the statement of profit and loss (P&L). This amount is reflected under the head ''''other expenses'''' in the P&L. The balance sheet presentation for various financial instruments is described below:
- Financial assets measured as at amortized cost, contractual revenue receivables and lease receivables: ECL is presented as an allowance, i.e., as an integral part of the measurement of those assets in the balance sheet. The allowance reduces the net carrying amount. Until the asset meets write-off criteria, the Company does not reduce impairment allowance from the gross carrying amount.
- Loan commitments and financial guarantee contracts: ECL is presented as a provision in the balance sheet, i.e. as a liability.
- Equity instruments measured at FVTOCI: Since financial assets are already reflected at fair value, impairment allowance is not further reduced from its value. Rather, ECL amount is presented as ''''accumulated impairment amount'''' in the OCI.
For assessing increase in credit risk and impairment loss, the Company combines financial instruments on the basis of shared credit risk characteristics with the objective of facilitating an analysis that is designed to enable significant increases in credit risk to be identified on a timely basis.
The Company does not have any purchased or originated credit-impaired (POCI) financial assets, i.e., financial assets which are credit impaired on purchase/ origination.
Initial recognition and measurement
Financial liabilities are classified, at initial recognition, as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, loans and borrowings, payables, or as derivatives designated as hedging instruments in an effective hedge, as appropriate.
All financial liabilities are recognized initially at fair value and, in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs.
The Company''''s financial liabilities include trade and other payables, loans and borrowings including bank overdrafts, financial guarantee contracts and derivative financial instruments.
The measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification, as described below:
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss
Gains or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognized in the profit or loss. The Company has not designated any financial liability as at fair value through profit and loss.
Loans and borrowings
This is the category most relevant to the Company. After initial recognition, interest-bearing loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the EIR method. Gains and losses are recognized in profit or loss when the liabilities are derecognized as well as through the EIR amortization process.
Amortized cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortization is included as finance costs in the statement of profit and loss.
A financial liability is derecognized when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognized in the statement of profit or loss.
Offsetting of financial instruments
Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognized amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realize the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.
Derivative financial instruments
The Company uses derivative financial instruments, such as forward currency contracts, to manage its foreign currency risks. These derivative instruments are not designated as cash flow, fair value or net investment hedges and are entered into for period consistent with currency. Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognized at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at fair value. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative. Any gains or losses arising from changes in the fair value of derivatives are recognized in the Statement of profit and loss.
2.20 Earnings Per Share
Basic Earnings per share (EPS) amounts are calculated by dividing the profit for the year attributable to equity holders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.
Diluted EPS amounts are calculated by dividing the profit attributable to equity holders adjusted for the effects of potential equity shares by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year plus the weighted average number of equity shares that would be issued on conversion of all the dilutive potential equity shares into equity shares.
2.21 Contingent liabilities
A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.
2.22 Standards issued but not yet effective
In March 2017, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs issued the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendments) Rules, 2017, notifying amendments to Ind AS 7, ''''Statement of cash flows'''' and Ind AS 102, ''''Share-based payment. The amendments are applicable to the Company from 1 April 2017.
Amendment to Ind AS 7
The amendment to Ind AS 7 requires the entities to provide disclosures that enable users of financial statements to evaluate changes in liabilities arising from financing activities, including both changes arising from cash flows and non-cash changes, suggesting inclusion of a reconciliation between the opening and closing balances in the balance sheet for liabilities arising from financing activities, to meet the disclosure requirement.
The Company is evaluating the requirements of the amendment and its impact on its cash flows, which are not expected to be material.
Amendment to Ind AS 102
The amendment to Ind AS 102 provides specific guidance to measurement of cash-settled awards, modification of cash-settled awards and awards that include a net settlement feature in respect of withholding taxes.
It clarifies that the fair value of cash-settled awards is determined on a basis consistent with that used for equity-settled awards. Market-based performance conditions and non-vesting conditions are reflected in the ''''fair values'''', but non-market performance conditions and service vesting conditions are reflected in the estimate of the number of awards expected to vest. Also, the amendment clarifies that if the terms and conditions of a cash-settled share-based payment transaction are modified with the result that it becomes an equity-settled share-based payment transaction, the transaction is accounted for as such from the date of the modification. Further, the amendment requires the award that include a net settlement feature in respect of withholding taxes to be treated as equity-settled in its entirety. The cash payment to the tax authority is treated as if it was part of an equity settlement.
The Company does not have any scheme of share based payments and hence the requirements of the amendment will not have any impact on the financial statements.
2B. Significant accounting judgments, estimates and assumptions
The preparation of the Company''''s financial statements requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities, and the accompanying disclosures, and the disclosure of contingent liabilities. Uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in outcomes that require a material adjustment to the carrying amount of assets or liabilities affected in future periods. Difference between actual results and estimates are recognized in the periods in which the results are known / materialized.
Estimates and assumptions
The key assumptions concerning the future and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the reporting date, that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year, are described below. The Company has based its assumptions and estimates on parameters available when the financial statements were prepared. Existing circumstances and assumptions about future developments, however, may change due to market changes or circumstances arising that are beyond the control of the Company. Such changes are reflected in the assumptions when they occur.
a) Employee benefit plans
The Company''''s obligation on account of gratuity and compensated absences is determined based on actuarial valuations. An actuarial valuation involves making various assumptions that may differ from actual developments in the future. These include the determination of the discount rate, future salary increases and mortality rates. Due to the complexities involved in the valuation and its long-term nature, these liabilities are highly sensitive to changes in these assumptions. All assumptions are reviewed at each reporting date.
The parameter most subject to change is the discount rate. In determining the appropriate discount rate, the management considers the interest rates of government bonds in currencies consistent with the currencies of the post-employment benefit obligation.
The mortality rate is based on publicly available mortality tables. Those mortality tables tend to change only at interval in response to demographic changes. Future salary increases and gratuity increases are based on expected future inflation rates.
Further details about gratuity obligations are given in note 34.
b) Fair value measurement of financial instruments
When the fair values of financial assets and financial liabilities recorded in the balance sheet cannot be measured based on quoted prices in active markets, their fair value is measured using valuation techniques including the DCF model. The inputs to these models are taken from observable markets where possible, but where this is not feasible, a degree of judgment is required in establishing fair values. Judgments include considerations of inputs such as liquidity risk, credit risk and volatility. Changes in assumptions about these factors could affect the reported fair value of financial instruments. See Note 41 and 42 for further disclosures.
2C. First-time adoption of Ind AS
These financial statements, for the year ended 31 March 2017, are the first the Company has prepared in accordance with Ind AS. For periods up to and including the year ended 31 March 2016, the Company prepared its financial statements in accordance with accounting standards notified under section 133 of the Companies Act 2013, read together with paragraph 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 (Indian GAAP).
Accordingly, the Company has prepared financial statements which comply with Ind AS applicable for periods ending on 31 March 2017, together with the comparative period data as at and for the year ended 31 March 2016, as described in the summary of significant accounting policies. In preparing these financial statements, the Company''''s opening balance sheet was prepared as at 1 April 2015, the Company''''s date of transition to Ind AS. This note explains the principal adjustments made by the Company in restating its Indian GAAP financial statements, including the balance sheet as at 1 April 2015 and the financial statements as at and for the year ended 31 March 2016.
a) The Company has elected to fair value certain items of property plant and equipment as at the date of transition.
b) The Company has designated quoted and unquoted equity shares held at 1 April 2015 as fair value through OCI.
a) Derecognition of financial assets and liabilities exception - Financial assets and liabilities derecognized before 1 April 2015 are not re-recognized under Ind-AS. The Company has not chosen to apply the Ind AS 109 Financial Instruments derecognition criteria to an earlier date. No significant arrangements were identified that had to be assessed under this exception.
b) Classification of debt and equity instruments - The Company has determined the classification of debt and equity instruments in terms of whether they meet the amortized cost criteria or the FVTOCI criteria based on the facts and circumstances that existed as of the transition date.
c) Impairment of financial asset - The Company has applied the impairment requirements of Ind AS 109 retrospectively based on facts and circumstances existing on transition date.
Footnotes to the reconciliation of equity as at 1 April 2015 and 31 March 2016 and profit or loss for the period ended 31 March 2016: