1 Corporate information
Adani Power Limited ("the Company") is a public company domiciled in India and incorporated under the provisions of
the Companies Act, 1956 having its registered office at “Shikhar”, Near Adani House, Mithakhali Six Roads, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad - 380 009, Gujarat, India. The Company, together with its subsidiaries currently has five power projects with a combined installed and commissioned capacity of 10480 MW. The Company sells power generated from these projects under a combination of long term Power Purchase Agreements and on merchant basis.
As at 31st March, 2017, S. B. Adani Family Trust (“SBAFT”) together with entities controlled by it has ability to control the Company. The Company gets synergetic benefit of the integrated value chain of Adani group.
2 Significant accounting policies
2.1 Basis of preparation
The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in compliance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015, on the historical cost basis except for certain
financial instruments that are measured at fair values, as explained in the accounting policies below.
These Financial Statements are the Company''''s first Ind AS Financial Statements as covered by Ind AS 101, First-time adoption of Indian Accounting Standards''''. For all periods up to and including the year ended 31st March, 2016, the Company had prepared its Financial Statements in accordance with Indian GAAP, including Accounting Standards (AS) notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 (as amended), which is considered as "Previous GAAP’. A description of the transition to Ind-AS and its impact on Company''''s net profit and equity has been provided in Note 4 “First Time Adoption of Ind-AS”.
2.2 Summary of significant accounting policies a Property, plant and equipment
Land and building held for use in the production or for administrative purposes, are stated in the balance sheet at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. Free hold land is not depreciated.
Property, plant and equipment are stated at original cost grossed up with the amount of tax / duty benefits availed, less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Properties in the course of construction are carried at cost, less any recognized impairment losses. All costs, including borrowing costs incurred up to the date the asset is ready for its intended use, is capitalized along with respective asset.
Fixtures equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.
Depreciation is recognized based on the cost of assets (other than freehold land and properties under construction) less their residual values over their useful lives, using the straight-line method. The useful life of property, plant and equipment is considered based on life prescribed in schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 except in case of power plant assets, in whose case the life has been estimated at 25 years based on technical assessment, taking into account the nature of assets, the estimated usage of the assets, the operating condition of the assets, anticipated technical changes, manufacturer warranties and maintenance support. The estimated useful lives, residual values and depreciation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate accounted for on a prospective basis.
An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of the asset. Any gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an item of property, plant and equipment is determined as the difference between the sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognized in profit and loss.
For transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its property, plant and equipment recognized as of 1st April, 2015 (transition date) measured as per the previous GAAP and use that carrying value as its deemed cost as of the transition date.
b Intangible assets
Intangible assets with finite useful lives that are acquired separately are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and any accumulated impairment losses. Amortisation is recognized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. An intangible asset is derecognized on disposal, or when no future economic benefits are expected from
use or disposal. Estimated useful life of the Computer Software is 5 years.
For transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its intangible assets recognized as of 1st April, 2015 (transition date) measured as per the previous GAAP and use that carrying value as its deemed cost as of the transition date.
c Financial Instruments
Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognized when an entity becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instruments.
Financial assets and financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value of the financial assets or financial liabilities, as appropriate, on initial recognition. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are recognized immediately in profit or loss.
d Financial assets
Initial recognition and measurement
All regular way purchases or sales of financial assets are recognized and derecognized on a trade date basis.
All recognized financial assets are subsequently measured in their entirety at either amortized cost or fair value,
depending on the classification of the financial assets.
Classification of financial assets
Financial assets that meet the following conditions are subsequently measured at amortized cost (except for debt
instruments that are designated as at fair value through profit or loss on initial recognition):
- the asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets in order to collect contractual cash flows; and
- the contractual terms of the instrument give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest.
For the impairment policy on financial assets measured at amortized cost, refer Note t(ii).
All other financial asset are subsequently measured at fair value.
Effective interest method
The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortized cost of a financial assets and of allocating interest income over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts (including all fees and transaction costs and other premiums or discounts) through the expected life of the financial assets, or where appropriate, a shorter period, to the net carrying amount on initial recognition.
Interest is recognized on an effective interest basis for debt instruments other than those financial assets classified as at Fair Value through Profit and Loss (FVTPL). Interest income is recognized in profit or loss and is included in the “Other income” line item.
Financial assets at cost
Investments in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures are accounted for at cost.
Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)
Financial assets that do not meet the amortized cost criteria or Fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI) criteria are measured at FVTPL
Financial assets at FVTPL are measured at fair value at the end of each reporting period, with any gains or losses arising on remeasurement recognized in profit or loss. The net gain or loss recognized in profit or loss incorporates any
dividend or interest earned on the financial asset and is included in the “Other income” line item.
Derecognition of financial assets
The Company derecognizes a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire, or when it transfers the financial asset and substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the asset to another party.
On derecognition of a financial asset in its entirety, the difference between the asset''''s carrying amount and the sum of the consideration received / receivable and the cumulative gain or loss that had been recognized in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity is recognized in profit or loss if such gain or loss would have otherwise been recognized in profit or loss on disposal of that financial asset.
Foreign exchange gains and losses
The fair value of financial assets denominated in a foreign currency is determined in that foreign currency and translated at the spot rate at the end of each reporting period.
For foreign currency denominated financial assets measured at amortized cost and FVTPL, the exchange differences are recognized in profit or loss.
e Financial liabilities and equity instruments Classification as debt or equity
Debt and equity instruments issued by the Company are classified as either financial liabilities or as equity in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangements and the definitions of a financial liability and an equity instrument.
An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments issued by the Company are recognized at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs.
All financial liabilities are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method or at FVTPL.
Financial liabilities at FVTPL
A financial liability may be designated as at FVTPL upon initial recognition if:
- such designation eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition inconsistency that would otherwise arise;
- the financial liability whose performance is evaluated on a fair value basis, in accordance with the Company''''s documented risk management;
Financial liabilities at FVTPL are stated at fair value, with any gains or losses arising on remeasurement recognized in profit or loss. The net gain or loss recognized in profit or loss incorporates any interest paid on the financial liability.
Fair values are determined in the manner described in note ''''k''''.
Financial liabilities at amortized cost
Financial liabilities that are not held-for-trading and are not designated as at FVTPL are measured at amortized cost at the end of subsequent accounting periods. The carrying amounts of financial liabilities that are subsequently measured at amortized cost are determined based on the effective interest method. Interest expense that is not capitalized as part of costs of an asset is included in the ''''Finance costs'''' line item.
The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortized cost of a financial liability and of allocating interest expense over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash payments (including all fees and points paid or received that form an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and other premiums or discounts) through the expected life of the financial liability, or (where appropriate) a shorter period, to the net carrying amount on initial recognition.
Trade and other payables are recognized at the transaction cost, which is its fair value, and subsequently measured at amortized cost.
Foreign exchange gains and losses
For financial liabilities that are denominated in a foreign currency and are measured at amortized cost at the end of each reporting period, the foreign exchange gains and losses are determined based on the amortized cost of the instruments and are recognized in ''''Other income''''.
The fair value of financial liabilities denominated in a foreign currency is determined in that foreign currency and translated at the spot rate at the end of the reporting period. For financial liabilities that are measured as at FVTPL, the foreign exchange component forms part of the fair value gains or losses and is recognized in profit or loss.
Derecognition of financial liabilities
The Company derecognizes financial liabilities when, and only when, the Company''''s obligations are discharged, cancelled or have expired. An exchange between with a lender of debt instruments with substantially different terms is accounted for as an extinguishment of the original financial liability and the recognition of a new financial liability. Similarly, a substantial modification of the terms of an existing financial liability is accounted for as an extinguishment of the original financial liability and the recognition of a new financial liability. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability derecognized and the consideration paid and payable is recognized in profit or loss.
f Derivative financial instruments
The Company enters into a variety of derivative financial instruments to manage its exposure to interest rate and foreign exchange rate risks, including foreign exchange forward contracts, interest rate swaps and cross currency swaps. Further details of derivatives financial instruments are disclosed in note 45.
Derivatives are initially recognized at fair value at the date the derivative contracts are entered into and are subsequently premeasured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period. The resulting gain or loss is recognized in profit or loss immediately
Derivatives embedded in non-derivative host contracts that are not financial assets within the scope of Ind AS 109 are treated as separate derivatives when their risks and characteristics are not closely related to those of the host contracts and the host contracts are not measured at FVTPL.
Inventories are stated at the lower of weighted average cost or net realizable value. Costs include all non-refundable duties and all charges incurred in bringing the goods to their present location and condition. Net realizable value represents the estimated selling price for inventories less all estimated costs of completion and costs necessary to make the sale.
h Business combinations
Acquisitions of business are accounted for using the acquisition method. The consideration transferred in a business combination is measured at fair value, which is calculated as the sum of the acquisition date fair values of the assets transferred and liabilities incurred by the Company to the former owners of the acquire and the equity interest issued by the Company in exchange of control of the acquire. Acquisition related costs are added to the cost of investment. Business combination involving entities or businesses under common control are accounted for using the pooling of interest method. Under pooling of interest method the assets and liabilities of the combining entities / business are reflected at their carrying value.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities and assets or liabilities related to employee benefits arrangements are recognized and measured in accordance with Ind AS 12 Income Taxes and Ind AS 19 Employee Benefits respectively.
i Operating Cycle
Based on the nature of products / activities of the Company and the normal time between acquisition of assets and their realization in cash or cash equivalents, the Company has determined its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of classification of its assets and liabilities as current and non - current.
j Foreign currencies
In preparing the financial statements of the Company, transactions in currencies other than the entity''''s functional currency are recognized at the rate of exchange prevailing on the date of the transactions. At the end of each reporting period, monetary items denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the rates prevailing at that date. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are not translated.
Exchange differences on monetary items are recognized in profit and loss in the period in which they arise except for, (i) exchange differences on foreign currency borrowings relating to assets under construction for future productive use, which are included in the cost of those assets when they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs on those foreign currency borrowings.
The Company has elected to continue the policy adopted for accounting for exchange differences arising from translation of long-term foreign currency monetary items (refer note 4(c)) outstanding and recognized in the financial statements for the period ending immediately before the beginning of the first Ind AS financial reporting period as per the previous GAAP
k Fair value measurement
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date, regardless of whether that price is directly observable or estimated using another valuation technique. In estimating the fair value of an asset or a liability, the Company takes into account the characteristics of the asset or liability at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the financial asset or settle the financial liability takes place either:
- In the principal market, or
- In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market
The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the Company. A fair value measurement of
a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant''''s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use. Fair value measurement and / or disclosure purposes in these financial statements is determined on such a basis, except for measurements that have some similarities to fair value but are not fair value, such as net realizable value in Ind AS 2 or value in use in Ind AS 36.
The Company- uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximizing the use of relevant observable inputs and minimizing the use of unobservable inputs.
All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorized within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:
- Level 1 — Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
- Level 2 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable
- Level 3 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable
At each reporting date, the Management analyses the movements in the values of assets and liabilities which are required to be premeasured or re-assessed as per the Company''''s - accounting policies.
For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the Company has determined classes of assets and liabilities on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy as explained above.
l Government grants
The Company recognizes government grants only when there is reasonable assurance that the conditions attached to them will be complied with, and the grants will be received. Where Government grants relates to assets, the cost of assets are presented at gross value and grant thereon is recognized as income in the statement of profit and loss over the useful life of the related assets in proportion in which depreciation is charged.
Grants related to income are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the same period as the related cost which they are intended to compensate are accounted for.
m Revenue recognition
Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes or duties collected on behalf of the government.
The specific recognition criteria described below must also be met before revenue is recognized.
i) Revenue from Power Supply
Revenue from Power Supply is recognized on the basis of sales to State Distribution Companies in terms of the Power Purchase Agreements (PPA) or on the basis of sales under merchant trading based on the contracted rates, as the case may be. Such Revenue is measured at the value of the consideration received or receivable, net of trade discounts if any.
ii) Interest income is recognized on time proportion basis.
Dividend income from investments is recognized when the shareholder''''s right to receive payment has been established provided that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably
iii) Delayed payment charges and interest on delayed payment for power supply are recognized on reasonable certainty to expect ultimate collection.
n Borrowing costs
Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, which are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale, are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use or sale. Interest income earned on the temporary investment of specific borrowings pending their expenditure on qualifying assets is deducted from the borrowing costs eligible for capitalization.
All other borrowing costs are recognized in profit or loss in the period in which they are incurred.
o Employee benefits
i) Defined benefit plans:
The Company has an obligation towards gratuity, a defined benefit retirement plan covering eligible employees through Group Gratuity Scheme of Life Insurance Corporation of India. The Company accounts for the liability for the gratuity benefits payable in future based on an independent actuarial valuation carried out using Projected Unit Credit Method considering discounting rate relevant to Government Securities at the Balance Sheet Date.
Defined benefit costs in the nature of current and past service cost and net interest expense or income are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which they occur. Actuarial gains and losses on remeasurement is reflected immediately in the balance sheet with a charge or credit recognized in other comprehensive income in the period in which they occur and is reflected immediately in retained earnings and not reclassified to profit or loss. Past service cost is recognized in profit or loss in the period of a plan amendment.
ii) Defined contribution plan:
Retirement Benefits in the form of Provident Fund and Family Pension Fund which are defined contribution schemes are charged to the Project Development Expenditure Account till the commencement of commercial production otherwise the same is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss for the period in which the contributions to the respective funds accrue.
iii) Compensated Absences:
Provision for Compensated Absences and its classifications between current and non-current liabilities are based on independent actuarial valuation. The actuarial valuation is done as per the projected unit credit method as at the reporting date.
iv) Short term employee benefits:
They are recognized at an undiscounted amount in the Statement of Profit and Loss for the year in which the related services are rendered.
Leases are classified as finance leases whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee. All other leases are classified as operating leases.
Rental income from operating leases is generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Where the rentals are structured solely to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the Company''''s expected inflationary cost increases, such increases are recognized in the year in which such benefits accrue.
Rental expense from operating leases is generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Where the rentals are structured solely to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the less or’s expected inflationary cost increases, such increases are recognized in the year in which such benefits accrue.
Tax on Income comprises current tax and deferred tax. These are recognized in statement of profit and loss except to the extent that it relates to a business combination, or items recognized directly in equity or in other comprehensive income.
Tax on income for the current period is determined on the basis on estimated taxable income and tax credits computed in accordance with the provisions of the relevant tax laws and based on the expected outcome of assessments / appeals. Current income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date. Management periodically evaluates positions taken in the tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulations are subject to interpretation and establishes provisions where appropriate.
Deferred tax is recognized for the future tax consequences of deductible temporary differences between the carrying values of assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases at the reporting date. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognized for all taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are recognized to the extent that it is probable that future taxable income will be available against which the deductible temporary differences can be utilized. Deferred tax relating to items recognized outside the statement of profit and loss is recognized outside the statement of profit and loss, either in other comprehensive income or directly in equity. The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.
Deferred tax liabilities and assets are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period in which the liability is settled or the asset realized, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the end of the reporting period.
Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities.
The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and assets reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the end of the reporting period, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.
r Earnings per share
Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit / (loss) after tax by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit / (loss) after tax as adjusted for the effects of dividend, interest and other charges relating to the dilutive potential equity shares by weighted average number of shares plus dilutive potential equity shares.
s Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets
Provisions are recognized when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. The amount recognized as a provision is the best estimate of the consideration required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period, taking into account the risks and uncertainties surrounding the obligation. If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognized as a finance cost.
When the Company expects some or all of a provision to be reimbursed, for example, under an insurance contract, the reimbursement is recognized as a separate asset, but only when the reimbursement is virtually certain. The expense relating to a provision is presented in the statement of profit and loss net of any reimbursement.
Contingent liabilities are not recognized but are disclosed in the notes.
Contingent assets are not recognized but are disclosed in the notes where an inflow of economic benefits is probable.
i) Impairment of tangible and intangible assets
At the end of each reporting period, the Company reviews the carrying amounts of its tangible and intangible assets to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss (if any). When it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of an individual asset, the
Company estimates the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs. When a reasonable and consistent basis of allocation can be identified, corporate assets are also allocated to individual cash-generating units, or otherwise they are allocated to the smallest group of cash-generating units for which a reasonable and consistent allocation basis can be identified.
Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted.
If the recoverable amount of an asset (or cash-generating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset (or cash-generating unit) is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognized immediately in the statement of profit or loss.
When an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset (or a cash-generating unit) is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, but so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset (or cash-generating unit) in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognized immediately in profit or loss.
ii) Impairment of Financial assets
The Company applies the expected credit loss model for recognizing impairment loss on financial assets measured at amortized cost, trade receivables and other contractual rights to receive cash or other financial asset.
Expected credit losses rate the weighted average of credit losses with the respective risks of default occurring as the weights. Credit loss is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the Company expects to receive (i.e. all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original effective interest rate. The Company estimates cash flows by considering all contractual terms of the financial instrument through the expected life of that financial instrument.
The Company measures the loss allowance for a financial instrument at an amount equal to the lifetime expected credit losses if the credit risk on that financial instrument has increased significantly since initial recognition. If the credit risk on a financial instruments has not increased significantly since initial recognition, the Company measures the loss allowance for that financial instrument at an amount equal to 12-month expected credit losses. 12-month expected credit losses are portion of the life time expected credit losses and represent the lifetime cash shortfalls that will result if default occurs within the 12 months after the reporting date and thus, are not cash shortfalls that will results if default occurs within the 12 months after the reporting date and this, are not cash shortfalls that are predicted over the next 12 months.
If the Company measured loss allowance for a financial instrument at lifetime expected credit loss model in the previous period, but determines at the end of a reporting period that the credit risk has not increased significantly since initial recognition due to improvement in credit quality as compared to the previous period, the Company again measures the loss allowance based on 12-month expected credit losses.
When making the assessment of whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, the Company uses the change in the risk of a default occurring over the expected life of the financial instrument instead of the change in the amount of expected credit losses. To make that assessment, the Company compares the risk of a default occurring on the financial instrument as at the reporting date with the risk of a default occurring on the financial instrument as at the date of initial recognition and considers reasonable recognition and considers reasonable and supportable information, that is available without undue cost or effort, that is indicative of significant increases in credit risk since initial recognition.
For trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are expedient as permitted under Ind AS 109. This expected credit loss allowance is computed based on a provision matrix which takes into account historical credit loss experience and adjusted for forward looking information.