1. Basis of Preparation of Financial Statements :
i. The financial statements have been prepared to comply in all material respects with the Accounting Standards notified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013, read together with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014.
ii. Financial statements are based on historical cost and are prepared on accrual basis.
iii. Accounting policies have been consistently applied by the Company and are consistent with those used in the previous year.
iv. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities as at the date of financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period. Although these estimates are based upon management''''s best knowledge of current events and actions, actual result could differ from these estimates.
2. Significant Accounting Policies :
a. Fixed Assets :
i. Fixed Assets are stated at their original cost of acquisition / installation (net of Cenvat and VAT credit wherever applicable), net of accumulated depreciation, amortisation and impairment losses, except freehold non mining land which is carried at cost less impairment losses. Subsequent expenditures related to an item of fixed assets are added to its gross book value only if it increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance.
ii. Machinery spares which can be used only in connection with a particular item of fixed asset and the use of which is irregular, are capitalised at cost net of Cenvat and VAT credit, wherever applicable.
iii. Fixed assets not ready for the intended use on the date of balance sheet are disclosed as "Capital work-in-progress". Advances given towards acquisition/construction of fixed assets outstanding at each Balance sheet date are disclosed as Capital advances under "Long-term loans and advances". Expenditure during construction period (including financing cost relating to borrowed funds for construction or acquisition of qualifying fixed assets) incurred on projects under implementation are treated as Pre-operative expenses, pending allocation to the assets, and are included under "Capital work-in-progress". These expenses are apportioned to fixed assets on commencement of commercial production.
iv. Fixed Assets retired from active use and held for disposal are stated at the lower of their net book value and net realisable value and are disclosed separately under "other current assets".
v. Losses arising from the retirement of, and gains and losses arising from disposal of fixed assets which are carried at cost are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
b. Depreciation and amortisation :
i. Tangible Assets :
a. Leasehold land including premium is amortised over the period of lease on a straight line basis. Cost of mineral reserve embedded in the cost of freehold mining land is depreciated in proportion of actual quantity of minerals extracted to the estimated quantity of extractable mineral reserves.
b. Depreciation is provided as per the useful life prescribed in Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013, for Captive Power Plant related assets (consisting of Buildings and Plant & Machinery) based on "Written Down Value Method" and for other assets based on "Straight Line Method". The Company identifies and determines cost of each component/ part of the asset separately, if the component/ part has a cost which is significant to the total cost of the asset and has useful life that is materially different from that of the remaining asset. Estimated useful lives of assets are determined based on technical parameters/ assessment.
I. Depreciation on additions to fixed assets is provided on a pro-rata basis from the date of acquisition or installation, and in the case of a new project, from the date of commencement of commercial production.
II. Depreciation on assets sold, discarded, demolished or scrapped, is provided up to the date on which the said asset is sold, discarded, demolished or scrapped.
III. In respect of an asset for which impairment loss is recognised, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the assets over its remaining useful life.
c. Machinery spares, which are capitalised, are depreciated over the useful life of the related fixed asset. The written down value of such spares is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss, on issue for consumption.
d. Fixed assets, constructed by the Company, but ownership of which vests with the Government / Local Authorities :
I. Expenditure on Power lines is depreciated over the period as permitted in the Electricity Supply Act, 1948 / 2003, as applicable.
II. Expenditure on Marine structures is depreciated over the period of the agreement.
ii. Intangible Assets :
a. Expenditure to acquire Water drawing rights from Government / Local Authorities / other parties is amortised on straight line method over the period of rights to use the facilities ranging from ten to thirty years.
b. Expenditure on Computer software is amortised on straight line method over the period of expected benefit not exceeding five years.
c. Other intangible assets are amortised over their estimated useful economic life.
d. Gains or losses from derecognition of intangible assets are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the asset is derecognised.
e. Goodwill arising on amalgamation as referred to in note 47 is amortised on straight line method over a period of three years.
c. Impairment of Assets :
The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal / external factors. An impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is greater of the asset''''s net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and risks specific to the asset. A previously recognised impairment loss is increased or reversed depending on the changes in circumstances. However, the carrying value after reversal is not increased beyond the carrying value that would have prevailed by charging usual depreciation / amortisation if there was no impairment.
d. Investments :
i. Investments that are intended to be held for more than a year, from the date of acquisition, are classified as long-term investments and are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value of investments is made to recognise a decline, other than temporary, in the value of the investments.
Investments other than long-term investments being current investments are valued at cost or fair value whichever is lower, determined on an individual basis.
ii. On disposal of an investment, the difference between the carrying amount and the net disposal proceeds is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
iii. Investments, which are readily realisable and intended to be held for not more than one year from balance sheet date, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as noncurrent investments. However, that part of long term investments which are expected to be realized within twelve months from the Balance Sheet date is presented under "Current Investments" in consonance with the current / non-current classification under Schedule III of the Companies Act, 2013.
e. Inventories :
Inventories are valued as follows:
i. Raw materials, stores & spare, fuel and packing material :
Lower of cost less provision for slow and non-moving inventory, if any, and net realisable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost is determined on a moving weighted average basis.
ii. Work-in-progress, finished goods, stock in trade and trial run inventories :
Lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost includes direct materials and labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Cost of finished goods includes excise duty. Cost of stock-in-trade includes cost of purchase and other cost incurred in bringing the inventories to the present location and condition. Cost is determined on a monthly moving weighted average basis.
Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
f. Provisions and Contingent Liabilities :
i. A provision is recognised for a present obligation as a result of past events if it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation and in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate of the amount required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These estimates are reviewed at each Balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimate.
ii. A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from the past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognised because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognised because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognise a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.
g. Foreign Currency Conversion :
Foreign currency transactions are recorded at the rates of exchange prevailing on the date of transaction. Foreign currency monetary items are reported using the closing rate. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.
Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on reporting Company''''s monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognised as income or expenses in the year in which they arise.
Investment in equity capital of Companies registered outside India are carried in the Balance Sheet at the rates at which transactions have been executed.
h. Revenue Recognition :
Revenue is recognised to the extent it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured
i. Revenue is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer. Accordingly, domestic sales are accounted on dispatch of products to customers and export sales are accounted on the basis of date of Bill of Lading. Sales are disclosed net of sales tax / value added tax, discounts and sales returns, as applicable. Sales exclude self-consumption of cement. Excise duties deducted from sale of products (gross) are the amounts that are included in the amount of sale of products (gross) and not the entire amount of liability that arose during the year.
ii. Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable. Dividend income is recognised when right to receive is established by the Balance Sheet date.
i. Mines Reclamation Expenses :
The Company provides for the expenses to reclaim the quarries used for mining. The total estimate of reclamation expenses is apportioned over the estimate of mineral reserves and a provision is made based on the minerals extracted during the year.
Mines reclamation expenses are incurred on an ongoing basis and until the closure of the mine. The actual expenses may vary based on the nature of reclamation and the estimate of reclamation expenditure. The total estimate of restoration provision is reviewed periodically, on the basis of technical estimates.
j. Retirement and Other Employee Benefits :
i. Defined Contribution Plan :
Employee benefits in the form of contribution to Superannuation Fund, Provident Fund managed by Government Authorities, Employees State Insurance Corporation and Labour Welfare Fund are considered as defined contribution plan and the same is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss for the year in which the employee renders the related services.
ii. Defined Benefit Plan :
Retirement benefits in the form of gratuity, post-retirement medical benefit and death & disability benefit are considered as defined benefit obligations and are provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation, using the projected unit credit method, as at the date of the balance sheet. Actuarial gains / losses, if any, are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which they arise.
Employee Benefit, in the form of contribution to Provident Fund managed by a Trust set up by the Company is charged to Statement of Profit and Loss for the year in which the employee renders the related service. The deficit, if any, in the accumulated corpus of the trust is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss based on actuarial valuation.
iii. Short term employee benefits :
I. Short term employee benefits are recognised as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the Statement of Profit and Loss of the Year in which the related service is rendered.
II. Accumulated compensated absences, which are expected to be availed or encased within 12 months from the end of the year are treated as short term employee benefits. The Company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.
iv. Other long-term benefits :
Compensated absences are provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation, using the projected unit credit method, as at the date of the balance sheet. Actuarial gains / losses, if any, are immediately recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
v. Termination benefits :
Expenses incurred towards voluntary retirement scheme are charged to Statement of Profit and Loss as and when they accrue.
vi. Presentation and disclosure :
For the purpose of presentation of Defined benefit plans and other long term benefits, the allocation between the short term and long term provisions has been made as determined by an actuary. The Company presents the entire compensated absences as short term provisions, since employee has an unconditional right to avail the leave at any time during the year.
k. Employee Stock Compensation Cost :
The Company measures compensation cost relating to employee stock option using the fair value method. Discount on Equity Shares as compensation expenses under the Employee Stock Option Scheme, is amortised in accordance with Employee Stock Option Scheme and Employee Stock Purchase Scheme Guidelines, 1999 issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India and the Guidance Note on Accounting for Employee Share-based payments, issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India.
l. Borrowing Costs and Share Issue Expenses :
i. Borrowing cost attributable to acquisition and construction of assets that necessarily takes substantial period of time are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets up to the date when such assets are ready for intended use.
ii. Expenses on issue of Shares, Debentures and Bonds as well as Premium on Redemption of Debentures are adjusted to Securities Premium Account in accordance with the Companies Act, 2013.
iii. Borrowing cost such as discount or premium and ancillary costs in connection with arrangement of borrowings are amortised over the period of borrowings.
iv. Other borrowing costs are charged as expense in the year in which these are incurred. m. Taxation :
Tax expense comprises of current income and deferred income tax and includes any adjustments related to past periods in current and / or deferred tax adjustments that may become necessary due to certain developments or reviews during the relevant period. Current income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income Tax Act, 1961.
Deferred income taxes reflect the impact of current year''''s timing differences between taxable income and accounting income for the year and reversal of timing differences of earlier years.
Deferred tax is measured based on the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the Balance Sheet date. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that there is reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer reasonably certain that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which deferred tax asset can be realised. Any such write down is reversed to the extent that it becomes reasonably certain that sufficient future taxable income will be available.
Current tax assets and current tax liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to set off the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle the asset and the liability on a net basis.
Minimum alternate tax (MAT) paid in a year is charged to Statement of Profit and Loss as current tax. The Company recognises MAT credit available as an asset only to the extent that there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period i.e. the period for which MAT credit is allowed to be carried forward. In the year in which the Company recognises MAT credit as an asset in accordance with the Guidance note on Accounting for Credit available in respect of Minimum Alternate Tax under the Income tax Act, 1961, the said asset is created by way of credit to the Statement of Profit and Loss and shown as "MAT Credit Entitlement" under the head loans and advances. The Company reviews the "MAT Credit Entitlement" asset at each reporting date and writes down the asset to the extent the Company does not have convincing evidence that it will pay normal tax during the specified period.
n. Leases :
Where the Company is the lessee:
Leases where the less or effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Where the Company is the less or :
i. Assets given under finance lease are recognised as a receivable at an amount equal to the net investment in the lease. Lease rentals are apportioned between principal and interest on the internal rate of return method. The principal amount received reduces the net investment in the lease and interest is recognised as revenue. Initial direct costs such as legal costs, brokerage costs etc. are recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
ii. Assets subject to operating leases are included in fixed assets. Lease income is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Costs, including depreciation, are recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Initial direct costs such as legal costs, brokerage costs, etc. are recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
o. Segment Reporting Policies :
Primary Segment is identified based on the nature of products and services, the different risks and returns and the internal business reporting system. Secondary segment is identified based on geography in which major operating divisions of the Company operates.
p. Cash and Bank Balances :
Cash and Cash equivalents for the purpose of cash flow statement comprise cash in hand, cash at bank, demand deposits with banks and other short-term highly liquid investments / deposits with an original maturity of three months or less.
q. Government Grants and Subsidies :
i. Grants and subsidies from the Government are recognised when there is reasonable certainty that the grant / subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with.
ii. Where the government grants / subsidies relates to revenue, it is recognised as income on a systematic basis in the Statement of Profit and Loss over the periods necessary to match them with the related costs, which they are intended to compensate. Government grants and subsidies receivable against an expense are deducted from such expense.
iii. Where the grant or subsidy relates to an asset, its value is deducted from the gross value of the asset concerned in arriving at the carrying amount of the related asset.
iv. Government grants in the nature of Promoters'''' contribution are credited to capital reserve and treated as a part of Shareholders'''' Funds.
r. Earnings Per Share :
Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period.
For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.
s. Classification of Current/Non-Current Assets and Liabilities:
All assets and liabilities are presented as Current or Non-Current as per the Company''''s normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in Schedule III of the Companies Act, 2013. Based on the nature of products and the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realization, the Company has ascertained its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of Current / Non current classification of assets and liabilities.