1 CORPORATE INFORMATION
The Company’s principal business activity is manufacturing and sale of automotive tyres. The Company started its operations in 1972 with its first manufacturing plant at Perambra in Kerala.
The Company’s largest operations are in India and comprise of four tyre manufacturing plants - located two in Cochin and one each at Vadodara & Chennai respectively and various sales & marketing offices spread across the country. The Company’s European subsidiary Apollo Vredestein BV (AVBV) has a manufacturing plant in the Netherlands and sales & marketing subsidiaries all over Europe. The Company also has sales and marketing subsidiaries in Middle East, Africa and ASEAN region.
2 RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
Standards issued but not yet effective
In March 2017, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs issued the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendments) Rules, 2017, notifying amendments to Ind AS 7 - Statement of cash flows and Ind AS 102
- Share-based payment. These amendments are in accordance with the recent amendments made by International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) to IAS 7 - Statement of cash flows and IFRS 2 -Share based payment, respectively. The amendments are applicable to the Companies from April 1, 2017.
Amendment to Ind AS 7 - Statement of cash flows
The amendment to Ind AS 7 requires the entities to provide disclosures that enable users of financial statements to evaluate changes in liabilities arising from financing activities, including both changes arising from cash flows and non-cash changes, suggesting inclusion of a reconciliation between the opening and closing balances in the balance sheet for liabilities arising from financing activities, to meet the disclosure requirement.
Amendment to Ind AS 102 - Share based payment
The amendment to Ind AS 102 provides specific guidance to measurement of cash-settled awards, modification of cash-settled awards and awards that include a net settlement feature in respect of withholding taxes.
It clarifies that the fair value of cash-settled awards is determined on a basis consistent with that used for equity-settled awards. Market-based performance conditions and non-vesting conditions are reflected in the ‘fair values’, but non-market performance conditions and service vesting conditions are reflected in the estimate of the number of awards expected to vest. Also, the amendment clarifies that if the terms and conditions of a cash-settled share-based payment transaction are modified with the result that it becomes an equity-settled share-based payment transaction, the transaction is accounted for as such from the date of the modification. Further, the amendment requires the award that include a net settlement feature in respect of withholding taxes to be treated as equity-settled in its entirety. The cash payment to the tax authority is treated as if it was part of an equity settlement.
3 BASIS OF ACCOUNTING AND PREPARATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
3.1 Statement of Compliance
The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) as notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015.
Beginning April 1, 2016, the Company has for the first time adopted Ind AS with a transition date of April 1, 2015. The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Ind AS prescribed under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 and other recognized accounting practices and policies to the extent applicable.
3.2 Basis of Preparation and Presentation
The financial statements have been prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention except for certain financial instruments that are measured at fair values at the end of each reporting period, as explained in the accounting policies below.
Historical cost is generally based on the fair value of the consideration given in exchange for goods and services.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date, regardless of whether that price is directly observable or estimated using another valuation technique. In estimating the fair value of an asset or a liability, the Company takes into account the characteristics of the asset or liability if market participants would take those characteristics into account when pricing the asset or liability at the measurement date. Fair value for measurement and/or disclosure purposes in these financial statements is determined on above basis, except for share-based payment transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 102 - Share Based Payment, lease transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 17 - Leases, and measurements that have some similarities to fair value but are not fair value, such as net realizable value in Ind AS 2 - Inventories or value in use in Ind AS 36 - Impairment of Assets.
In addition, for financial reporting purposes, fair value measurements are categorized into Level 1, 2 or 3 based on the degree to which the inputs to the fair value measurements are observable and the significance of the inputs to the fair value measurement in its entirety, which are described as follows:
- Level 1 inputs are quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the entity can access at the measurement date;
- Level 2 inputs are inputs, other than quoted prices included within Level 1, that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly; and
- Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs for the asset or liability.
The principal accounting policies are set out below:
3.3 Business Combinations
Common control business combinations includes transactions, such as transfer of subsidiaries or businesses, between entities within a group.
Business combinations involving entities or businesses under common control shall be accounted for using the pooling of interests method.
The pooling of interest method is considered to involve the following:
(i) The assets and liabilities of the combining entities are reflected at their carrying amounts.
(ii) No adjustments are made to reflect fair values, or recognize any new assets or liabilities. The only adjustments that are made are to harmonies accounting policies.
(iii) The financial information in the financial statements in respect of prior periods should be restated as if the business combination had occurred from the beginning of the preceding period in the financial statements, irrespective of the actual date of the combination. However, if business combination had occurred after that date, the prior period information shall be restated only from that date.
(iv) The balance of the retained earnings appearing in the financial statements of the transferor is aggregated with the corresponding balance appearing in the financial statements of the transferee.
Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and estimated net realizable value (net of allowances) after providing for obsolescence and other losses, where considered necessary. The cost comprises of cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs including appropriate production overheads in the case of finished goods and work-in-progress, incurred in bringing such inventories to their present location and condition. Trade discounts or rebates are deducted in determining the costs of purchase. Net realizable value represents the estimated selling price for inventories less all estimated costs of completion and costs necessary to make the sale.
In case of raw materials, stores & spares and traded goods, cost (net of CENVAT/VAT credits wherever applicable) is determined on a moving weighted average basis, and, in case of work-in-progress and finished goods, cost is determined on a First In First Out basis.
Income tax expense represents the sum of the tax currently payable and deferred tax.
Current tax is the amount of tax payable on the taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the applicable income tax laws of the country in which the respective entities in the Company are incorporated. Taxable profit differs from ‘profit before tax’ as reported in the statement of profit and loss because of items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and items that are never taxable or deductible. The current tax is calculated using tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.
Deferred tax is recognized on temporary differences between the carrying amount of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and quantified using the tax rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted as on the Balance Sheet date. Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are generally recognized for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which those deductible temporary differences can be utilized. Such deferred tax assets and liabilities are not recognized if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the taxable profit nor the accounting profit.
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.
Deferred tax liabilities and assets are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period in which the liability is settled or the asset realized, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.
The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and assets reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the end of the reporting period, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.
Current and Deferred tax for the year
Current and deferred tax are recognized in profit or loss, except when they relate to items that are recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case, the current and deferred tax are also recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity respectively.
3.6 Property, Plant And Equipment (PPE)
Land and buildings held for use in the production or supply of goods or services, or for administrative purposes, are stated in the balance sheet at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. Freehold land is not depreciated.
Properties in the course of construction for production, supply or administrative purposes are carried at cost, less any recognized impairment loss. For qualifying assets, borrowing costs are capitalized in accordance with Ind AS 23 - Borrowing costs. Such properties are classified to the appropriate categories of property, plant and equipment when completed and ready for intended use. Depreciation of these assets, on the same basis as other property assets, commences when the assets are ready for their intended use.
Fixtures and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses.
Property, plant and equipment are capitalized at costs relating to the acquisition and installation (net of Cenvat /VAT credits wherever applicable) and include finance cost on borrowed funds attributable to acquisition of qualifying fixed assets for the period up to the date when the asset is ready for its intended use, and adjustments arising from foreign exchange differences arising on foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs. Other incidental expenditure attributable to bringing the fixed assets to their working condition for intended use are capitalized. Subsequent expenditure relating to fixed assets is capitalized only if such expenditure results in an increase in the future benefits from such asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance.
Depreciation is recognized so as to write-off the cost or valuation of assets (other than freehold land and properties under construction) less their residual values over their useful lives, using the straight-line method. The estimated useful lives, residual values and depreciation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate accounted for on a prospective basis.
The management believes that these estimated useful lives are realistic and reflect fair approximation of the period over which the assets are likely to be used.
Assets held under finance leases are depreciated over their expected useful lives on the same basis as owned assets. However, when there is no reasonable certainty that ownership will be obtained by the end of the lease term, assets are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and their useful lives.
Leasehold land / Improvements thereon are amortized over the primary period of lease.
An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of the asset. Any gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an item of property, plant and equipment is determined as the difference between the sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognized in profit or loss.
The company has applied Ind AS 16 - Property, Plant and Equipment retrospectively to its PPE and has not availed deemed cost exemption as available under Ind AS 101 - First-time adoption of Indian Accounting Standards.
3.7 Intangible Assets
Intangible assets with finite useful lives are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and impairment losses, if any. The cost of an intangible asset comprises its purchase price, including any import duties and other taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from the taxing authorities), and any directly attributable expenditure on making the asset ready for its intended use and net of any trade discounts and rebates. Subsequent expenditure on an intangible asset after its purchase / completion is recognized as an expense when incurred unless it is probable that such expenditure will enable the asset to generate future economic benefits in excess of its originally assessed standards of performance and such expenditure can be measured and attributed to the asset reliably, in which case such expenditure is added to the cost of the asset.
The intangible assets are amortized over their respective individual estimated useful lives on a straight-line basis, commencing from the date the asset is available to the Company for its use. The amortization period are reviewed at the end of each financial year and the amortization method is revised to reflect the changed pattern.
Derecognition of intangible assets
An intangible asset is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of the asset. Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset, measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset, are recognized in profit or loss when the asset is derecognized.
3.8 Revenue Recognition
Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable. Revenue is reduced for customer returns, taxes on sales, estimated rebates and other similar allowances.
Revenue from sale of goods is recognized when the following conditions are satisfied:
- the Company has transferred the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods to the buyer which generally coincides with the delivery of goods,
- the Company retains neither continuing managerial involvement to the degree usually associated with ownership nor effective control over goods sold;
- the amount of revenue can be measured reliably:
- it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the Company;
- the costs incurred or to be incurred in respect of the transaction can be measured reliably.
3.9 Other Income
Dividend income from investments is recognized when the right to receive payment has been established (provided that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably).
Interest income from a financial asset is recognized when it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably. Interest income is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principle outstanding and at the effective interest rate applicable, which is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to that asset’s net carrying amount on initial recognition.
Royalty income is recognized on accrual basis in accordance with the substance of the relevant agreement (provided that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably).
3.10 Employee Benefits
Employee benefits include wages & salaries, provident fund, superannuation fund, employee state insurance scheme, gratuity fund and compensated absences.
Defined Contribution Plans
Contributions to defined contribution plans are recognized as an expense when employees have rendered service entitling them to the contributions.
Defined Benefit Plans
For defined benefit retirement plans, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at the end of each annual reporting period. Re-measurement, comprising actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the changes to the asset ceiling (if applicable) and the return on plan assets (excluding net interest), is reflected immediately in the Balance Sheet with a charge or credit recognized in other comprehensive income in the period in which they occur. Re-measurement recognized in other comprehensive income is reflected immediately in retained earnings and will not be reclassified to profit or loss. Past service cost is recognized in profit or loss in the period of a plan amendment. Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate at the beginning of the period to the net defined benefit liability or asset. Defined benefit costs are categorized as follows:
- service cost (including current service cost, past service cost, as well as gains and losses on curtailments and settlements),
- net interest expense or income; and,
The retirement benefit obligation recognized in the balance sheet represents the actual deficit or surplus in the Company’s defined benefit plans. Any surplus resulting from this calculation is limited to the present value of any economic benefits available in the form of refunds from the plans or reductions in future contributions to the plans.
Other Short-term and long-term employee benefits
Liabilities recognized in respect of short-term employee benefits are measured at the undiscounted amount of the benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the related service.
Liabilities recognized in respect of other long-term employee benefits are measured at the present value of the estimated future cash outflows expected to be made by the Company in respect of services provided by employees up to the reporting date.
3.11 Government Grants, Subsidies and Export Incentives
Government grants and subsidies are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with the conditions attached to them and the grants / subsidy will be received.
Government grants whose primary condition is that the Company should purchase, construct or otherwise acquire non-current assets are recognized as deferred revenue in the balance sheet and transferred to profit or loss on a systematic and rational basis over the useful lives of the related assets.
Revenue grant is recognized as an income in the period in which related obligation is met.
Export Incentives earned in the year of exports are treated as income and netted off from cost of raw material imported.
3.12 Foreign Currency Transactions And Translations
Foreign currency transactions are recorded at rates of exchange prevailing on the date of transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies as at the balance sheet date are translated at the rate of exchange prevailing at the year-end. Non-monetary items carried at fair value that are denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rates prevailing at the date when the fair value was determined. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are not retranslated.
Revenue grant is recognized as an income in come in the period in which related obligation is met.
Exchange differences on monetary items are recognized in profit or loss in the period in which they arise except for:
- exchange differences on foreign currency borrowings relating to assets under construction for future productive use, which are included in the cost of those assets when they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs on those foreign currency borrowings,
- exchange differences on transactions entered into in order to hedge certain foreign currency risks; and,
- exchange differences on monetary items receivable from or payable to a foreign operation for which settlement is neither planned nor likely to occur (therefore forming part of the net investment in the foreign operation), which are recognized initially in other comprehensive income and reclassified from equity to profit or loss on repayment of the monetary items.
3.13 Employee Share Based Payments
Stock appreciation rights (Phantom stock units) are granted to employees under the Cash-settled Employee Share-based Payment Plan (Phantom Stock Plan).
For cash-settled share-based payments, a liability is recognized for the goods or services acquired, measured initially at the fair value of the liability. At the end of each reporting period until the liability is settled, and at the date of settlement, the fair value of the liability is premeasured, with any changes in fair value recognized in profit or loss for the year.
3.14 Borrowing Costs
Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, which are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale, are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use or sale.
All other borrowing costs are recognized in profit or loss in the period in which they are incurred.
Leases are classified as finance leases whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee. All other leases are classified as operating leases.
The Company as lessee
Assets held under finance leases are initially recognized as assets of the Company at their fair value at the inception of the lease or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. The corresponding liability to the less or is included in the balance sheet as a finance lease obligation.
Lease payments are apportioned between finance expenses and reduction of the lease obligation so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance expenses are recognized immediately in profit or loss, unless they are directly attributable to qualifying assets, in which case they are capitalized in accordance with the Company’s general policy on borrowing costs. Contingent rentals are recognized as expenses in the periods in which they are incurred.
Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term, except where another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which economic benefits from the leased asset are consumed or the payments to the lessor are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor’s expected inflationary cost increases. Contingent rentals arising under operating leases are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.
In the event that lease incentives are received to enter into operating leases, such incentives are recognized as a liability. The aggregate benefit of incentives is recognized as a reduction of rental expense on a straight-line basis, except where another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which economic benefits from the leased asset are consumed.
3.16 Earnings Per Share
Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit/(loss) after tax (including the post tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.
Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit/(loss) after tax (including the post tax effect of extraordinary items, if any) as adjusted for dividend, interest and other charges to expense or income (net of any attributable taxes) relating to the dilutive potential equity shares, by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share and the weighted average number of equity shares which could have been issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. Potential equity shares are deemed to be dilutive only if their conversion to equity shares would decrease the net profit per share from continuing ordinary operations. Potential dilutive equity shares are deemed to be converted as at the beginning of the period, unless they have been issued at a later date. The dilutive potential equity shares are adjusted for the proceeds receivable had the shares been actually issued at fair value (i.e. average market value of the outstanding shares). Dilutive potential equity shares are determined independently for each period presented. The number of equity shares and potentially dilutive equity shares are adjusted for share splits/reverse share splits and bonus shares, as appropriate.
3.17 Impairment Of Tangible And Intangible Assets
At the end of each reporting period, the Company reviews the carrying amounts of its tangible and intangible assets or cash generating units to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss (if any). When it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of an individual asset, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs. When a reasonable and consistent basis of allocation can be identified, corporate assets are also allocated to individual cash-generating units, or otherwise they are allocated to the smallest group of cash-generating units for which a reasonable and consistent allocation basis can be identified.
Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives and intangible assets not yet available for use are tested for impairment at least annually, or whenever there is an indication that the asset may be impaired.
Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted.
If the recoverable amount of an asset (or cash-generating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset (or cash-generating unit) is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognized immediately in profit or loss, unless the relevant asset is carried at a revalued amount, in which case the impairment loss is treated as a revaluation decrease.
When an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset (or a cash-generating unit) is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, but so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset (or cash-generating unit) in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognized immediately in profit or loss, unless the relevant asset is carried at a revalued amount, in which case the reversal of the impairment loss is treated as a revaluation increase
3.18 Provisions And Contingencies
A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation (legal/constructive) as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made.
The amount recognized as a provision is the best estimate of the consideration required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period, taking into account the risks and uncertainties surrounding the obligation. When a provision is measured using the cash flows estimated to settle the present obligation, its carrying amount is the present value of those cash flows (when the effect of the time value of money is material).
Contingent liability is disclosed for (i) Possible obligation which will be confirmed only by future events not wholly within the control of the Company or (ii) Present obligations arising from past events where it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation or a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation cannot be made. When some or all of the economic benefits required to settle a provision are expected to be recovered from a third party, a receivable is recognized as an asset if it is virtually certain that reimbursement will be received and the amount of the receivable can be measured reliably.
Provisions for the expected cost of sales related obligations under local sale of goods legislation are recognized at the date of sale of the relevant products, at the management’s best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the Company’s obligation.
3.19 Financial Instruments
Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognized when an entity becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instruments.
Financial assets and financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value of the financial assets or financial liabilities, as appropriate, on initial recognition. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are recognized immediately in profit or loss.
3.20 Financial Assets
All regular way purchases or sales of financial assets are recognized and derecognized on a trade date basis. Regular way purchases or sales are purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within the time frame established by regulation or convention in the marketplace.
All recognized financial assets are subsequently measured in their entirety at either amortized cost or fair value, depending on the classification of the financial assets.
3.20.1 Classification of financial asset
Financial assets that meet the following conditions are subsequently measured at amortized cost less impairment loss (FVTPL) (except for investments that are designated as at fair value through profit or loss on initial recognition):
- the asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets in order to collect contractual cash flows; and
- the contractual terms of the instrument give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
Financial assets that meet the following conditions are subsequently measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI) (except for investments that are designated as at fair value through profit or loss on initial recognition):
- the asset is held within a business model whose objective is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets; and
- the contractual terms of the instrument give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
All other financial assets are subsequently measured at fair value.
3.20. 2 Amortized cost and Effective interest method
The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortized cost of a debt instrument and of allocating interest income over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts (including all fees and points paid or received that form an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and other premiums or discounts) through the expected life of the debt instrument, or, where appropriate, a shorter period, to the net carrying amount on initial recognition.
Income is recognized on an effective interest basis for debt instruments other than those financial assets classified as at FVTPL. Interest income is recognized in profit or loss and is included in the other income.
A financial asset is held for trading if:
it has been acquired principally for the purpose of selling it in the near term; or
on initial recognition it is part of a portfolio of identified financial instruments that the Company manages together and has a recent actual pattern of short-term profit-taking; or it is a derivative that is not designated and effective as a hedging instrument or a financial guarantee.
Dividends on these investments in equity instruments are recognized in profit or loss when the right to receive the dividends is established and it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the dividend will flow to the entity, the dividend does not represent a recovery of part of cost of the investment and the amount of dividend can be measured reliably.
3.20.3 Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)
Investments in equity instruments are classified as at FVTPL, unless the Company irrevocably elects on initial recognition to present subsequent changes in fair value in other comprehensive income for equity instruments which are not held for trading.
Debt instrument that do not meet the amortized cost criteria or fair value through other comprehensive income criteria (see above) are measured at FVTPL. In addition, debt instruments that meet the amortized cost criteria or the fair value through other comprehensive income criteria but are designated as at FVTPL are measured at FVTPL.
A financial asset may be designated as at FVTPL upon initial recognition if such designation eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition inconsistency that would arise from measuring assets or liabilities or recognizing the gains and losses on them on different bases.
Financial assets at FVTPL are measured at fair value at the end of each reporting period, with any gains or losses arising on re-measurement recognized in profit or loss. The net gain or loss recognized in profit or loss is included in the other income line item. Dividend on financial assets at FVTPL is recognized when the Company’s right to receive the dividends is established, it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the dividend will flow to the entity, the dividend does not represent a recovery of part of cost of the investment and the amount of dividend can be measured reliably.
3.20.4 Impairment of financial assets
The Company applies the expected credit loss model for recognizing impairment loss on financial assets measured at amortized cost, debt instruments at FVTOCI, lease receivables, trade receivables, other contractual rights to receive cash or other financial assets, and financials guarantees not designated as at FVTPL.
Expected credit losses are the weighted average of credit losses with the respective risks of default occurring as the weights. Credit loss is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the Company expects to receive (i.e., all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original effective interest rate (or credit-adjusted effective interest rate for purchased or originated credit-impaired financial assets). The Company estimates cash flows by considering all contractual terms of the financial instrument (for example, prepayment, extension, call and similar options) through the expected life of that financial instruments.
The Company measures the loss allowance for a financial instrument at an amount equal to the lifetime expected credit losses if the credit risk on that financial instrument has increased significantly since initial recognition. If the credit risk on a financial instrument has not increased significantly since initial recognition, the Company measures the loss allowance for that financial instrument at an amount equal to 12-month expected credit losses.12-month expected credit losses are portion of the life-time expected credit losses and represent the lifetime cash shortfalls that will result if default occurs within the 12-months after the reporting date and thus, are not cash shortfalls that are predicted over the next 12-months.
I f the Company measured loss allowance for a financial instrument at lifetime expected credit loss model in the previous period, but determines at the end of a reporting period that the credit risk has not increased significantly since initial recognition due to improvement in credit quality as compared to the previous period, the Company again measures the loss allowance based on 12-month expected credit losses.
When making the assessment of whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, the Company uses the change in the risk of a default occurring over the expected life of the financial instrument. To make that assessment, the Company compares the risk of a default occurring on the financial instrument as at the reporting date with the risk of a default occurring on the financial instrument as at the date of initial recognition and considers reasonable and supportable information, that is available without undue cost or effort, that is indicative of significant increases in credit risk since initial recognition.
For trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 11 - Construction Contracts and Ind AS 18 - Revenue, the Company always measures the loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses.
3.20.5 De-recognition of financial assets
The Company derecognizes a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire, or when it transfers the financial asset and substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the asset to another party. If the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership and continues to control the transferred asset, the Company recognizes its retained interest in the asset and an associated liability for amounts it may have to pay. If the Company retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of a transferred financial asset, the Company continues to amortized the financial asset and also amortized a collateralized borrowing for the proceeds received.
On de-recognition of a financial asset in its entirety, the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the sum of the consideration received and receivable and the cumulative gain or loss that had been recognized in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity is recognized in profit or loss if such gain or loss would have otherwise been recognized in profit or loss on disposal of that financial asset.
On de-recognition of a financial asset other than in its entirety (e.g. when the Company retains an option to repurchase part of a transferred asset),
the Company allocates the previous carrying amount of the financial asset between the part it continues to amortized under continuing involvement, and the part it no longer amortized on the basis of the relative fair values of those parts on the date of the transfer. The difference between the carrying amount allocated to the part that is no longer recognized and the sum of the consideration received for the part no longer recognized and any cumulative gain or loss allocated to it that had been recognized in other comprehensive income is recognized in profit or loss if such gain or loss would have otherwise been recognized in profit or loss on disposal of that financial asset. A cumulative gain or loss that had been recognized in other comprehensive income is allocated between the part that continues to be recognized and the part that is no longer recognized on the basis of the relative fair values of those parts.
3.20.6 Foreign Exchange gains and losses
The fair value of financial assets denominated in a foreign currency is determined in that foreign currency and translated at the spot rate at the end of each reporting period.
- For foreign currency denominated financial assets measured at amortized cost and FVTPL, the exchange differences are recognized in profit or loss except for those which are designated as hedging instruments in hedging relationship.
3.21 Financial Liabilities And Equity Instruments
3.21.1 Classification as debt or equity
Debt and equity instruments issued by the Company are classified as either financial liabilities or as equity in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangements and the definitions of a financial liability and an equity instrument.
3.21.2 Equity instruments
An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments issued by the Company are recognized at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs.
3.21.3 Financial liabilities
All financial liabilities are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method or at FVTPL. However, financial liabilities that arise when a transfer of a financial asset does not qualify for derecognition or when the continuing involvement approach applies, financial guarantee contracts issued by the Company are measured in accordance with the specific accounting policies set out below.
188.8.131.52 Financial liabilities at FVTPL
Financial liabilities are classified as at FVTPL when the financial liability is either held for trading or it is designated as at FVTPL.
A financial liability is classified as held for trading if:
it has been incurred principally for the purpose of repurchasing it in the near term; or
on initial recognition it is part of a portfolio of identified financial instruments that the Company manages together and has a recent actual pattern of short-term profit-taking; or
it is a derivative that is not designated and effective as a hedging instrument.
A financial liability other than a financial liability held for trading may be designated as at FVTPL upon initial recognition if:
such designation eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition inconsistency that would otherwise arise; or
the financial liability forms part of a Company of financial assets or financial liabilities or both, which is managed and its performance is evaluated on a fair value basis, in accordance with the Company’s documented risk management or investment strategy, and information about the Companying is provided internally on that basis; or
i t forms part of a contract containing one or more embedded derivatives, and Ind AS 109 permits the entire combined contract to be designated as at FVTPL in accordance with Ind AS 109 - Financial Instruments
Financial liabilities at FVTPL are stated at fair value, with any gains or losses arising on remeasurement recognized in profit or loss.
184.108.40.206 Financial liabilities subsequently measured at amortized cost
Financial liabilities that are not held-for-trading and are not designated as at FVTPL are measured at amortized cost at the end of subsequent accounting periods. The carrying amounts of financial liabilities that are subsequently measured at amortized cost are determined based on the effective interest method. Interest expense that is not capitalized as part of costs of an asset is included in the ‘finance costs’ line item.
The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortized cost of a financial liability and of allocating interest expense over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash payments (including all fees and points paid or received that form an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and other premiums or discounts) through the expected life of the financial liability, or (where appropriate) a shorter period, to the net carrying amount on initial recognition.
220.127.116.11 Financial guarantee contracts
A financial guarantee contract is a contract that requires the issuer to make specified payments to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because a specified debtor fails to make payments when due in accordance with the terms of a debt instrument.
Financial guarantee contracts issued by the Company are initially measured at their fair values and, if not designated as at FVTPL, are subsequently measured at:
the amount of loss allowance determined in accordance with impairment requirements of Ind AS 109 - Financial Instruments; and
the amount initially recognized less, where appropriate, cumulative amortization recognized in accordance with the revenue recognition policies of Ind AS 18 - Revenue.
For financial liabilities that are denominated in a foreign currency and are measured at amortized cost at the end of each reporting period, the foreign exchange gains and losses are determined based on the amortized cost of the instruments and are recognized in the other income.
The fair value of financial liabilities denominated in a foreign currency is determined in that foreign currency and translated at the spot rate at the end of the reporting period. For financial liabilities that are measured as at FVTPL, the foreign exchange component forms part of the fair value gains or losses and is recognized in profit or loss.
18.104.22.168 Derecognition of financial liabilities
The Company deamortizeds financial liabilities when, and only when, the Company’s obligations are discharged, cancelled or they expire. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability derecognized and the consideration paid and payable is recognized in profit or loss.
3.22 Derivative Financial Instruments
The Company enters into a variety of derivative financial instruments to manage its exposure to interest rate and foreign exchange rate risks, including foreign exchange forward contracts and cross currency swaps.
Derivatives are initially recognized at fair value at the date the derivative contracts are entered into and are subsequently premeasured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period. The resulting gain or loss is recognized in profit or loss immediately unless the derivative is designated and effective as a hedging instrument, in which event the timing of the recognition in profit or loss depends on the nature of the hedging relationship and the nature of the hedged item.
3.23 Hedge Accounting
The Company designates certain hedging instruments, which include derivatives, embedded derivatives and non-derivatives in respect of foreign currency risk, as either fair value hedges, cash flow hedges, or hedges of net investments in foreign operations. Hedges of foreign exchange risk on firm commitments are accounted for as cash flow hedges.
At the inception of the hedge relationship, the entity documents the relationship between the hedging instrument and the hedged item, along with its risk management objectives and its strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions. Furthermore, at the inception of the hedge and on an ongoing basis, the Company documents whether the hedging instrument is highly effective in offsetting changes in fair values or cash flows of the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk.
Cash flow hedges
The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges is recognized in other comprehensive income and accumulated under the heading of cash flow hedging reserve. The gain or loss relating to the ineffective portion is recognized immediately in profit or loss, and is included in the ‘Other income’ line item. Amounts previously recognized in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity relating to (effective portion as described above) are reclassified to profit or loss in the periods when the hedged item affects profit or loss, in the same line as the recognized hedged item. However, when the hedged forecast transaction results in the recognition of a non-financial asset or a non-financial liability, such gains and losses are transferred from equity (but not as a reclassification adjustment) and included in the initial measurement of the cost of the non-financial asset or non-financial liability.
I n cases where the designated hedging instruments are options and forward contracts, the Company has an option, for each designation, to designate on an instrument only the changes in intrinsic value of the options and spot element of forward contracts respectively as hedges. In such cases, the time value of the options is accounted based on the type of hedged item which those options hedge.
In case of transaction related hedged item in the above cases, the change in time value of the options is recognized in other comprehensive income to the extent it relates to the hedged item and accumulated in a separate component of equity i.e. Reserve for time value of options and forward elements of forward contracts in hedging relationship. This separate component is removed and directly included in the initial cost or other carrying amount of the asset or the liability (i.e. not as a reclassification adjustment thus not affecting other comprehensive income) if the hedged item subsequently results in recognition of a non-financial asset or a non-financial liability. In other cases, the amount accumulated is reclassified to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment in the same period in which the hedged expected future cash flows affect profit or loss.
In case of time-period related hedged item in the above cases, the change in time value of the options is recognized in other comprehensive income to the extent it relates to the hedged item and accumulated in a separate component of equity i.e. Reserve for time value of options and forward elements of forward contracts in hedging relationship. The time value of options at the date of designation of the options in the hedging relationships is amortized on a systematic and rational basis over the period during which the options’ intrinsic value could affect profit or loss. This is done as a reclassification adjustment and hence affects other comprehensive income.
In cases where only the spot element of the forward contracts is designated in a hedging relationship and the forward element of the forward contract is not designated, the Company makes the choice for each designation whether to amortized the changes in forward element of fair value of the forward contracts in profit or loss or to account for this element similar to the time value of an option .
Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or when it no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. Any gain or loss recognized in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity at that time remains in equity and is recognized when the forecast transaction is ultimately recognized in profit or loss. When a forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the gain or loss accumulated in equity is recognized immediately in profit or loss.
3.24 First-Time Adoption - Mandatory Exceptions & Optional Exemptions
3.24.1 Overall Principle
The Company has prepared the opening balance sheet as per Ind AS as of April 1, 2015 (the transition date) by recognizing all assets and liabilities whose recognition is required under Ind AS, not recognizing items of assets and liabilities which are not permitted under Ind AS, by reclassifying items from previous GAAP to Ind AS as required under Ind AS, and applying Ind AS in measurement of recognized assets and liabilities. However, this principle is subject to the certain exception and certain optional exemptions availed by the Company as detailed below.
3.24.2 Classification of debt instruments
The Company has determined the classification of debt instruments in terms of whether they meet the amortized cost criteria or the FVTOCI criteria based on the facts and circumstances that existed as of the transition date.
3.24.3 Determining whether an arrangement contains a lease
The company has applied Appendix C of Ind AS 17 - Leases determining whether an Arrangement contains a Lease to determine whether an arrangement existing at the transition date contains a lease on the basis of facts and circumstances existing at that date.
3.25 Critical Accounting Judgments And Key Sources Of Estimation Uncertainty
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Ind AS requires management to make certain judgments and estimates that may affect the application of accounting policies, reported amounts and related disclosures.
These judgments and estimates may have an impact on the assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and income and expense items for the period under review. Actual results may differ from these judgments and estimates.
All assumptions, expectations and forecasts that are used as a basis for judgments and estimates in the financial statements represent as accurately an outlook as possible for the group. These judgments and estimates only represent our interpretation as of the dates on which they were prepared.
Important judgments and estimates relate largely to provisions, pensions, tangible and intangible assets (lives, residual values and impairment), deferred tax assets and liabilities and valuation of financial instruments.