1. Corporate information
Bharti Infratel Limited (‘the Company’ or ‘BIL’) was incorporated on November 30, 2006 with the object of, inter-alia, setting up, operating and maintaining wireless communication towers. The Company received the certificate of commencement of business on April 10, 2007 from the Registrar of Companies. The Registered office of the Company is situated at Bharti Crescent, I, Nelson Mandela Road, Vasant Kunj, Phase - II, New Delhi - 110070.
Bharti Infratel Limited is a subsidiary of Bharti Airtel Limited (‘BAL’) and BAL holds 50.33% shares in the Company. Nettle Infrastructure Investments Limited, Wholly owned Subsidiary of BAL is also holding II.32% shares in the Company as on March 31, 2017.
The Company is publicly traded on National Stock Exchange of India (NSE) and BSE Limited.
The Company had entered into a joint venture agreement with Vodafone India Limited and Aditya Birla Telecom Limited to provide passive infrastructure services in 15 Telecom circles of India and formed Indus Towers Limited for such purpose which is a Company incorporated in India. The Company and Vodafone India Limited are holding approximately 42% each in Indus Towers Limited,11.15% is held by Aditya Birla Telecom Limited and the balance 4.85% is held by P5 Asia Holding Investment (Mauritius) Limited.
A wholly owned subsidiary, Smartx Services Limited, has been incorporated on September 21, 2015 with the object of transmission through Optic Fibre Cables and setting up Wi-Fi hotspots for providing services to telecom operators and others on sharing basis. During the year, Smartx Services Limited was selected as a successful bidder along with Bharti Infratel Limited and others by Bhopal Smart City Development Corporation Limited for implementing Smart city projects in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh.
The wholly owned subsidiary, Bharti Infratel Services Limited, had applied during F.Y 2015-16 to the Registrar of Companies to strike off the name of the Company from the Register of the Companies under Fast Track Exit Mode. During the year, name of Bharti Infratel Services Limited was striked off by the Registrar of the Companies.
The financial statements were authorized for issue in accordance with resolution of the directors on May 08, 2017.
2. Basis of preparation
a) Statement of compliance
These Standalone financial statements (“financial statements”) have been prepared to comply in all material aspects with the Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) notified under section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013, read together with the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015, as amended.
b) Basis of preparation
These financial statements are covered by Ind AS 101: First time adoption of Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) being first Ind AS annual financial statements for the year ended March 31, 2017 and are prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards(Ind AS) notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015, as amended. The Ind AS accounting policies as compared to most recent annual financial statements prepared under Indian GAAP (“Previous GAAP”). Accounting policies have been applied consistently to all periods presented in the financial statements.
For all periods up to and including the year ended March 31, 2016, the Company prepared its financial statements in accordance with accounting standards notified under section 133 of the Companies Act 2013, read together with paragraph 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 (Indian GAAP). The transition was carried out from the accounting principles generally accepted in India (Indian GAAP) which is considered as previous GAAP as defined in Ind AS 101. An explanation of how the transition to Ind AS has impacted the Company’s equity and profits is provided in Note 44.
The financial statements have been prepared on accrual and going concern basis and the historical cost convention, except for the certain financial assets, financial liabilities and certain other items which have been measured at fair value as required under relevant Ind AS.
All the amounts included in the financial statements are reported in millions of Indian Rupees (‘Rupees’ or T), and are rounded to the nearest million (Mn) except per share data and unless stated otherwise.
3. Summary of significant accounting policies
a) Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment including Capital work in progress is stated at cost, except assets acquired under Schemes of Arrangement, which are stated at fair values as per the Schemes, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Such cost includes the cost of replacing part of the Property, plant and equipment and borrowing costs for long term construction projects if the recognition criteria are met. When significant parts of property, plant and equipment are required to be replaced in intervals, the Company recognizes such parts as separate component of assets with specific useful lives and provides depreciation over their useful life. Subsequent costs are included in the asset’s carrying amount or recognized as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the entity and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. The carrying amount of the replaced part is derecognized. All other repair and maintenance costs are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss as incurred.
The present value of the expected cost for the decommissioning of the asset after its use is included in the cost of the respective asset if the recognition criteria for a provision are met. Refer note 4 regarding significant accounting judgments, estimates and assumptions and provisions for further information about the recorded decommissioning provision.
An item of property, plant and equipment and any significant part initially recognized is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Any gain or loss arising on derecognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset) is included in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the asset is derecognized.
Assets are depreciated to the residual values on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives. Estimated useful lives of the assets are as follows:
The existing useful lives of tangible assets are different from the useful lives as prescribed under Part C of Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 and the Company believes that this is the best estimate on the basis of technical evaluation and actual usage period.
The existing realizable values of tangible assets are different from 5% as prescribed under Part C of Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 and the Company believes that this is the best estimate on the basis of actual realization.
The assets’ residual values and useful lives are reviewed at each financial year end or whenever there are indicators for impairment, and adjusted prospectively.
b) Intangible Assets
Intangible assets are recognized when the entity controls the asset, it is probable that future economic benefits attributed to the asset will flow to the entity and the cost of the asset can be reliably measured.
At initial recognition, the separately acquired intangible assets are recognized at cost. Intangible assets with finite useful lives are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any.
Intangible assets are amortized over the useful economic life and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortization period and the amortization method for an intangible asset are reviewed at least at the end of each financial year. Changes in the expected useful life or the expected pattern of consumption of future economic benefits embodied in the asset are considered to modify the amortization period or method, as appropriate, and are treated as changes in accounting estimates. The amortization expense on intangible assets is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss unless such expenditure forms part of carrying value of another asset.
Software is capitalized at the amounts paid to acquire the respective license for use and is amortized over the period of license, generally not exceeding three years
Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the asset is derecognized.
c) Impairment of non-financial assets
The Company assesses, at each reporting date, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset’s recoverable amount. An asset’s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s or cash-generating units (CGU) fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. Recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. When the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount.
I n assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining fair value less costs of disposal, recent market transactions are taken into account. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used. Impairment losses, if any, are recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss as a component of depreciation and amortization expense.
A previously recognized impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset’s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized. The reversal is limited to the extent the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortization, had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the asset is carried at the revalued amount, in which case the reverse is treated as a revaluation increase.
d) Current versus non-current classification
The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current/ non-current classification. An asset is treated as current when it is:
Expected to be realized or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle
Held primarily for the purpose of trading
Expected to be realized within twelve months after the reporting period, or
Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period
All other assets are classified as non-current.
A liability is current when:
It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle
It is held primarily for the purpose of trading
I t is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or
There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period
The Company classifies all other liabilities as noncurrent.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.
The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash and cash equivalents. The Company has identified twelve months as its operating cycle.
The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of an arrangement at inception date: whether fulfillment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.
Company as a Lessee
A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Company is classified as a finance lease.
Finance leases are capitalized at the commencement of the lease at the inception date fair value of the leased property or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognized in finance costs in the
Statement of Profit and Loss, unless they are directly attributable to qualifying assets, in which case they are capitalized in accordance with the Company’s policy on the borrowing costs.
Leased assets are depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term.
Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term and escalation in the contract, which are structured to compensate expected general inflationary increase are not straight-lined. Contingent rents are recognized as expense in the period in Statement of Profit and Loss in which they are incurred.
Company as a Less or
Leases are classified as finance leases when substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership transfer from the Company to the lessee. Amounts due from lessees under finance leases are recorded as receivables at the Company’s net investment in the leases. Finance lease income is allocated to accounting periods so as to reflect a constant periodic rate of return on the net investment outstanding in respect of the lease.
Leases where the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of the asset are classified as operating leases. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognized over the lease term on the same basis as rental income.
Lease rentals under operating leases are recognized as income on a straight-line basis over the lease term and escalation in the contract, which are structured to compensate expected general inflationary increase are not straight lined. Contingent rents are recognized as revenue in the period in which they are earned.
f) Share-based payments
The Company issues equity-settled and cash-settled share-based options to certain employees. These are measured at fair value on the date of grant.
The fair value determined at the grant date of the equity-settled share-based options is expensed over the vesting period, based on the Company’s estimate of the shares that will eventually vest.
The fair value determined on the grant date of the cash settled share based options is expensed over the vesting period, based on the Company’s estimate of the shares that will eventually vest. At the end of the each reporting period, until the liability is settled, and at the date of settlement, the fair value of the liability is recognized, with any changes in fair value pertaining to the vested period recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
At the vesting date, the Company’s estimate of the shares expected to vest is revised to equal the number of equity shares that ultimately vest.
Fair value is measured using Black-Scholes framework and is recognized as an expense, together with a corresponding increase in equity/ liability as appropriate, over the period in which the options vest using the graded vesting method. The expected life used in the model is adjusted, based on management’s best estimate, for the effects of non-transferability, exercise restrictions and behavioral considerations. The expected volatility and forfeiture assumptions are based on historical information.
Where the terms of a share-based payments are modified, the minimum expense recognized is the expense as if the terms had not been modified, if the original terms of the award are met. An additional expense is recognized for any modification that increases the total fair value of the share-based payment transaction, or is otherwise beneficial to the employee as measured at the date of modification.
Where an equity-settled award is cancelled, it is treated as if it is vested on the date of cancellation, and any expense not yet recognized for the award is recognized immediately. This includes any award where non-vesting conditions within the control of either the entity or the employee are not met. However, if a new award is substituted for the cancelled award, and designated as a replacement award on the date that it is granted, the cancelled and new awards are treated as if they were a modification of the original award, as described in the previous paragraph.
The dilutive effect of outstanding options if any, is reflected as additional share dilution in the computation of diluted earnings per share.
g) Cash and Cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents in the balance sheet comprise cash at banks and on hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value. Bank overdrafts that are repayable on demand and form an integral part of the Company’s cash management are included as a component of cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of the Statement of Cash Flows.
h) Financial Instruments
A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.
Initial Recognition and Measurement
All financial assets are recognized initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset.
For purposes of subsequent measurement, financial assets are classified in four categories:
Debt instruments at amortized cost
Debt instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)
Debt instruments, derivatives and equity instruments at fair value through Profit & Loss (FVTPL)
Equity instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)
Debt Instruments at Amortized Cost
The category applies to the Company’s trade receivables, unbilled revenue, other bank balances, security deposits etc.
A ‘debt instrument’ is measured at the amortized cost if both the following conditions are met:
a) The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows and
b) Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding
This category is most relevant to the Company. After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortized cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortization is included in finance income in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Debt instrument at FVTOCI
A ‘debt instrument’ is classified as at the FVTOCI if both of the following criteria are met:
a) The objective of the business model is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling the financial assets, and
b) The asset’s contractual cash flows represent SPPI.
Debt instruments included within the FVTOCI category are measured initially as well as at each reporting date at fair value. Fair value movements are recognized in the other comprehensive income (OCI). However, the Company recognizes interest income, impairment losses & reversals in the Statement of Profit and Loss. On derecognition of the asset, cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in OCI is reclassified from the equity to Statement of Profit and Loss.
Interest earned whilst holding FVTOCI debt instrument is reported as interest income.
The Company has classified investment in bonds and Investment in commercial paper and corporate deposits within this category.
Debt instrument at FVTPL
FVTPL is a residual category for debt instruments. Any debt instrument, which does not meet the criteria for categorization at amortized cost or at FVTOCI, is classified at FVTPL.
Debt instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss. This category applies to the Company’s investment in mutual funds and Government securities.
I n addition, the Company may elect to designate a debt instrument, which otherwise meets amortized cost or FVTOCI criteria, as at FVTPL. However, such election is allowed only if doing so reduces or eliminates a measurement or recognition inconsistency (referred to as ‘accounting mismatch’). The Company has not designated any debt instrument at FVTPL.
All equity investments in scope of Ind AS 109 are measured at fair value. Equity instruments which are held for trading and contingent consideration recognized by an acquirer in a business combination to which Ind AS103 applies are classified as at FVTPL. There are no such investments in the Company.
De-recognition:- A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset) is primarily derecognized (i.e. removed from the Company’s balance sheet) when:
a) The contractual rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or
b) The Company has transferred its contractual rights to receive cash flows from the financial asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ‘pass-through’ arrangements and either (a) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.
Impairment of Financial Assets
In accordance with Ind AS 109, the Company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the Financial assets that are debt instruments and are initially measured at fair value with subsequent measurement at amortized cost e.g Trade receivables, unbilled revenue etc.
The Company follows ‘simplified approach’ for recognition of impairment loss allowance for trade receivables.
The application of simplified approach does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognizes impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition.
For recognition of impairment loss on other financial assets and risk exposure, the Company determines whether there has been a significant increase in the credit risk since initial recognition. If credit risk has not increased significantly, twelve month ECL is used to provide for impairment loss. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, lifetime ECL is used. If, in the subsequent period, credit quality of the instrument improves such that there is no longer a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, then the entity reverts to recognizing impairment loss allowance based on a twelve month ECL.
ECL is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the entity expects to receive (i.e., all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original EIR.
Initial Recognition and Measurement
Financial liabilities are classified, at initial recognition, as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, loans and borrowings or payables, as appropriate.
All financial liabilities are recognized initially at fair value and, in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs. The Company’s financial liabilities include trade and other payables, security deposits, etc.
The measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification, as described below:
Financial liabilities at FVTPL
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss. Financial liabilities are classified as held for trading if they are incurred for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term.
Financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition at fair value through profit or loss are designated as such at the initial date of recognition, and only if the criteria in Ind AS 109 are satisfied. For liabilities designated as FVTPL, fair value gains/ losses attributable to changes in own credit risk are recognized in OCI. These gains/ loss are not subsequently transferred to Statement of Profit and Loss. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity. All other changes in fair value of such liability are recognized in the Statement of Profit or Loss.
Financial Liabilities at Amortized cost
This category includes security deposit received, trade payables etc After initial recognition, such liabilities are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the EIR method. Gains and losses are recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss when the liabilities are derecognized as well as through the EIR amortization process. Amortized cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortization is included as finance costs in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
A financial liability is derecognized when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the de-recognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Reclassification of Financial Assets
The Company determines classification of financial assets and liabilities on initial recognition. After initial recognition, no reclassification is made for financial assets which are equity instruments and financial liabilities. For financial assets which are debt instruments, a reclassification is made only if there is a change in the business model for managing those assets. Changes to the business model are expected to be infrequent. The Company’s senior management determines change in the business model as a result of external or internal changes which are significant to the Company’s operations. Such changes are evident to external parties. A change in the business model occurs when the Company either begins or ceases to perform an activity that is significant to its operations. If the Company reclassifies financial assets, it applies the reclassification prospectively from the reclassification date which is the first day of the immediately next reporting period following the change in business model. The Company does not restate any previously recognized gains, losses (including impairment gains or losses) or interest.
Offsetting of Financial Instruments
Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognized amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realize the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.
i) Revenue Recognition
Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes or duties collected on behalf of the government. The Company assesses its revenue arrangements against specific criteria, i.e., whether it has exposure to the significant risks and rewards associated with the rendering of services, in order to determine if it is acting as principal or as an agent. The Company has concluded that it is acting as a principal in all of its revenue arrangements. The following specific recognition criteria must also be met before revenue is recognized.
Service revenue includes rental revenue for use of sites and energy revenue for the provision of energy for operation sites. Rental revenue and energy revenue is recognized as and when services are rendered on a monthly basis as per the contractual terms under agreements entered with customer.
The Company has ascertained that the lease payment received are structured to increase in line with expected general inflationary increase in cost and therefore not straight-lined.
Unbilled revenue represents revenues recognized from the last invoice raised to customer to the period end. These are billed in subsequent periods based on the rates specified in the master service agreement with the operators. The Company collects service tax on behalf of the government and therefore, it is not an economic benefit flowing to the Company, hence it is excluded from revenue.
Finance income comprises interest income on funds invested and changes in the fair value of financial assets at fair value through profit or loss, and that are recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss. Interest income is recognized as it accrues in Statement of Profit and Loss, using the effective interest rate (EIR) which is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial instrument or a shorter period, where appropriate, to the net carrying amount of the financial asset.
Dividend Income is recognized when the Company’s right to receive the payment is established, which is generally when shareholders approve the dividend.
Current income tax assets and liabilities for the current and prior periods are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, by the reporting date.
Current income tax relating to items recognized outside profit or loss is recognized outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity). The management periodically evaluates positions taken in the tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulations are subject to interpretation and establishes provisions where appropriate.
Deferred tax is provided using the liability method on temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes at the reporting date.
Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable temporary differences, except:
when the deferred tax liability arises from the initial recognition of goodwill, if any or of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit / loss.
i n respect of taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, associates and interests in joint ventures, where the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences can be controlled and it is probable that the temporary differences will not reverse in the foreseeable future.
Deferred tax assets are recognized for all deductible temporary differences, carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses, to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilized except:
when the deferred tax asset relating to the deductible temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit /loss.
in respect of deductible temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, associates and interests in joint ventures, deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that it is probable that the temporary differences will reverse in the foreseeable future and taxable profit will be available against which the temporary differences can be utilized.
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be utilized. Unrecognized deferred tax assets are reassessed at each reporting date and are recognized to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period when the asset is realized or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.
Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current income tax assets against current income tax liabilities and the deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.
k) Dividend Payments
Final dividend is recognized, when it is approved by the shareholders and the distribution is no longer at the discretion of the Company. However, Interim dividends are recorded as a liability on the date of declaration by the Company’s Board of Directors.
l) Borrowing costs
Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized as part of the cost of the asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they occur. Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs that an entity incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing cost also includes exchange differences to the extent regarded as an adjustment to the borrowing costs.
m) Retirement and other employee benefits
Short term employee benefits are recognized in the period during which the services have been rendered.
The Company post employment benefits include defined benefit plan and defined contribution plans. The Company also provides other benefits in the form of deferred compensation and compensated absences.
A defined contribution plan is a post-employment benefit plan under which an entity pays fixed contributions to a statutory authority and will have no legal or constructive obligation to pay further amounts. The Company contributions to defined contribution plans are recognized in Statement of Profit & Loss when the related services are rendered. The Company has no further obligations under these plans beyond its periodic contributions.
A defined benefit plan is a post-employment benefit plan other than a defined contribution plan. Under the defined benefit retirement plan, the Company provides retirement obligation in the form of Gratuity. Under the plan, a lump sum payment is made to eligible employees at retirement or termination of employment based on respective employee salary and years of experience with the Company.
The cost of providing benefits under this plan is determined on the basis of actuarial valuation carried out quarterly as at the reporting date by an independent qualified actuary using the projected unit credit method. Actuarial gains and losses are recognized in full in the period in which they occur in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
The obligation towards the said benefit is recognized in the balance sheet as the difference between the fair value of the plan assets and the present value of the plan liabilities. Scheme liabilities are calculated using the projected unit credit method and applying the principal actuarial assumptions as at the date of Balance Sheet. Plan assets are assets that are held by a long-term employee benefit fund or qualifying insurance policies.
All expenses excluding remeasurements of the net defined benefit liability (asset), in respect of defined benefit plans are recognized in the profit or loss as incurred. Remeasurements, comprising actuarial gains and losses and the return on the plan assets (excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability (asset)), are recognized immediately in the Balance Sheet with a corresponding debit or credit through other comprehensive income in the period in which they occur. Remeasurements are not reclassified to profit or loss in subsequent periods.
The Company provides other benefits in the form of compensated absences and long term service awards. The employees of the Company are entitled to compensated absences based on the unveiled leave balance. The Company records liability based on actuarial valuation computed under projected unit credit method. Actuarial gains / losses are immediately taken to the Statement of Profit and Loss and are not deferred. The Company presents the entire leave encashment liability as a current liability in the balance sheet, since the Company does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement for more than 12 months after the reporting date.
Under the long term service award plan, a lump sum payment is made to an employee on completion of specified years of service. The Company records the liability based on actuarial valuation computed under projected unit credit method. Actuarial gains / losses are immediately taken to the Statement of Profit and Loss and are not deferred. The amount charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in respect of these plans is included within operating costs.
Provisions are recognized when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.
When the Company expects some or all of a provision to be reimbursed, the reimbursement is recognized as a separate asset, but only when the reimbursement is virtually certain. The expense relating to a provision is presented in the Statement of Profit and Loss, net of any reimbursement.
I f the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using
a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time (i.e unwinding of discount) is recognized as a finance cost.
Provisions are reviewed at the end of each reporting period and adjusted to reflect the current best estimate. If it is no longer probable that an outflow of resources would be required to settle the obligation, the provision is reversed.
(ii) Contingent Assets/ Liabilities Contingent assets are not recognized. However, when realization of income is virtually certain, then the related asset is no longer a contingent asset, and is recognized as an asset.
Contingent liabilities are disclosed in notes to accounts when there is a possible obligation arising from past events, the existence of which will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company or a present obligation that arises from past events where it is either not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle or a reliable estimate of the amount cannot be made.
(iii) Asset Retirement Obligations
Asset retirement obligations (ARO) are provided for those operating lease arrangements where the Company has a binding obligation at the end of the lease period to restore the leased premises in a condition similar to inception of lease.
ARO are provided at the present value of expected costs to settle the obligation using estimated cash flows and are recognized as part of the cost of the particular asset. The cash flows are discounted at a current pretax rate that reflects the risks specific to the site restoration obligation. The unwinding of the discount is expensed as incurred and recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss as a finance cost. The estimated future costs of decommissioning are reviewed annually and adjusted as appropriate. Changes in the estimated future costs or in the discount rate applied are added to or deducted from the cost of the asset.
o) Earnings Per Share (EPS)
Basic EPS is calculated by dividing the profit for the period attributable to ordinary equity shareholders of the Company by the weighted average number of Equity shares outstanding during the year.
Diluted EPS is calculated by dividing the profit attributable to ordinary equity shareholders of the Company by the weighted average number of Equity shares outstanding during the year plus the weighted average number of Equity shares that would be issued on conversion of all the dilutive potential Equity shares into Equity shares.
p) Fair Value Measurement
The Company measures financial instruments at fair value at each reporting date. Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:
In the principal market for the asset or liability
I n the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability
The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the Company.
The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.
A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant’s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use.
The Company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximizing the use of relevant observable inputs and minimizing the use of unobservable inputs.
All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorized within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:
I. Level 1- Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
II. Level 2- Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly (i.e as prices) or indirectly (i.e derived from prices)
III. Level 3- Inputs for the assets or liabilities that are not based on observable market data (unobservable inputs)
For assets and liabilities that are recognized in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by reassessing categorization (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.
For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the Company has determined classes of assets and liabilities on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy as explained above.
This note summarizes accounting policy for fair value measurement. Other fair value related disclosures are given in the relevant notes.
q) Foreign Currency
Functional and presentation currency The Company’s financial statements are presented in INR, which is also the Company’s functional currency. Functional currency is the currency of the primary economic environment in which an entity operates and is normally the currency in which the entity primarily generates and expends cash. All the financial information presented in Indian Rupees (INR) has been rounded to the nearest of million rupees, except where otherwise stated.
Transactions and Balances Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded by the Company at the functional currency spot rates at the date the transaction first qualifies for recognition.
Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the functional currency spot rates of exchange at the reporting date. Differences arising on settlement or translation of monetary items are recognized in Statement of Profit or Loss.
Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the dates of the initial transactions. Non-monetary items measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value is determined. The gain or loss arising on translation of non-monetary items measured at fair value is treated in line with the recognition of the gain or loss on the change in fair value of the item (i.e., translation differences on items whose fair value gain or loss is recognized in OCI or profit or loss are also recognized in OCI or profit or loss, respectively).
r) Corporate social responsibility expenditure
Pursuant to the requirements of section 135 of the Act and rules thereon and guidance note on “Accounting for expenditure on Corporate Social Responsibility activities” issued by ICAI, with effect from April 1, 2015, CSR expenditure is recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which it is incurred.