1.1 Statement of compliance
The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Ind AS standards notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015.
Upto the year ended March 31, 2016, the company prepared its financial statements in accordance with the requirements of the previous GAAP, which includes Standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006. These are the Company’s first Ind AS financial statements. The date of transition to Ind AS is April 1, 2015. In accordance with Ind AS 101 “First time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standards” the Company has presented a reconciliation from the presentation of financial statements under accounting standards notified under the Companies ( Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 (“Previous GAAP”) to Ind AS with regard to shareholders equity as at April 1, 2015, March 31, 2016 and of the comprehensive net income for the year ended March 31, 2016. Refer Note 44 for the details of first time adoption exemption availed by the Company.
1.2 Basis of preparation and presentation
The financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except for certain financial instruments that are measured at fair values at the end of each reporting period, as explained in the accounting policies below.
Historical cost is generally based on the fair value of the consideration given in exchange for goods and services.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date, regardless of whether that price is directly observable or estimated using another valuation technique. In estimating the fair value of an asset or a liability, the Company takes into account the characteristics of the asset or liability if market participants would take those characteristics into account when pricing the asset or liability at the measurement date. Fair value for measurement and/or disclosure purposes in these financial statements is determined on such a basis, except for leasing transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 17 and measurements that have some similarities to fair value but are not fair value, such as net realisable value in Ind AS 2 or value in use in Ind AS 36.
In addition, for financial reporting purposes, fair value measurements are categorised into Level 1, 2, or 3 based on the degree to which the inputs to the fair value measurements are observable and the significance of the inputs to the fair value measurement in its entirety, which are described as follows:
Level 1 inputs are quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the entity can access at the measurement date;
Level 2 inputs are inputs, other than quoted prices included within Level 1, that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly; and
Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs for the asset or liability.
1.3 Business combinations
Acquisitions of businesses are accounted for using the acquisition method. The consideration transferred in a business combination is measured at fair value, which is calculated as the sum of the acquisition-date fair values of the assets transferred by the Company, liabilities incurred by the Company to the former owners of the acquiree and the equity interests issued by the Company in exchange of control of the acquiree. Acquisition-related costs are generally recognised in profit and loss as incurred.
At the acquisition date, the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed are recognised at their fair value, except that:
deferred tax assets or liabilities, and assets or liabilities related to employee benefit arrangements are recognised and measured in accordance with Ind AS 12 Income Taxes and Ind AS 19 Employee Benefits respectively;
On acquisition, the Company assesses the classification of the acquiree’s assets and liabilities and reclassifies them where the classification is inappropriate for Company purposes.
Goodwill is measured as the excess of the sum of the consideration transferred, the amount of any non controlling interests in the acquiree, and the fair value of the acquirer’s previously held equity interest in the acquiree (if any) over the net of the acquisition-date amounts of the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed.
Non-controlling interests that are present ownership interests and entitle their holders to a proportionate share of the entity’s net assets in the event of liquidation may be initially measured either at fair value or at the non-controlling interests’ proportionate share of the recognised amounts of the acquiree’s identifiable net assets. The choice of measurement basis is made on a transaction-by-transaction basis. Other types of non-controlling interests are measured at fair value or, when applicable, on the basis specified in another Ind AS standard.
Goodwill arising on an acquisition of a business is carried at cost as established at the date of acquisition of the business less accumulated impairment losses, if any.
For the purposes of impairment testing, goodwill is allocated to each of the Company’s cash-generating units that is expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination.
A cash-generating unit to which goodwill has been allocated is tested for impairment annually, or more frequently when there is an indication that the unit may be impaired. If the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit is less than its carrying amount, the impairment loss is allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the unit and then to the other assets of the unit pro rata based on the carrying amount of each asset in the unit. Any impairment loss for goodwill is recognised directly in the statement of Profit and Loss. An impairment loss recognised for goodwill is not reversed in subsequent periods.
On disposal of the relevant cash-generating unit, the attributable amount of goodwill is included in the determination of the profit or loss on disposal.
1.5 Revenue Recognition
1.5.1 Rendering of services
Revenue primarily comprises fees charged for inpatient and outpatient hospital services. Services include charges for accommodation, theatre, medical professional services, equipment, radiology, laboratory and pharmaceutical goods used. Revenue is recorded and recognised during the period in which the hospital service is provided, based upon the estimated amounts due from patients and/or medical funding entities. Unbilled revenue Is recorded for the service where the patients are not discharged and invoice is not raised for the service.
The service revenues are presented net of related doctor fees and diagnostic charges in cases where the company is not the primary obligor and does not have the pricing latitude.
(i) Hospital Project Consultancy income is recognised as and when it becomes due, on percentage completion method, on achievement of milestones.
(ii) One time franchise fees/licence fees is recognised over the period of the agreement.
(iii) Other services fee is recognized on basis of the services rendered and as per the terms of the agreement.
1.5.2 Sale of Goods
Pharmacy Sales are recognised when the risk and reward of ownership is passed to the customer. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes or duties collected on behalf of the government. Revenue is reduced for rebates and loyalty points granted upon purchase and are stated net of returns and discounts wherever applicable.
1.5.3 Loyalty Points
Sales of goods that result in award credits for customers, under the Company’s loyalty points schemes are accounted for as multiple element revenue transactions and the fair value of the consideration received or receivable is allocated between the goods supplied and the award credits granted. The consideration allocated to the award credits is measured by reference to their fair value - the amount for which the award credits could be sold separately. Such consideration is not recognised as revenue at the time of the initial sale transaction - but is deferred and recognised as revenue when the award credits are redeemed and the Company’s obligations have been fulfilled.
1.5.4 Dividend and interest income
Dividend income from investments is recognised when the shareholder’s right to receive payment has been established (provided that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably).
Interest income from a financial asset is recognised when it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably. Interest income is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and at the effective interest rate applicable, which is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to that asset’s net carrying amount on initial recognition.
1.5.5 Rental income
The Company’s policy for recognition of revenue from operating leases is described below.
Leases are classified as finance leases whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee. All other leases are classified as operating leases.
1.6.1 The Company as lessor
Amounts due from lessees under finance leases are recognised as receivables at the amount of the Company’s net investment in the leases. Finance lease income is allocated to accounting periods so as to reflect a constant periodic rate of return on the Company’s net investment outstanding in respect of the leases.
Rental income from operating leases is generally recognised on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Where the rentals are structured solely to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the Company’s expected inflationary cost increases, such increases are recognised in the year in which such benefits accrue. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating and arranging an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognised on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
1.6.2 The Company as lessee
Rental expense from operating leases is generally recognised on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Where the rentals are structured solely to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor’s expected inflationary cost increases, such increases are recognised in the year in which such benefits accrue. Contingent rentals arising under operating leases are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.
In the event that lease incentives are received to enter into operating leases, such incentives are recognised as a liability. The aggregate benefit of incentives is recognised as a reduction of rental expense on a straight-line basis, except where another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which economic benefits from the leased asset are consumed.
1.7 Foreign currencies
Exchange differences on monetary items are recognised in profit or loss in the period in which they arise except for exchange differences on foreign currency borrowings relating to assets under construction for future productive use, which are included in the cost of those assets when they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs on those foreign currency borrowings.
1.8 Borrowings and Borrowing costs
Borrowings are recognised initially at fair value, net of transaction costs incurred. Borrowings are subsequently stated at amortised cost. Any difference between the proceeds (net of transaction costs) and the redemption value is recognised in the income statement over the period of the borrowings using the effective interest rate method. Borrowings are classified as current liabilities unless the Company has an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date.
Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, which are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale, are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use or sale.
Interest income earned on the temporary investment of specific borrowings pending their expenditure on qualifying assets is deducted from the borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation.
All other borrowing costs are recognised in the statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they are incurred.
1.9 Employee benefits
1.9.1 Retirement benefit costs and termination benefits
Payments to defined contribution retirement benefit plans are recognised as an expense when employees have rendered service entitling them to the contributions.
For retirement benefit plans, the cost of providing benefits is determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at the end of each annual reporting period. Remeasurement, comprising actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the changes to the asset ceiling (if applicable) and the return on plan assets (excluding net interest), is reflected immediately in the balance sheet with a charge or credit recognised in other comprehensive income in the period in which they occur. Remeasurement recognised in other comprehensive income is reflected immediately in retained earnings and is not reclassified to profit and loss. Past service cost is recognised in profit and loss in the period of a plan amendment. Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate at the beginning of the period to the net defined benefit liability or asset. Defined benefit costs are categorised as follows:
Service cost (including current service cost, past service cost, as well as gains and losses on curtailments and settlements); net interest expense or income; and remeasurement
The Company’s presents the first two components of defined benefit costs in the statement of Profit and Loss in the line item ‘Employee benefits expense’.
The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the balance sheet represents the actual deficit or surplus in the Company’s defined benefit plans. Any surplus resulting from this calculation is limited to the present value of any economic benefits available in the form of refunds from the plans or reductions in future contributions to the plans.
1.9.2 Short-term and other long-term employee benefits
A liability is recognised for benefits accruing to employees in respect of wages and salaries, annual leave and sick leave in the period the related service is rendered at the undiscounted amount of the benefits expected to be paid in exchange for that service.
Liabilities recognised in respect of short-term employee benefits are measured at the undiscounted amount of the benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the related service.
Income tax expense comprises current tax and the net change in the deferred tax asset or liability during the year.
1.10.1 Current Tax
The tax currently payable is based on taxable profit for the year. Taxable profit differs from ‘profit before tax’ as reported in the Statement of Profit and Loss because of items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and items that are never taxable or deductible. The Company’s current tax is calculated using tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period. Advance taxes and provisions for current income taxes are presented in the Balance Sheet after off-setting advance tax paid and income tax provision.
1.10.2 Deferred Tax
Deferred tax is recognised on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are generally recognised for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which those deductible temporary differences can be utilised. Such deferred tax assets and liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the taxable profit nor the accounting profit. In addition, deferred tax liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of goodwill. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset when they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority and the relevant entity intends to settle its current tax assets and liabilities on a net basis.
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.
Deferred tax liabilities and assets are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period in which the liability is settled or the asset realised, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.
The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and assets reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the end of the reporting period, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.
1.10.3 Current and Deferred Tax for the year
Current and Deferred Tax are recognised in profit or loss, except when they relate to items that are recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case, the current and deferred tax are also recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity respectively. Where current tax or deferred tax arises from the initial accounting for a business combination, the tax effect is included in the accounting for the business combination.
1.11 Property, Plant and Equipment
Land and buildings mainly comprise of hospitals and offices. Land and buildings held for use in the production or supply of goods or services, or for administrative purposes, are stated in the balance sheet at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. Freehold land is not depreciated.
Fixtures, and medical equipments are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. All repairs and maintenance costs are charged to the income statement during the financial period in which they are incurred.
Properties in the course of construction for production, supply or administrative purposes are carried at cost, less any recognised impairment loss. Cost includes professional fees and, for qualifying assets, borrowing costs capitalised in accordance with the Company’s accounting policy. Such properties are classified to the appropriate categories of property, plant and equipment when completed and ready for intended use. Depreciation of these assets, on the same basis as other property assets, commences when the assets are ready for their intended use.
Depreciation is recognised so as to write off the cost of assets (other than freehold land and properties under construction) less their residual values over their useful lives, using the straight-line method.
The estimated useful lives, residual values and depreciation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate accounted for on a prospective basis
Assets held under finance leases are depreciated over their expected useful lives on the same basis as owned assets. However, when there is no reasonable certainty that ownership will be obtained by the end of the lease term, assets are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and their useful lives.
An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of the asset. Any gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an item of property, plant and equipment is determined as the difference between the sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognised in profit or loss.
For transition to Ind AS, the company has elected to adopt fair value of the buildings, plant and equipment and furnitures recognised as of April 1, 2015 as the deemed cost as of the transition date. The carrying value of the other assets as per previous GAAP is considered as the deemed cost. Accordingly, certain pre-operative costs have been charged off upon transition.
1.12 Intangible Assets
1.12.1 Intangible Assets acquired separately
Intangible assets with finite useful lives that are acquired separately are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Amortisation is recognised on a straight-line basis overtheir estimated useful lives. The estimated useful life and amortisation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate being accounted for on a prospective basis. Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives that are acquired separately are carried at cost less accumulated impairment losses.
1.12.2 Intangible Assets acquired in a business combination
Intangible assets acquired in a business combination and recognised separately from goodwill are initially recognised at their fair value at the acquisition date (which is regarded as their cost).
Subsequent to initial recognition, intangible assets acquired in a business combination are reported at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses, on the same basis as intangible assets that are acquired separately.
1.12.3 Derecognition of Intangible Assets
An intangible asset is derecognised on disposal, or when no future economic benefits are expected from use or disposal. Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset, measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset, are recognised in profit or loss when the asset is derecognised.
1.12.4 Useful lives of Intangible Assets
Estimated useful lives of the Intangible Assets are as follows:
1.13 Deemed cost on transition to Ind AS
For transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its intangible assets recognised as of April 1, 2015 (transition date) measured as per the previous GAAP and use that carrying value as its deemed cost as of the transition date.
1.14 Impairment of Tangible and Intangible Assets other than Goodwill
At the end of each reporting period, the Company reviews the carrying amounts of its tangible and intangible assets to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss (if any).
Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted.
If the recoverable amount of an asset (or cash-generating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset (or cash-generating unit) is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognised immediately in Statement of Profit and Loss.
When an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset (or a cash-generating unit) is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, but so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset (or cash-generating unit) in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognised immediately in Statement of Profit and Loss.
Borrowing Cost that are directly attributable to the construction, acquisition or production of a qualifying asset are capitalised as part of the cost of the asset. Other borrowing cost are recognised as an expense in the period in which it incurs.
The inventories of all medicines, medicare items traded and dealt with by the Company are valued at cost. In the absence of any further estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale, the net realisable value is not applicable. Cost of these inventories comprises of all costs of purchase and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location after adjusting for VAT wherever applicable, applying the FIFO method.
Stock of provisions, stores (including lab materials and other consumables), stationeries and housekeeping items are stated at cost. The net realisable value is not applicable in the absence of any further modification/alteration before being consumed in-house only. Cost of these inventories comprises of all costs of purchase and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location, after adjusting for VAT wherever applicable applying FIFO method.
Linen, crockery and cutlery are valued at cost and are subject to 1/3 write off wherever applicable applying FIFO method. The net realisable value is not applicable in the absence of any further modification/alteration before being consumed in-house. Cost of these inventories comprises of all costs of purchase and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location.
Imported inventories are accounted for at the applicable exchange rates prevailing on the date of transaction.
Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that the Company will be required to settle the obligation, and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.
The amount recognised as a provision is the best estimate of the consideration required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period, taking into account the risks and uncertainties surrounding the obligation. When a provision is measured using the cash flows estimated to settle the present obligation, its carrying amount is the present value of those cash flows (when the effect of the time value of money is material).
When some or all of the economic benefits required to settle a provision are expected to be recovered from a third party, a receivable is recognised as an asset if it is virtually certain that reimbursement will be received and the amount of the receivable can be measured reliably.
1.17 Earnings Per Share
Basic Earnings Per Share are computed by dividing profit or loss attributable to equity shareholders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. The Company did not have any potentially dilutive secuirities in any of the years presented.
1.18 Other Provisions
Other provisions which are not covered by insurance and other costs for legal claims are recognised based on legal opinions and management judgment.
1.19 Financial Instruments
Financial Assets and financial liabilities are recognised when a Company entity becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instruments.
Financial assets and financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value of the financial assets or financial liabilities, as appropriate, on initial recognition. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are recognised immediately in Profit and Loss.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid financial instruments which are readily convertible into known amounts of cash that are subject to an insignificant risk of change in value and having original maturities of three months or less from the date of purchase, to be cash equivalents. Cash and Cash Equivalents consist of balances with banks which are unrestricted for withdrawal and usage.
Financial Assets at amortised cost
Financials Assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost if these financial assets are held within a business whose objective is to hold these assets to collect contractual cash flows and the contractual terms of the financial assets given rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
Financial Assets at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)
Financial assets are measured at fair value through Statement of Profit and Loss unless it is measured at amortised cost or at fair value through other comprehensive income on initial recognition. The transaction cost directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets and liabilities at fair value are immediately recognised in the Statement of profit and loss.
Financial Liabilities are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method
An equity instrument is a contract that evidences residual interest in the assets of the company after deducting all of its liabilities, Equity instruments recognised by the Company are recognised at the proceeds received net off direct issue cost.
1.19.1 Effective Interest Method
The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a debt instrument and of allocating interest income over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts (including all fees and points paid or received that form an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and other premiums or discounts) through the expected life of the debt instrument, or, where appropriate, a shorter period, to the net carrying amount on initial recognition.
Income is recognised on an effective interest basis for debt instruments other than those financial assets classified as Financial Assets at fair value through profit or loss. Interest income is recognised in profit or loss and is included in the “Other income” line item.
1.19.2 Impairment of Financial Assets
The Company applies the expected credit loss model for recognising impairment loss on financial assets measured at amortised cost, lease receivables, trade receivables, other contractual rights to receive cash or other financial asset, and financial guarantees not designated as FVTPL.
Expected credit losses are the weighted average of credit losses with the respective risks of default occurring as the weights. Credit loss is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the Company expects to receive (i.e. all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original effective interest rate (or credit-adjusted effective interest rate for purchased or originated credit-impaired financial assets). The Company estimates cash flows by considering all contractual terms of the financial instrument (for example, prepayment, extension, call and similar options) through the expected life of that financial instrument.
1.19.3 Derecognition of financial assets
The Company derecognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire, or when it transfers the financial asset and substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the asset to another party. If the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership and continues to control the transferred asset, the Company recognises its retained interest in the asset and an associated liability for amounts it may have to pay. If the Company retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of a transferred financial asset, the Company continues to recognise the financial asset and also recognises a collateralised borrowing for the proceeds received.
On derecognition of a financial asset in its entirety, the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the sum of the consideration received and receivable and the cumulative gain or loss that had been recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity is recognised in profit or loss if such gain or loss would have otherwise been recognised in profit or loss on disposal of that financial asset.
1.19.4 Derecognition of Financial Liabilities
The Company derecognises financial liabilities when, and only when, the Company’s obligations are discharged, cancelled or have expired. An exchange between with a lender of debt instruments with substantially different terms is accounted for as an extinguishment of the original financial liability and the recognition of a new financial liability. Similarly, a substantial modification of the terms of an existing financial liability is accounted for as an extinguishment of the original financial liability and the recognition of a new financial liability. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability derecognised and the consideration paid and payable is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
1.20 Foreign Exchange Gains and Losses
The fair value of financial assets and financial liabilities denominated in a foreign currency is determined in that foreign currency and translated at the spot rate at the end of each reporting period.
1.21 Financial Guarantee Contracts
A Financial Guarantee contract is a contract that requires the issuer to make specified payments to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because a specified debtor fails to make payments when due in accordance with the terms of a debt instrument.
1.22 Derivative Financial Instruments
The Company enters into a variety of derivative financial instruments to manage its exposure to interest rate and foreign exchange rate risks, including interest rate swaps and cross currency swaps.
Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value at the date the derivative contracts are entered into and are subsequently remeasured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.
1.23 The Company uses the management approach for reporting information about segments in annual financial statements. The management approach is based on the way the Chief Operating decision maker organizes segment within a Company for making operating decisions and assessing performance. Reportable segments are based on services, geography, legal structure, management structure and any other manner in which management disaggregates a Company. Based on the management approach model the Company has determined that its business model is comprised of Healthcare Services, Pharmacy and others.