a. Current Vs Non-Current Classification
The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current/non-current classification. An asset is treated as current when it is:
- Expected to be realised or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle
- Held primarily for the purpose of trading
- Expected to be realised within twelve months after the reporting period, or
- Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period
All other assets are classified as non-current.
A liability is current when:
- Expected to be settled in normal operating cycle
- Held primarily for the purpose of trading
- Due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or
- There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period
The Company classifies all other liabilities as non-current.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.
The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash and cash equivalent. The Company has identified twelve months as its operating cycle.
b. Cash dividend
The Company recognises a liability to make cash distributions to equity holders when the distribution is authorised and the distribution is no longer at the discretion of the Company. As per the corporate laws in India, a distribution is authorised when it is approved by the shareholders. A corresponding amount is recognised directly in equity.
Interim dividends, if any, are recorded as a liability on the date of declaration by the Company’s Board of directors.
c. Fair Value Measurements
The Company measures financial instruments, such as forward contracts at fair value at each balance sheet date.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:
- In the principal market for the asset or liability, or
- In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the Company.
The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their best economic interest.
A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant’s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use. The Company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value.
All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorised within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:
- Level 1 —Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
- Level 2 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable
- Level 3 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable
For assets and liabilities that are recognised in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorisation (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.
For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the Company has determined classes of assets and liabilities on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy as explained above. This note summarises accounting policy for fair value. Other fair value related disclosures are given in the relevant notes.
d. Property, plant & equipment
On transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its property, plant and equipment recognised as at April 1, 2015, measured as per the previous GAAP, and use that carrying value as the deemed cost of such property, plant and equipment (See Note 44).
Property, plant & equipment and capital work in progress are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing costs if capitalization criteria are met, directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price. Such cost includes the cost of replacing part of the plant and equipment. In case of assets acquired in exchange for a non-monetary asset, the cost of such an item of property, plant and equipment is measured at fair value unless (a) the exchange transaction lacks commercial substance or (b) the fair value of neither the asset received nor the asset given up is reliably measurable. When significant parts of plant and equipment are required to be replaced at intervals, the Company depreciates them separately based on their specific useful lives. Likewise, when a regular major inspection is performed, its cost is recognised in the carrying amount of the plant and equipment as a replacement if the recognition criteria is satisfied. All other repair and maintenance costs are recognised in profit or loss as incurred.
The present value of the expected cost for decommissioning of an asset after its use is included in the cost of the respective asset, if the recognition criteria for a provision are met.
The Company identifies and determines cost of each component/ part of the asset separately, if the component/ part has a cost which is significant to the total cost of the asset and has useful life that is materially different from that of the remaining asset.
An item of Property, plant and equipment and any significant part initially recognised is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Any gain or loss arising on derecognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset) is included in the statement of profit or loss when the asset is derecognised.
The residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation of Property, plant and equipment are reviewed at each financial year end and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.
e. Depreciation on Property, plant & equipment
i. Lease hold improvements (LHI) & furniture & fixtures at stores are amortised on straight line basis over the period of lease or useful life (not exceeding 9 years), whichever is lower.
ii. Depreciation on other Property, plant & equipment is provided on written down value method at the rates based on the estimated useful life of the assets as described below:
The Company, based on management estimates, depreciates certain items of building, plant and equipment over estimated useful lives which are lower than the useful life prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013.
The management believes that these estimated useful lives are realistic and reflect fair approximation of the period over which the assets are likely to be used.
iii. Depreciation on Property, plant & equipment added/disposed off during the year is provided on pro-rata basis with respect to date of acquisition/ disposal.
f. Intangible Assets
Intangible assets acquired separately are recorded at cost at the time of initial recognition. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less any accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Internally generated intangibles, excluding capitalised development costs, are not capitalised and the related expenditure is reflected in profit or loss in the period in which the expenditure is incurred.
Intangible assets (Computer Software) with finite lives are amortised over the useful economic life (not exceeding five years) and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortisation period and the amortisation method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at least at the end of each reporting period. Changes in the expected useful life or the expected pattern of consumption of future economic benefits embodied in the asset are considered to modify the amortisation period or method, as appropriate, and are treated as changes in accounting estimates. The amortisation expense on intangible assets is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.
Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the statement of profit or loss when the asset is derecognised.
Research and development costs
Research costs are expensed as incurred. Development expenditures on an individual project are recognised as an intangible asset when the Company can demonstrate:
- The technical feasibility of completing the intangible asset so that the asset will be available for use or sale
- Its intention to complete and its ability and intention to use or sell the asset
- How the asset will generate future economic benefits
- The availability of resources to complete the asset
- The ability to measure reliably the expenditure incurred during its development
Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or net realisable value.
Costs incurred in bringing each product to its present location and condition are accounted for as follows:
- Raw materials: Cost includes cost of purchase and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost is determined on weighted average basis.
- Finished goods and work in progress: Cost includes cost of direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on the normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty. Cost is determined on a weighted average basis.
- Traded goods: Cost includes cost of purchase and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost is determined on weighted average basis.
Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
h. Revenue Recognition
Revenue is recognised to the extent it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured, regardless of when the payment is being made. Revenue is measured at the fair value ofthe consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes or duties collected on behalf of the government. The Company has concluded that it is the principal in all of its revenue arrangements since it is the primary obligor in all the revenue arrangements as it has pricing latitude and is also exposed to inventory and credit risks.
Based on the Educational Material on Ind AS 18 issued by the ICAI, the Company has assumed that recovery of excise duty flows to the Company on its own account. This is for the reason that it is a liability of the manufacturer which forms part of the cost of production, irrespective of whether the goods are sold or not. Since the recovery of excise duty flows to the Company on its own account, revenue includes excise duty. However, sales tax/ value added tax (VAT) is not received by the company on its own account, rather it is tax collected on value added to the commodity by the seller on behalf of the government. Accordingly, it is excluded from revenue.
The specific recognition criteria described below must also be met before revenue is recognised.
i. Sale of Goods:
Revenue from the sale of goods is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer, usually on delivery of the goods. Revenue from the sale of goods is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of returns and allowances, trade discounts and volume rebates. The Company provides normal warranty provisions for manufacturing defects for 3 months on all its products sold, in line with the industry practice. The Company does not provide any extended warranties to its customers.
The Company operates a loyalty points programme " The Bata Club", which allows customers to accumulate points when they purchase products in the Company’s retail stores. The points can be redeemed against consideration payable for subsequent purchases. Consideration received is allocated between the products sold and the points issued, with the consideration allocated to the points equal to their fair value. Fair value of the points is determined by applying a statistical analysis. The fair value of the points issued is deferred based on actuarial valuation and recognised as revenue when the points are redeemed.
For all debt instruments measured at amortised cost, interest income is recorded using the effective interest rate (EIR). EIR is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash payments or receipts over the expected life of the financial instrument or a shorter period, where appropriate, to the gross carrying amount of the financial asset or to the amortised cost of a financial liability. When calculating the effective interest rate, the Company estimates the expected cash flows by considering all the contractual terms of the financial instrument (for example, prepayment, extension, similar options) but does not consider the expected credit losses. Interest income is included in finance income in the statement of profit and loss.
iii. Export Benefits:
Export benefits in the form of Duty Drawback, Duty Entitlement Pass Book (DEPB) and other schemes are recognized in the Statement of profit and loss when the right to receive credit as per the terms of the scheme is established in respect of exports made and when there is no significant uncertainty regarding the ultimate collection of the relevant export proceeds.
i. Foreign Currency Transactions
The Company’s financial statements are presented in INR, which is also the Company’s functional currency. Transactions and balances
Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded by the Company at their respective functional currency spot rates at the date the transaction first qualifies for recognition. However, for practical reasons, the Company uses an average rate if the average approximates the actual rate at the date of the transaction.
Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the functional currency spot rates of exchange at the reporting date.
Exchange differences arising on settlement or translation of monetary items are recognised in profit or loss with the exception of the following:
Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the dates of the initial transactions.
j. Borrowing Cost
Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalised as part of the cost of the asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they occur. Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs that an entity incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing cost also includes exchange differences to the extent regarded as an adjustment to the borrowing costs.
k. Retirement and Other Employee Benefits
i) Retirement benefit in the form of pension costs is a defined contribution scheme. The Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the pension fund. The Company recognizes contribution payable to the pension fund scheme as an expense, when an employee renders the related service. If the contribution payable to the scheme for service received before the balance sheet date exceeds the contribution already paid, the deficit payable to the scheme is recognized as a liability after deducting the contribution already paid. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for services received before the balance sheet date, then excess is recognized as an asset to the extent that the pre-payment will lead to a reduction in future payment or a cash refund.
ii) The Provident Fund (administered by a Trust) is a defined benefit scheme where by the Company deposits an amount determined as a fixed percentage of basic pay to the fund every month. The benefit vests upon commencement of employment. The interest credited to the accounts of the employees is adjusted on an annual basis to confirm to the interest rate declared by the government for the Employees Provident Fund. The Company has adopted actuary valuation based on project unit credit method to arrive at provident fund liability as at year end.
Hi) The Company operates a defined benefit gratuity plan, which requires contributions to be made to a separately administered fund. The cost of providing benefits under the defined benefit plan is determined using the projected unit credit method.
Remeasurements, comprising of actuarial gains and losses, the effect of asset ceiling, excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability and the return on plan assets (excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability), are recognised immediately in the balance sheet with a corresponding debit or credit to OCI in the period in which they occur. Remeasurements are not reclassified to profit or loss in subsequent periods.
Past service costs are recognised in profit or loss on the earlier of:
- The date of the plan amendment or curtailment, and
- The date that the Company recognises related restructuring costs.
Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net defined benefit liability or asset. The Company recognises the following changes in the net defined benefit obligation as an expense in the statement of profit and loss:
- Service costs comprising current service costs, past-service costs, gains and losses on curtailments and non -routine settlements; and
- Net interest expense or income
iv) Compensated absences are provided for based on actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method carried by an actuary, at each year end.
Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred. The Company presents the leave as a current liability in the balance sheet, to the extent it does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement for 12 months after the reporting date.
v) Expenses incurred towards voluntary retirement scheme are charged to the statement of profit and loss in the year such scheme is accepted by the employees/workers.
The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfilment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.
For arrangements entered into prior to 1 April 2015, the Company has determined whether the arrangement contain lease on the basis of facts and circumstances existing on the date of transition.
Company is lessee
A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Company is classified as a finance lease. A lease which is not a finance lease is classified as Operating lease.
Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term unless either (a) another systematic basis is more represantative of the time pattern of the user’s benefit even if the payments to the lessors are not on that basis, or (b) the payments to the lessor are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor’s expected inflationary cost increases.
m. Taxation Current income tax
Current income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date.
Current income tax relating to items recognised outside profit or loss is recognised outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity). Current tax items are recognised in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity. Management periodically evaluates positions taken in the tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulations are subject to interpretation and establishes provisions where appropriate.
Current tax assets and liabilities are offset only if there is a legally enforceable right to set off the recognised amounts, and it is intended to realise the asset and settle the liability on a net basis or simultaneously.
Deferred tax is provided using the liability method on temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes at the reporting date. Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for all taxable temporary differences.
Deferred tax assets are recognised for all deductible temporary differences, the carry forward of unused tax credits and any unused tax losses. Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilised.
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be utilised. Unrecognised deferred tax assets are re-assessed at each reporting date and are recognised to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the year when the asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.
Deferred tax relating to items recognised outside profit or loss is recognised outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity). Deferred tax items are recognised in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity.
Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.
n. Impairment of non-financial assets
The Company assesses, at each reporting date, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset’s recoverable amount. An asset’s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s or cash-generating unit’s (CGU) fair value less costs of disposal or its value in use. Recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or group of assets. When the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount.
Impairment losses, are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.
Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are tested for impairment annually, as appropriate and when circumstances indicate that the carrying value may be impaired.
Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. The expense relating to any provision is presented in the statement of profit or loss, net of any reimbursement. If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, where appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. Where discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as part of finance costs.
Provisions for warranty-related costs are recognised when the product is sold or service provided to the customer. Initial recognition is based on actuarial valuation. The initial estimate of warranty-related costs is revised annually.
p. Contingent liability
A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.
q. Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalent in the balance sheet comprise cash at banks and on hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity ofthree months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.
For the purpose of the statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and short-term deposits, as defined above, net of outstanding bank overdrafts as they are considered an integral part of the Company’s cash management.
r. Financial Instruments
A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one Company and a financial liability or equity instrument of another Company.
Initial recognition and measurement
All financial assets are recognised initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within a time frame established by regulation or convention in the market place (regular way trades) are recognised on the trade date, i.e., the date that the Company commits to purchase or sell the asset.
For the purpose of subsequent measurement, financial assets are classified in five categories:
- Debt Instrument at amortised cost
- Debt instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)
- Debt instruments, derivatives and equity instruments at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)
- Equity instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)
- Investments in equities of subsidiaries at cost Debt instruments at amortised cost
A ‘debt instrument’ is measured at the amortised cost if both the following conditions are met:
a) The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and
b) Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.
This category is the most relevant to the Company. After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included in finance income in the profit or loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognised in the profit or loss. This category generally applies to trade receivables, Security deposits & other receivables.
Debt instrument at FVTOCI
A ‘debt instrument’ is classified as at the FVTOCI if both of the following criteria are met:
a) The objective of the business model is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling the financial assets, and
b) The asset’s contractual cash flows represent SPPI.
Debt instruments included within the FVTOCI category are measured initially as well as at each reporting date at fair value. Fair value movements are recognized in the other comprehensive income (OCI). However, the Company recognizes interest income, impairment losses & reversals and foreign exchange gain or loss in the P&L. On derecognition of the asset, cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI is reclassified from the equity to P&L. Interest earned whilst holding FVTOCI debt instrument is reported as interest income using the EIR method.
Debt instrument at FVTPL
FVTPL is a residual category for debt instruments. Any debt instrument, which does not meet the criteria for categorization as at amortized cost or as FVTOCI, is classified as at FVTPL.
In addition, the Company may elect to designate a debt instrument, which otherwise meets amortized cost or FVTOCI criteria, as at FVTPL. However, such election is allowed only if doing so reduces or eliminates a measurement or recognition inconsistency (referred to as ‘accounting mismatch’). The Company has not designated any debt instrument as at FVTPL.
Debt instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the P&L.
All equity investments in scope of Ind AS 109 are measured at fair value. Equity instruments which are held for trading and contingent consideration recognised by an acquirer in a business combination to which Ind AS 103 applies are classified as at FVTPL. For all other equity instruments, the Company may make an irrevocable election to present in other comprehensive income, subsequent changes in the fair value. The Company makes such election on an instrument-by-instrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable.
If the Company decides to classify an equity instrument as at FVTOCI, then all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognized in the OCI. There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to P&L, even on sale of investment. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity.
Equity instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the P&L.
Investments in equities of subsidiaries
Investments in equities of subsidiaries are carried at cost in separate financial statements.
A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a group of similar financial assets) is primarily derecognised (i.e. removed from the Company’s balance sheet) when:
- The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or
- The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ‘pass-through’ arrangement; and either (a) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.
When the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into a pass through arrangement, it evaluates if and to what extent it has retained the risks and rewards of ownership. When it has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the asset, nor transferred control of the asset, the Company continues to recognise the transferred asset to the extent of the Company’s continuing involvement. In that case, the Company also recognises an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained.
Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured at the lower of the original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration that the Company could be required to repay.
Impairment of financial assets
The company recognizes loss allowances using the expected credit loss (ECL) model for the financial assets which are carried at amortised cost or at Fair value through OCI. Loss allowance for trade receivables with no significant financing component is measured at an amount equal to lifetime ECL. The application of simplified approach does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk. Based on the past history and track records the company has assessed the risk of default by the customer and expects the credit loss to be insignificant. For all other financial assets, expected credit losses are measured at an amount equal to the 12-month ECL, unless there has been a significant increase in credit risk from initial recognition in which case those are measured at lifetime ECL. The amount of expected credit losses (or reversal) that is required to adjust the loss allowance at the reporting date to the amount that is required to be recognised is recognized as an impairment gain or loss in profit or loss.
ECL impairment loss allowance (or reversal) recognized during the period is recognized as income/ expense in the statement of profit and loss (P&L). This amount is reflected under the head ‘other expenses’ in the P&L.
The balance sheet presentation for various financial instruments is described below:
- Financial assets measured as at amortised cost. ECL is presented as an allowance, i.e., as an integral part of measurement of those assets in the balance sheet. The allowance reduces the net carrying amount. Until the asset meets write-off criteria, the Company does not reduce impairment allowance from the gross carrying amount.
Initial recognition and measurement
Financial liabilities are classified, at initial recognition, as:
- financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss,
- financial liabilities measured at amortised cost,
- loans and borrowings and payables,
- derivatives designated as hedging instruments in an effective hedge relationship.
All financial liabilities are recognised initially at fair value and, in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs.
The Company’s financial liabilities include trade and other payables and derivative financial instruments. Subsequent measurement
The measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification, as described below:
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include:
-financial liabilities held for trading
- financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss.
Financial liabilities are classified as held for trading if they are incurred for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term. This category also includes derivative financial instruments entered into by the Company that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as defined by Ind-AS 109.
Gains or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognised in the profit or loss.
Financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition at fair value through profit or loss are designated at the initial date of recognition, if and only if, the criteria in Ind-AS 109 are satisfied. For liabilities designated as FVTPL, fair value gains/ losses attributable to changes in own credit risk are recognized in OCI. These gains/loss are not subsequently transferred to P&L. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity. All other changes in fair value of such liability are recognised in the statement of profit or loss. The Company has not designated any financial liability as at fair value through profit and loss.
Financial liabilities measured at amortised cost
Other financial liabilities are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate. Interest expense and foreign exchange gain and losses are recognised in statement of profit and loss.
Derecognition of financial liability
A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognised in the statement of profit or loss.
Reclassification of financial assets
The Company determines classification of financial assets and liabilities on initial recognition. After initial recognition, no reclassification is made for financial assets which are equity instruments and financial liabilities. For financial assets which are debt instruments, a reclassification is made only if there is a change in the business model for managing those assets. Changes to the business model are expected to be infrequent. The Company’s senior management determines change in the business model as a result of external or internal changes which are significant to the Company’s operations. Such changes are evident to external parties. A change in the business model occurs when the Company either begins or ceases to perform an activity that is significant to its operations. If the Company reclassifies financial assets, it applies the reclassification prospectively from the reclassification date which is the first day of the immediately next reporting period following the change in business model. The Company does not restate any previously recognised gains, losses (including impairment gains or losses) or interest. The Company has not reclassified any financial asset during the current year or previous year.
Offsetting of financial instruments
Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.
Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting
Initial recognition and subsequent measurement
The Company uses derivative financial instruments, such as forward currency contracts, to hedge its foreign currency risks. Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at fair value. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.
The purchase contracts that meet the definition of a derivative under Ind AS 109 are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.
Any gains or losses arising from changes in the fair value of derivatives are taken directly to profit or loss, except for the effective portion of cash flow hedges, which is recognised in OCI and later reclassified to profit or loss when the hedge item affects profit or loss or treated as basis adjustment if a hedged forecast transaction subsequently results in the recognition of a non-financial asset or non-financial liability.
For the purpose of hedge accounting, hedges are classified as:
- Fair value hedges when hedging the exposure to changes in the fair value of a recognised asset or liability or an unrecognised firm commitment.
- Cash flow hedges when hedging the exposure to variability in cash flows that is either attributable to a particular risk associated with a recognised asset or liability or a highly probable forecast transaction or the foreign currency risk in an unrecognised firm commitment
At the inception of a hedge relationship, the Company formally designates and documents the hedge relationship to which the Company wishes to apply hedge accounting and the risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge. The documentation includes the Company’s risk management objective and strategy for undertaking hedge, the hedging/ economic relationship, the hedged item or transaction, the nature of the risk being hedged, hedge ratio and how the Company will assess the effectiveness of changes in the hedging instrument’s fair value in offsetting the exposure to changes in the hedged item’s fair value or cash flows attributable to the hedged risk. Such hedges are expected to be highly effective in achieving offsetting changes in fair value or cash flows and are assessed on an ongoing basis to determine that they actually have been highly effective throughout the financial reporting periods for which they were designated.
Hedges that meet the strict criteria for hedge accounting are accounted for, as described below:
(i) Fair value hedges
The change in the fair value of a hedging instrument is recognised in the statement of profit and loss as finance costs. The change in the fair value of the hedged item attributable to the risk hedged is recorded as part of the carrying value of the hedged item and is also recognised in the statement of profit and loss as finance costs.
For fair value hedges relating to items carried at amortised cost, any adjustment to carrying value is amortised through profit or loss over the remaining term of the hedge using the EIR method. EIR amortisation may begin as soon as an adjustment exists and no later than when the hedged item ceases to be adjusted for changes in its fair value attributable to the risk being hedged.
If the hedged item is derecognised, the unamortised fair value is recognised immediately in profit or loss. When an unrecognised firm commitment is designated as a hedged item, the subsequent cumulative change in the fair value of the firm commitment attributable to the hedged risk is recognised as an asset or liability with a corresponding gain or loss recognised in profit and loss.
(ii) Cash flow hedges
The effective portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument is recognised in OCI in the cash flow hedge reserve, while any ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss.
The Company uses forward currency contracts as hedges of its exposure to foreign currency risk in forecast transactions and firm commitments, the ineffective portion relating to foreign currency contracts is recognised in finance costs.
Amounts recognised as OCI are transferred to profit or loss when the hedged transaction affects profit or loss, such as when the hedged financial income or financial expense is recognised or when a forecast sale occurs. When the hedged item is the cost of a non-financial asset or non-financial liability, the amounts recognised as OCI are transferred to the initial carrying amount of the non-financial asset or liability.
If the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised without replacement or rollover (as part of the hedging strategy), or if its designation as a hedge is revoked, or when the hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, any cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI remains separately in equity until the forecast transaction occurs or the foreign currency firm commitment is met.