1. Basis of Preparation
The financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (GAAP) comprises the mandatory Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) [as notified under section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 read with Rule 3 of the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015.], to the extent applicable, the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 and these have been consistently applied.
These are the Company’s first annual financial statements prepared in accordance with Ind AS. The company has adopted all applicable Ind AS and adoptions were carried out in accordance with Ind AS 101 - First time adoption of Indian Accounting Standards. An explanation of how the transition to Ind AS has affected the reported financial position, financial performance and cash flows of the Company is provided in note 37.
2. Use of Estimates
The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires that the management make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent liability and contingent assets as at the date of financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Although such estimates are made on a reasonable and prudent basis taking into account of all available information, actual results could differ from these estimates and such differences are recognised in the period in which the results are ascertained.
3. Basis of Measurement
The financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis except for the following assets and liabilities which have been measured at fair value:
- Derivative financial instruments, if any
- Financial assets and liabilities that are qualified to be measured at fair value
- The defined benefit asset / liability is recognised as the present value of defined benefit obligation less fair value of plan assets.
4. Functional and Presentation Currency
The financial statements are presented in Indian Rupee (INR) which is the functional and the presentation currency of the Company.
5. Revenue Recognition
(i) Sale of Goods
Revenue from the sale of goods is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of returns, trade discounts and volume rebates. Revenue is recognised when the significant risk and reward of ownership have been transferred to the customer as per the terms of sale agreement, neither continuing management involvement nor effective control over the goods is retained, recovery of the consideration is probable, and the amount of cost incurred and the revenue can be measured reliably. The timing of the transfer of risks and rewards is evaluated based on Inco-terms of the sales agreement.
(ii) Ex- Works Contract
In case of Ex-works contract, revenue is recognised when the specified goods are unconditionally appropriated to the contract after prior Inspection and acceptance, if required.
(iii) FOR Contracts
In the case of FOR contracts revenue is recognised, when the goods are handed over to the carrier for transmission to the buyer after prior inspection and acceptance, if stipulated, and in the case of FOR destination contracts, if there is a reasonable expectation of the goods reaching destination within the accounting period. Revenue is recognised even if goods are retained with the company at the request of the customer.
(iv) Bill and Hold Sales
For bill-and-hold transactions, revenue is recognised when the customer takes title, provided that:
- it is probable that delivery will be made;
- the item is on hand, identified and ready for delivery to the buyer at the time when the revenue is recognised;
- the buyer specifically acknowledges the deferred delivery instructions;
- the usual payment terms apply.
(v) Construction Contracts
Contract revenue includes initial amount agreed in the contract and any variations in contract work, claims and incentive payments, to the extent it is probable that they will result in revenue and can be measured reliably.
Contract revenue is recognised in proportion to the stage of completion of the contract. Stage of completion is assessed based on the ratio of actual costs incurred on the contract up to the reporting date to the estimated total costs expected to complete the contract.
If the outcome cannot be estimated reliably and where it is probable that the costs will be recovered, revenue is recognised to the extent of costs incurred.
When it is probable that total contract costs at completion will exceed total contract revenue, the expected loss at completion is recognised immediately as an expense.
(vi) Price Escalations and Exchange Rate Variation Claims
In case of contracts where additional consideration is to be determined and approved by the customers, such additional revenue is recognised on receipt of confirmation from the customer(s).
(vii) Bundled Contracts :
In case of a Bundled contract, where separate fee for installation and commissioning or any other separately identifiable component is not stipulated, the Company applies the recognition criteria to separately identifiable components (sale of goods and installation and commissioning, etc.) of the transaction and allocates the revenue to those separate components based on their relative fair value.
(viii) Multiple Elements:
In cases where the installation and commissioning or any other separately identifiable component is stipulated and price for the same agreed separately, the Company applies the recognition criteria to separately identified components (sale of goods and installation and commissioning, etc.) of the transaction and allocates the revenue to those separate components based on their relative fair value.
(ix) Sales exclude Sales Tax / Value Added Tax (VAT) and include Excise Duty.
(x) Revenue from Services
Revenue relating to Maintenance contracts are recognised on accrual basis.
For other fixed-price contracts (including revenue from software related services), revenue is recognised in proportion to the stage of completion of the transaction at the reporting date.
Revenue in respect of other category of services is recognised on rendering of service.
(xi) Interest Income
Interest income is recognised using the effective interest rate method.
(xii) Dividend Income
Dividend income is recognised when the Company’s right to receive the payment is established.
(xiii) Rental Income
Rental income arising from operating leases is accounted for on a straight-line basis over the lease term unless increase in rentals are in line with expected inflation or otherwise justified.
(xiv) Duty Drawbacks
Duty drawback claims on exports are accounted on preferring the claims.
(xv) Other Income
Other income not specifically stated above is recognised on accrual basis.
6. Property, Plant and Equipment, Capital Work-in-Progress
Property, plant and equipment is initially measured at cost and subsequently at cost less accumulated depreciation and cumulative impairment losses, if any. Cost for this purpose includes all attributable costs for bringing the asset to its location and condition. The present value of the expected cost for the decommissioning of an asset after its use is included in the cost of the respective asset, if the recognition criteria for a provision are met.
The cost of fixed assets not ready for their intended use as at each balance sheet date is disclosed as capital work-in-progress.
Capital work-in-progress comprises supply-cum-erection contracts, the value of capital supplies received at site and accepted, capital goods in transit and under inspection and the cost of Property, Plant and equipment that are not yet ready for their intended use as at the balance sheet date.
7. Intangible Assets, Intangible Asset under Development
The cost of software (which is not an integral part of the related hardware) acquired for internal use and resulting in significant future economic benefits, is recognised as an Intangible Asset in the books of accounts when the same is ready for use. Intangible Assets that are not yet ready for their intended use as at the Balance Sheet date are classified as “Intangible Assets under Development”.
Cost of Developmental work which is completed, wherever eligible, is recognised as an Intangible Asset.
Cost of Developmental work under progress, wherever eligible, is classified as “Intangible Assets under Development”.
Carrying amount includes amount funded by the company to external agencies towards developmental project(s) and expenditure incurred by the company towards material cost, employee cost and other direct expenditure.
8. Depreciation / Amortisation
Depreciation is calculated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets. The Company, based on technical assessments, depreciates certain items of building, plant and equipment and other asset classes over estimated useful lives which are different from the useful life prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013. The Management believes that these estimated useful lives are realistic and reflect fair approximation of the period over which the assets are likely to be used.
Where cost of a part of the asset is significant to total cost of the asset and estimated useful life of that part is different from the estimated useful life of the remaining asset, estimated useful life of that significant part is determined separately and the significant part is depreciated on straight-line basis over its estimated useful life.
The residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation of property, plant and equipment are reviewed at each financial year end and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.
Intangible assets are amortised over their respective individual estimated useful lives on a straight-line basis, from the date that they are available for use. The residual values, useful lives and amortisation methods, are reviewed periodically at each financial year end.
9. Disposal of Property, Plant and Equipment
An item of property, plant and equipment and any significant part initially recognised is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Any gain or loss arising on derecognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset) is included in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognised.
10. Research and Development Expenditure
(i) Expenditure on Research activity is recognised as an expense in the period when it is incurred.
(ii) Development expenditure (other than on specific development- cum sales contracts and Developmental projects initiated at customer’s request), is charged off as expenditure when incurred. Developmental expenditure on development - cum - sale contracts and on Developmental projects initiated at customer’s request are treated at par with other sales contracts.
Development expenditure incurred in respect of Joint development projects which are not fully compensated by the development partner are carried forward where the company is nominated as a production agency and future economic benefits are expected.
Where such developmental projects do not fructify into a customer order, the total expenditure booked in respect of such projects is charged off in the year the project is closed.
(iii) Expenditure incurred towards other developmental activity (including joint developmental activity in collaboration with external agencies) where the research results or other knowledge is applied for developing new or improved products or processes, are recognised as an Intangible Asset if the recognition criteria specified in Ind AS 38 are met and when the product or process developed is expected to be technically and commercially usable, the company has sufficient resources to complete development and subsequently use or sell the intangible asset, and the product or process is likely to generate future economic benefits.
(iv) Expenditure incurred on Developmental projects for participating in No Cost No Commitment (NCNC) trials, based on Request for Quote from customer, are carried forward till conclusion of the trials and will be amortised over the orders to be received. In case customer order is not forthcoming or on closure of project, the amount will be either capitalised if further economic benefit is expected from its use or charged off.
11. Expenditure on Technical Know-How
Expenditure incurred on technical know-how is charged off to Statement of Profit and Loss on incurrence unless it qualifies for recognition as an Intangible Asset either separately on its own or in combination with other assets / expenses.
12. Investment Property
Investment properties are measured initially at cost, including transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, investment properties are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment loss, if any.
13. Impairment of Non-Financial Assets
The Company assesses, at each reporting date, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset’s recoverable amount. An asset’s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s or cash-generating unit’s (CGU) fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. Recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. When the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount.
In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset in determining fair value less costs of disposal.
Reversal of impairment provision is made when there is an increase in the estimated service potential of an asset or Cash Generating Unit (CGU), either from use or sale, on reassessment after the date when impairment loss for that asset was last recognised.
A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease.
(i) Company as a Lessee
Finance leases are capitalised at lower of fair value and the present value of the minimum lease payments on commencement of the lease. Finance charges are recognised as finance costs in the statement of profit and loss. A leased asset is amortised over the estimated useful life of the asset or lease term whichever is lower.
Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the Statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term, except when the lease payments escalate in accordance to general inflation or are otherwise justified.
(ii) Company as a Lessor
Operating lease income is recognised over the lease term on straight line basis, except when the escalations are due to general inflation or otherwise justified. Contingent rents, if any, are recognised as revenue in the period in which they are earned.
In case of a Finance lease, amounts due from lessees are recorded as receivables as the Company’s net investment in the leases. Finance lease income is allocated to accounting periods so as to reflect a constant periodic rate of return on the net investment outstanding in respect of the lease.
15. Borrowing Costs
Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalised as part of the cost of the asset. General borrowing costs are capitalised to qualifying assets by applying a capitalisation rate to the expenditure on that asset. The capitalisation rate is the weighted average of the borrowing costs applicable to general borrowings outstanding, other than specific borrowings. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they occur. Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs that an entity incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing cost also includes exchange differences to the extent regarded as an adjustment to the borrowing costs.
16. Government Grants
Grants from Government are measured at fair value and initially recognised as Deferred Income.
The amount lying in Deferred Income on account of acquisition of Fixed Assets is transferred to the credit of Statement of Profit and Loss in proportion to the depreciation charged on the respective assets to the extent attributable to Government Grants utilised for the acquisition.
The amount lying in Deferred Income on account of Revenue Expenses is transferred to the credit of Statement of Profit and Loss to the extent of expenditure incurred in the ratio of the funding to the total sanctioned cost, limited to the government grant received.
17. Investments in Joint Venture and Associates
The Company accounts for it’s interests in associates and joint ventures in the separate financial statements at cost.
All inventories of the Company other than disposable scrap are valued at lower of cost or net realisable value. Disposable scrap is valued at estimated net realisable value. Cost of materials is ascertained by using the weighted average cost formula.
Cost of Work - in - progress and finished goods include Materials, Direct Labour and appropriate overheads. Finished goods at factories include applicable excise duty. Adequate provision is made for inventory which are more than five years old which may not be required for further use.
19. Income Taxes
Income tax comprises of current and deferred tax.
(i) Current Income Tax
Current tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Current tax relating to items recognised directly in equity is recognised in equity and not in the Statement of profit and loss.
(ii) Deferred Tax
Deferred tax is provided using the Balance sheet method on temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes at the reporting date.
Deferred tax assets are recognised for all deductible temporary differences, the carry forward of unused tax credits and any unused tax losses to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences can be utilised.
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be utilised.
20. Provision for Warranties
Provision for expenditure on account of performance guarantee & replacement / repair of goods sold is made on the basis of trend based estimates.
21. Foreign Currencies
Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded by the Company at their respective currency exchange rates at the date the transaction first qualifies for recognition. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the functional currency exchange rate at the reporting date. Differences arising on settlement or translation of monetary items are recognised in Statement of profit and loss. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the functional currency exchange rate at the dates of the initial transactions.
22. Employee Benefits
(i) All employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the related services are classified as short term employee benefits and they mainly include (a) Wages & Salaries;
(b) Short-term compensated absences; (c) Profit-sharing, incentives and bonuses and (d) Nonmonetary benefits such as medical care, subsidised transport, canteen facilities etc., which are valued on undiscounted basis and recognised during the period in which the related services are rendered.
(ii) Incremental liability for payment of long term compensated absences such as Annual Leave, Sick Leave and Half Pay Leave is determined as the difference between present value of the obligation determined annually on actuarial basis using Projected Unit Credit method and the carrying value of the provision contained in the balance sheet and provided for.
(iii) Incremental liability for payment of Gratuity and Employee Provident fund to employees is determined as the difference between present value of the obligation determined annually on actuarial basis using Projected Unit Credit Method and the Fair Value of Plan Assets funded in an approved trust set up for the purpose for which monthly contributions are made in the case of provident fund and lump sum contributions in the case of gratuity.
(iv) Incremental liability under BEL Retired Employees Contributory Health Scheme (BERECHS) is determined annually on actuarial basis using Projected Unit Credit Method and provided for.
(v) Actuarial liability for the year is determined with reference to employees at the end of January of each year.
(vi) Actuarial gains and losses and the return on plan assets (excluding interest) and the effect of the asset ceiling (if any, excluding interest), are recognised immediately in other comprehensive income (OCI). Net interest expense (income) on the net defined liability (assets) is computed by applying the discount rate, used to measure the net defined liability (asset), to the net defined liability (asset) at the start of the financial year after taking into account any changes as a result of contribution and benefit payments during the year. Net interest expense and other expenses related to defined benefit plans are recognised in Statement of profit and loss.
When the benefits of a plan are changed or when a plan is curtailed, the resulting change in benefit that relates to past service or the gain or loss on curtailment is recognised immediately in Statement of profit and loss.
(vii) Payments of voluntary retirement benefits are charged off to revenue on incurrence.
(viii) Defined Contribution Plan
The Company operates employee pension scheme and superannuation pension scheme for its employees that are categorised as a defined contribution plans. For defined contribution plans, the Company pays contributions to independently administered funds at a fixed percentage of employees’ pay. These contributions are recorded in the statement of profit and loss. The Company’s liability is limited to the extent of contributions made to these funds.
23. Provision & Contingent Liabilities
Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. When the Company expects some or all of a provision to be reimbursed, for example, under an insurance contract, the reimbursement is recognised as a separate asset, but only when the reimbursement is virtually certain. The expense relating to a provision is presented in the Statement of profit and loss net of any reimbursement.
A provision for onerous contracts other than construction contracts is recognised when the expected benefits to be derived by the Company from a contract are lower than the unavoidable cost of meeting its obligations under the contract. The provision is measured at the present value of the lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of continuing with the contract. Before a provision is established, the Company recognizes any impairment loss on the assets associated with that contract.
If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as a finance cost.
24. Cash Flow Statement
Cash flow statement has been prepared in accordance with the indirect method prescribed in Ind AS 7 - Statement of Cash Flows.
25. Fair value Measurement
The Company measures certain financial instruments, such as derivatives and other items in it’s financial statements at fair value at each balance sheet date.
All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorised within the fair value hierarchy based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:
Level 1 - Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 - Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly (i.e. as prices) or indirectly (i.e. derived from prices).
Level 3 - Inputs for the assets or liabilities that are not based on observable market data (unobservable inputs).
For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the Company has determined classes of assets and liabilities on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy.
26. Financial Assets
(i) Initial Recognition and Measurement
All financial assets are recognised initially at fair value. In the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset are included in the cost of the asset.
(ii) Subsequent Measurement
For purposes of subsequent measurement, financial assets are classified in four categories:
- Debt instruments measured at amortised cost,
- Debt instruments measured at Fair Value Through Other Comprehensive Income (FVTOCI),
- Debt instruments, derivatives and equity instruments measured at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL),
- Equity instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI).
A financial asset or part of a financial asset is derecognised when the rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired.
(iv) Trade and Other Receivables
Receivables are initially recognised at fair value, which in most cases approximates the nominal value. If there is any subsequent indication that those assets may be impaired, they are reviewed for impairment.
27. Forward Contracts
The Company uses derivative financial instruments such as forward currency contracts to hedge its foreign currency risks. Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at fair value. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.
28. Embedded Derivative
The embedded derivative, if required, is separated from host contract and measured at fair value.
29. Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash comprises of cash on hand and demand deposits. Cash equivalents are short-term highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash, which are subject to an insignificant risk of change in value.
Bank overdrafts, if any, are classified as borrowings under current liabilities in the balance sheet.
30. Impairment of Financial Assets
In accordance with Ind-AS 109, the Company applies the Expected Credit Loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on financial assets with credit risk exposure.
a. Time barred dues from the government / government departments / government companies are generally not considered as increase in credit risk of such financial asset.
b. Where dues are disputed in legal proceedings, provision is made if any decision is given against the Company even if the same is taken up on appeal to higher authorities / courts.
c. Dues outstanding for significant period of time are reviewed and provision is made on a case to case basis.
Impairment loss allowance (or reversal) is recognised as expense / income in the statement of profit and loss.
31. Financial Liabilities
(i) Initial Recognition and Measurement
Financial liabilities are classified, at initial recognition, at fair value through profit or loss as loans, borrowings, payables, or derivatives, as appropriate.
Loans, borrowings and payables, are stated net of transaction costs that are directly attributable to them.
(ii) Subsequent Measurement
The measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification, as described below :
Financial Liabilities at fair value through Profit or Loss :
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss. This category also includes derivative financial instruments entered into by the Company that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as defined in Ind-AS 109. Separated embedded derivatives are also classified as held for trading unless they are designated as effective hedging instruments. Gains or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.
(iii) Loans and Borrowings
After initial recognition, interest-bearing loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the Effective Interest Rate method (EIR). Gains and losses are recognised as profit or loss when the liabilities are derecognised as well as through the EIR amortisation process.
A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires.
(iv) Trade and Other Payables
Liabilities are recognised for amounts to be paid in future for goods or services received, whether billed by the supplier or not.
32. Reclassification of Financial Instruments
The Company determines classification of financial assets and liabilities on initial recognition. After initial recognition, no reclassification is made for financial assets which are equity instruments and financial liabilities. For financial assets which are debt instruments, a reclassification is made only if there is a change in the business model for managing those assets. If the Company reclassifies financial assets, it applies the reclassification prospectively.
33. Offsetting of Financial Instruments
Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.
34. Cash Dividend and Non-Cash distribution to Equity Holders
The Company recognises a liability to make cash or noncash distributions to equity holders when the distribution is authorised and the distribution is no longer at the discretion of the Company.
35. Errors and Estimates
The Company revises it’s accounting policies if the change is required due to a change in Ind AS or if the change will provide more relevant and reliable information to the users of the financial statements. Changes in accounting policies are applied retrospectively.
A change in an accounting estimate that results in changes in the carrying amounts of recognised assets or liabilities or to statement of profit and loss is applied prospectively in the period(s) of change.
Discovery of material errors results in revisions retrospectively by restating the comparative amounts of assets, liabilities and equity of the earliest prior period in which the error is discovered. The opening balances of the earliest period presented are also restated.
36. Earnings Per Share
The Company presents basic and diluted earnings per share data for its ordinary shares. Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing the profit or loss attributable to ordinary equity holders of the Company by the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the period, adjusted for own shares held. Diluted earnings per share is determined by adjusting the profit or loss attributable to ordinary equity holders and the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding, adjusted for own shares held, for the effects of all dilutive potential ordinary shares.
37. Events after the Reporting Period
Adjusting events are events that provide further evidence of conditions that existed at the end of the reporting period. The financial statements are adjusted for such events before authorisation for issue.
Non-adjusting events are events that are indicative of conditions that arose after the end of the reporting period. Non-adjusting events after the reporting date are not accounted, but disclosed.