a) Current versus non-current classification
The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current/ non-current classification. An asset is treated as current when it is:
- Expected to be realized or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle; or
- Held primarily for the purpose of trading; or
- Expected to be realized within twelve months after the reporting period; or
- Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period “
All other assets are classified as non-current.
A liability is current when:
- It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle; or
- It is held primarily for the purpose of trading; or
- It is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period; or
- There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period
The Company classifies all other liabilities as non-current.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities respectively.
The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash and cash equivalents. The Company has identified twelve months as its operating cycle.
b) Foreign currency transactions :
The Company’s financial statements are presented in INR, which is functional currency of the Company. The Company determines the functional currency and items included in the financial statements are measured using that functional currency. However, for practical reasons, the Company uses an average rate if the average approximates the actual rate at the date of transaction.
Transactions and balances
Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded by the Company at their respective functional currency spot rates at the date the transaction first qualifies for recognition.
Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the functional currency spot rates of exchange at the reporting date.
Exchange differences arising on settlement or translation of monetary items are recognized in profit or loss with the exception stated under Note No. 44.1(c), for which the treatment is as below :
i. Exchange differences arising on long-term foreign currency monetary items related to acquisition of a property, plant and equipment (including funds used for projects work in progress) recognised in the Indian GAAP financial statements for the period ending immediately before the beginning of the first Ind AS financial reporting period i.e. March 31, 2016 are capitalised / decapitalised to cost of Property, Plant and Equipment and depreciated over the remaining useful life of the asset.
ii. Exchange differences arising on other outstanding long term foreign currency monetary items recognised in the Indian GAAP financial statements for the period ending immediately before the beginning of the first Ind AS financial reporting period i.e. March 31, 2016 are accumulated in the “Foreign Currency Monetary Item Translation Difference Account” (FCMITDA) and amortized over the remaining life of the concerned monetary item.
Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the dates of the initial transactions.
c) Fair value measurement
The Company measures financial instruments, such as, derivatives at fair value at each balance sheet date.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:
- In the principal market for the asset or liability, or
- In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the Company,
The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant’s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use.
The Company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximizing the use of relevant observable inputs and minimizing the use of unobservable inputs.
All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorized within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:
- Level 1 — Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
- Level 2 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable
- Level 3 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable
For assets and liabilities that are recognized in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorization (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.
The Company’s Management determines the policies and procedures for both recurring fair value measurement, such as derivative financial instruments and unquoted financial assets measured at fair value and for non recurring fair value measurement, such as an assets under the scheme of business undertaking.
External valuers are involved for valuation of significant assets, such as business undertaking for transfer under the scheme and unquoted financial assets and financial liabilities, Involvement of external valuers is decided upon annually by the Management and in specific cases after discussion with and approval by the Company’s Audit Committee.
Selection criteria includes market knowledge, reputation, independence and whether professional standards are maintained. The Management decides, after discussions with the Company’s external valuers, which valuation techniques and inputs to use for each case.
At each reporting date, the Management analyses the movements in the values of assets and liabilities which are required to be remeasured or re-assessed as per the Company’s accounting policies. For this analysis, the Management verifies the major inputs applied in the latest valuation by agreeing the information in the valuation computation to contracts and other relevant documents.
The Management , in conjunction with the Company’s external valuers, also compares the change in the fair value of each asset and liability with relevant external sources to determine whether the change is reasonable.
For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the Company has determined classes of assets and liabilities on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy as explained above. This note summarises accounting policy for fair value. Other fair value related disclosures are given in the relevant notes.
- Disclosures for valuation methods, significant estimates and assumptions (refer note 33.2 and 2.3)
- Quantitative disclosures of fair value measurement hierarchy (refer note 33.2)
- Property, plant and equipment under Scheme of Business Undertaking (refer note 42 (a) and 2.3)
- Investment in unquoted equity shares (refer note 4)
- Financial instruments (including those carried at amortised cost) (refer note 33.1)
d) Revenue recognition
Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured, regardless of when the payment is being made. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes or duties collected on behalf of the government.
The specific recognition criteria described below must also be met before revenue is recognized.
Port Operation Services
Revenue from port operation services including cargo handling, storage and rail infrastructure are recognized on proportionate completion method basis based on services completed till reporting date. Revenue on take-or-pay charges are recognized for the quantity that is the difference between annual agreed tonnage and actual quantity of cargo handled. The amount recognized as a revenue is exclusive of service tax and education cess where applicable. Income in the nature of license fees / royalty is recognized as and when the right to receive such income is established as per terms and conditions of relevant service agreement
Income from long term leases
As a part of its business activity, the Company leases/ sub-leases land on long term basis to its customers. In some cases, the Company enters into cancellable lease / sub-lease transaction, while in other cases, it enters into non-cancellable lease / sub-lease transaction apart from other criteria to classify the transaction between the operating lease or finance lease. The Company recognizes the income based on the principles of leases as set out in Ind AS 17 “Leases” and accordingly in cases where the land lease / sub-lease transaction are cancellable in nature, the income in the nature of upfront premium received / receivable is recognized on operating lease basis i.e. on a straight line basis over the period of lease / sub-lease agreement / date of memorandum of understanding takes effect over lease period and annual lease rentals are recognized on an accrual basis.
In cases where land lease / sub-lease transaction are non-cancellable in nature, the income is recognized on finance lease basis i.e. at the inception of lease / sub-lease agreement / date of memorandum of understanding takes effect over lease period, the income recognized is equal to the present value of the minimum lease payment over the lease period (including non-refundable upfront premium) which is substantially equal to the fair value of land leased / subleased. In respect of land given on finance lease basis, the corresponding cost of the land and development costs incurred are expensed off in the statement of profit and loss.
Deferred Infrastructure Usage
Income from infrastructure usage fee collected upfront basis from the customers is recognized over the balance contractual period on straight line basis.
Development of Infrastructure Assets
In case the Company is involved in development and construction of infrastructure assets where the outcome of the project cannot be estimated reasonably, revenue is recognized when all significant risks and rewards of ownership in the infrastructure assets are transferred to the customer and all critical approvals necessary for transfer of the project are received / obtained.
Revenue from construction contracts is recognized on a percentage completion method, in proportion that the contract costs incurred for work performed up to the reporting date stand to the estimated total contract costs indicating the stage of completion of the project. Contract revenue earned in excess of billing has been reflected under the head “Other Current Assets” and billing in excess of contract revenue has been reflected under the head “Other Current Liabilities” in the balance sheet. Full provision is made for any loss in the year in which it is first foreseen and cost incurred towards future contract activity is classified as project work in progress.
Income from fixed price contract - Revenue from infrastructure development project / services under fixed price contract, where there is no uncertainty as to measurement or collectability of consideration is recognized based on milestones reached under the contract.
Income from SEIS/SFIS
Income from Services Exports from India Scheme (‘SEIS’) incentives under Government’s Foreign Trade Policy 201520 and Served from India Scheme (‘SFIS’) under Government’s Foreign Trade Policy 2009-14 on the port services income are classified as ‘Income from Port Operations’ and is recognised based on effective rate of incentive under the scheme, provided no significant uncertainty exists for the measurability, realisation and utilisation of the credit under the scheme. The receivables related to SEIS licenses are classified as ‘Other Non Financial Assets’.
For all debt instruments measured either at amortized cost or at fair value through other comprehensive income, interest income is recorded using the effective interest rate (EIR). EIR is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash payments or receipts over the expected life of the financial instrument or a shorter period, where appropriate, to the gross carrying amount of the financial asset or to the amortized cost of a financial liability. When calculating the effective interest rate, the Company estimates the expected cash flows by considering all the contractual terms of the financial instrument (for example, prepayment, extension, call and similar options) but does not consider the expected credit losses. Interest income is included in finance income in the statement of profit and loss.
Revenue is recognized when the Company’s right to receive the payment is established, which is generally when shareholders approve the dividend.
Rental income arising from operating leases on investment properties is accounted for on a straight-line basis over the lease terms and is included in revenue in the statement of profit or loss due to its operating nature.
e) Government Grants
Government grants are recognized where there is reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and all attached conditions will be complied with. When the grant relates to an expense item, it is recognized as income on a systematic basis over the periods that the related costs, for which it is intended to compensate, are expensed. When the grant relates to an asset, it is recognized as income in equal amounts over the expected useful life of the related asset.
Waterfront royalty on cargo under the concession agreement is paid at concessional rate in terms of rate prescribed by Gujarat Maritime Board (GMB) and notified in official gazette of Government of Gujarat, wherever applicable.
Tax expense comprises of current income tax and deferred tax.
Current income tax
Current income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities. Current income tax(including Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT)) is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income-Tax Act, 1961 enacted in India. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantially enacted, at the reporting date.
Current income tax relating to items recognized outside the statement of profit and loss is recognized outside the statement of profit and loss (either in other comprehensive income (OCI) or in equity). Current tax items are recognized in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity. Management periodically evaluates positions taken in the tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulations are subject to interpretation and establishes provisions where appropriate.
Deferred tax is provided using the liability approach on temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes at the reporting date.
Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable temporary differences, except when the deferred tax liability arises from the initial recognition of goodwill or an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss.
In respect of taxable temporary differences associated with investments In subsidiaries, associates and interests In jointly controlled entities, when the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences can be controlled and it is probable that the temporary differences will not reverse In the foreseeable future.
Deferred tax assets are recognized for all deductible temporary differences, the carry forward of unused tax credits and any unused tax losses. Deferred tax assets are recognized to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilized, except:
When the deferred tax asset relating to the deductible temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss.
In respect of deductible temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, associates and interests in jointly controlled entities, deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that it is probable that the temporary differences will reverse in the foreseeable future and taxable profit will be available against which the temporary differences can be utilised.
The Company is eligible and claiming tax deductions available under section 80IAB of the Income Tax Act, 1961 for a period of 10 years w.e.f FY 2007-08. In view of Company availing tax deduction under Section 80IAB of the Income Tax Act, 1961, deferred tax has been recognized in respect of temporary difference, which reverse after the tax holiday period in the year in which the temporary difference originate and no deferred tax (assets or liabilities) is recognized in respect of temporary difference which reverse during tax holiday period, to the extent such gross total income is subject to the deduction during the tax holiday period. For recognition of deferred tax, the temporary difference which originate first are considered to reverse first.
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient future taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be utilized. Unrecognized deferred tax assets are re-assessed at each reporting date and are recognized to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the year when the asset is realized or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.
Deferred tax relating to items recognized outside profit or loss is recognized outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity). Deferred tax items are recognized in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity.
The Company recognizes tax credits in the nature of Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) credit as an asset only to the extent that there is sufficient taxable temporary difference /convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period, i.e., the period for which tax credit is allowed to be carried forward. In the year in which the Company recognizes tax credits as an asset, the said asset is created by way of tax credit to the statement of profit and loss. The Company reviews the such tax credit asset at each reporting date and writes down the asset to the extent The Company does not have sufficient taxable temporary difference /convincing evidence that it will pay normal tax during the specified period. Deferred tax includes MAT tax credit.
g) Property, plant and equipment (PPE)
Under the previous GAAP (Indian GAAP), Fixed assets (including Capital work in progress) are stated at cost net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. The cost comprises the purchase price, borrowing costs if capitalization criteria are met directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. The Company has elected to regard previous GAAP carrying values of property as deemed cost at the date of transition to Ind AS.
Capital work in progress included in PPE is stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Such cost includes the cost of replacing part of the plant and equipment and borrowing costs for long-term construction projects if the recognition criteria are met. When significant parts of plant and equipment are required to be replaced at intervals, the Company depreciates them separately based on their specific useful lives. Likewise, when a major inspection is performed, its cost is recognized in the carrying amount of the plant and equipment as a replacement if the recognition criteria are satisfied. All other repair and maintenance costs are recognized in profit or loss as incurred.
The Company adjusts exchange differences arising on translation difference/settlement of long term foreign currency monetary items outstanding in the Indian GAAP financial statements for the period ending immediately before the beginning of the first Ind AS financial statements i.e. March 31, 2016 and pertaining to the acquisition of a depreciable asset to the cost of asset and depreciates the same over the remaining life of the asset. The depreciation on such foreign exchange difference is recognised from first day of the financial year.
Borrowing cost relating to acquisition / construction of fixed assets which take substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are also included to the extent they relate to the period till such assets are ready to be put to use.
Depreciation is calculated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets as prescribed under Part C of Schedule II of the Companies Act 2013 except for the assets mentioned below for which useful lives estimated by the management. The Identified component of fixed assets are depreciated over their useful lives and the remaining components are depreciated over the life of the principal assets. The management believes that these estimated useful lives are realistic and reflect fair approximation of the period over which the assets are likely to be used.
The Company has estimated the following useful life to provide depreciation on its certain fixed assets based on assessment made by expert and management estimate.
An item of property, plant and equipment covered under Concession agreement, sub-concession agreement and supplementary concession agreement, shall be transferred to and shall vest in Grantor (government authorities) at the end of respective concession agreement. In cases, where the Company is expected to receive consideration of residual value of property from grantor at the end of concession period, the residual value of contracted property is considered as the carrying value at the end of concession period based on depreciation rates as per management estimate/Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013 and in other cases it is NIL.
An item of property, plant and equipment and any significant part initially recognized is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Any gain or loss arising on derecognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset) is included in the income statement when the asset is derecognized.
The residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation of property, plant and equipment are reviewed at each financial year end and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.
h) Intangible assets
Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less any accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses. Internally generated intangibles are not capitalised and the related expenditure is reflected in profit or loss in the period in which the expenditure is incurred.
The useful lives of intangible assets are assessed as either finite or indefinite.
Intangible assets with finite lives are amortised over the useful economic life and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortisation period and the amortisation method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at least at the end of each reporting period. Changes in the expected useful life or the expected pattern of consumption of future economic benefits embodied in the asset are considered to modify the amortisation period or method, as appropriate, and are treated as changes in accounting estimates. The amortisation expense on intangible assets with finite lives is recognised in the statement of profit and loss unless such expenditure forms part of carrying value of another asset.
Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are not amortised, but are tested for impairment annually, either individually or at the cash-generating unit level. The assessment of indefinite life is reviewed annually to determine whether the indefinite life continues to be supportable. If not, the change in useful life from indefinite to finite is made on a prospective basis.
Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the statement of profit or loss when the asset is derecognised.
A summary of the policies applied to the Company’s intangible assets is as follows:
i) Borrowing costs
Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalised as part of the cost of the asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they occur except where expenses are adjusted to securities premium account in compliance with section 52 of the Companies Act, 2013. Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs that an entity incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing cost also includes exchange differences to the extent regarded as an adjustment to the borrowing costs.
The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfilment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.
For arrangements entered into prior to April 01, 2015, the Company has determined whether the arrangement contain lease on the basis of facts and circumstances existing on the date of transition.
Company as a lessee
A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Company is classified as a finance lease.
Finance leases are capitalised at the commencement of the lease at the inception date fair value of the leased property or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognised in finance costs in the statement of profit and loss, unless they are directly attributable to qualifying assets, in which case they are capitalized in accordance with the Company’s general policy on the borrowing costs . Contingent rentals are recognised as expenses in the periods in which they are incurred.
A leased asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term.
Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Company as a lessor
Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of an asset are classified as operating leases. Rental income from operating lease is recognised on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating and arranging an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognised over the lease term on the same basis as rental income. Contingent rents are recognised as revenue in the period in which they are earned.
Leases are classified as finance leases when substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership transfer from the Company to the lessee. Amounts due from lessees under finance leases are recorded as receivables at the Company’s net investment in the leases. Finance lease income is allocated to accounting periods so as to reflect a constant periodic rate of return on the net investment outstanding in respect of the lease.
Inventories are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value.
Stores and Spares: Valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost is determined on a moving weighted average basis. Cost of stores and spares lying in bonded warehouse includes custom duty payable.
Stores and Spares which do not meet the definition of property, plant and equipment are accounted as inventories. Costs incurred that relate to future contract activities are recognised as “Project Work in Progress”.
Project work in progress comprise specific contract costs and other directly attributable overheads including borrowing costs which can be allocated on specific contract cost is, valued at lower of cost and net realisable value.
Net Realizable Value in respect of store and spares is the estimated current procurement price in the ordinary course of the business.
l) Impairment of non-financial assets
The Company assesses, at each reporting date, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset’s recoverable amount. An asset’s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s or cash-generating unit’s (CGU) fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. Recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or group of assets. When the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount.
In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining fair value less costs of disposal, recent market transactions are taken into account. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used. These calculations are corroborated by valuation multiples, quoted share prices for publicly traded companies or other available fair value indicators.
The Company bases its impairment calculation on detailed budgets and forecast calculations, which are prepared separately for each of the Company’s CGUs to which the individual assets are allocated. These budgets and forecast calculations generally cover a period of five years. For longer periods, a long-term growth rate is calculated and applied to project future cash flows after the fifth year.
Impairment losses including impairment on inventories, are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.
For assets excluding goodwill, an assessment is made at each reporting date to determine whether there is an indication that previously recognised impairment losses no longer exist or have decreased. If such indication exists, the Company estimates the asset’s or CGU’s recoverable amount. A previously recognised impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset’s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognised. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognised in the statement of profit or loss unless the asset is carried at a revalued amount, in which case, the reversal is treated as a revaluation increase. Goodwill is tested for impairment annually as at every year end and when circumstances indicate that the carrying value may be impaired.
Impairment is determined for goodwill by assessing the recoverable amount of CGU to which the goodwill relates. When the recoverable amount of the CGU is less than its carrying amount, an impairment loss is recognised. Impairment losses relating to goodwill cannot be reversed in future periods.
Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are tested for impairment annually as at year end at the CGU level, as appropriate, and when circumstances indicate that the carrying value may be impaired.
m) Provisions General
Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. The expense relating to a provision is presented in the statement of profit and loss.
If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as a finance cost.
Operational Claim provisions
Provisions for operational claims are recognised when the service is provided to the customer. Further recognition is based on historical experience. The initial estimate of operational claim related cost is revised annually.
n) Retirement and other employee benefits
Retirement benefit in the form of provident fund is a defined contribution scheme. The Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable to the provident fund. The Company recognizes contribution payable to the provident fund scheme as an expense, when an employee renders the related service. If the contribution payable to the scheme for service received before the balance sheet date exceeds the contribution already paid, the deficit payable to the scheme is recognized as a liability after deducting the contribution already paid.
The Company operates a defined benefit gratuity plan in India, which requires contributions to be made to a separately administered fund. The cost of providing benefits under the defined benefit plan is determined using the projected unit credit method.
Re-measurements, comprising of actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the asset ceiling, excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability and the return on plan assets (excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability), are recognised immediately in the balance sheet with a corresponding debit or credit to retained earnings through OCI in the period in which they occur. Re-measurements are not reclassified to profit or loss in subsequent periods.
Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net defined benefit liability or asset. The Company recognises the following changes in the net defined benefit obligation as an expense in the statement of profit and loss:
- Service costs comprising current service costs, past-service costs, gains and losses on curtailments and non routine settlements; and
- Net interest expense or income
Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilised within the next twelve months, is treated as short term employee benefits. The Company measures the expected cost of such absence as the additional amount that is expected to pay as a result of the unused estimate that has accumulated at the reporting date. The Company treats accumulated leave expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months as long term compensated absences which are provided for based on actuarial valuation as at the end of the period. The actuarial valuation is done as per projected unit credit method. The Company presents the entire leave as a current liability in the balance sheet, since it does not have an unconditional right to defer it’s settlement for twelve month after the reporting date.
o) Financial instruments
A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.
Initial recognition and measurement
All financial assets are recognised initially at fair value plus in case of financial asset not recorded at fair value through profit and loss, transaction cost that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial assets.
For purposes of subsequent measurement, financial assets are classified in three categories:
- Debt instruments at amortised cost
- Debt instruments, derivative financial instruments and equity instruments at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)
- Equity instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)
Debt instruments at amortised cost
A ‘debt instrument’ is measured at the amortised cost if both the following conditions are met:
(a) The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and
(b) Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.
The category is most relevant to the Company. After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included in finance income in the profit or loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognised in the profit or loss except where the Company has given temporary waiver of interest not exceeding 12 months period. This category generally applies to trade, loans and other receivables.
Debt instrument at FVTPL
FVTPL is a residual category for debt instruments. Any debt instrument, which does not meet the criteria for categorization as at amortized cost or as FVTOCI, is classified as at FVTPL.
Debt instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the P&L.
All equity investments in scope of Ind AS 109 are measured at fair value. For all other equity instruments, the Company may make an irrevocable election to present in other comprehensive income subsequent changes in the fair value. The Company makes such election on an instrument-by-instrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable.
If the Company decides to classify an equity instrument as at FVTOCI, then all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognized in the OCI. There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to P&L, even on sale of investment. However, The Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity.
Equity instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the P&L.
The Company invests in a subordinated perpetual debt, redeemable at the issuer’s option, with a fixed coupon that can be deferred indefinitely if the issuer does not pay a dividend on its equity shares. The Company classifies these instrument as equity under Ind AS 32.
A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a group of similar financial assets) is primarily derecognised (i.e. removed from the Company’s balance sheet) when:
- The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or
- The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ‘pass-through’ arrangement; and either (a) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.
When the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into a pass-through arrangement, it evaluates if and to what extent it has retained the risks and rewards of ownership. When it has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the asset, nor transferred control of the asset, the Company continues to recognise the transferred asset to the extent of the Company’s continuing involvement. In that case, the Company also recognises an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained.
Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured at the lower of the original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration that the Company could be required to repay.
Impairment of financial assets
The Company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the following financial assets and credit risk exposure ;
a) Financial assets that are debt instruments, and are measured at amortised cost e.g. loans, debt securities, deposits, trade receivables and bank balances.
b) Financial assets that are debt instruments and are measured as at other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)
c) Lease receivables under Ind AS 17
d) Trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 11 and Ind AS 18
The Company follows ‘simplified approach’ for recognition of impairment loss allowance on:
- Trade receivables or contract revenue receivables; and
- All lease receivables resulting from transactions within the scope of Ind AS 17
Under the simplified approach the Company does not track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognises impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition.
For recognition of impairment loss on other financial assets and risk exposure, the Company determines that whether there has been a significant increase in the credit risk since initial recognition. If credit risk has not increased significantly, 12 month ECL is used to provide for impairment loss. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, lifetime ECL is used.
ECL is the difference between all contracted cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the Company expects to receive, discounted at the original EIR. ECL impairment loss allowance (or reversal) recognised during the period is recognised as income / (expense) in the statement of profit and loss (P&L). This amount is reflected under the head “ Other Expense” in the P&L.
The balance sheet presentation for various financial instruments is described below:
Financial assets measured as at amortised cost, contractual revenue receivables and lease receivables:
ECL is presented as an allowance, i.e., as an integral part of the measurement of those assets in the balance sheet. The allowance reduces the net carrying amount. Until the asset meets write-off criteria, the group does not reduce impairment allowance from the gross carrying amount.
For assessing increase in credit risk and impairment loss, the Company combines financial instruments on the basis of shared credit risk characteristics with the objective of facilitating an analysis that is designed to enable significant increases in credit risk to be identified on a timely basis.
Initial recognition and measurement
Financial liabilities are classified, at initial recognition, as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, loans and borrowings, payables, or as derivatives, as appropriate.
All financial liabilities are recognised initially at fair value and, in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs.
The Company’s financial liabilities include trade and other payables, loans and borrowings including bank overdrafts, financial guarantee contracts and derivative financial instruments.
The measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification, as described below:
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss. Financial liabilities are classified as held for trading if they are incurred for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term. This category also includes derivative financial instruments entered into by the Company that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as defined by Ind AS 109.
Gains or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognised in the profit or loss.
Financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition at fair value through profit or loss are designated as such at the initial date of recognition, and only if the criteria in Ind AS 109 are satisfied. For liabilities designated as FVTPL, fair value gains/ losses attributable to changes in own credit risk are recognized in OCI. These gains/ loss are not subsequently transferred to P&L. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity. All other changes in fair value of such liability are recognised in the statement of profit or loss. The Company has not designated any financial liability as at FVTPL.
Loans and borrowings
This is the category most relevant to the Company. After initial recognition, interest-bearing loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the EIR method. Gains and losses are recognised in profit or loss when the liabilities are derecognised as well as through the EIR amortisation process.
Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included as finance costs in the statement of profit and loss.
This category generally applies to borrowings.
Financial guarantee contracts
Financial guarantee contracts issued by the Company are those contracts that require a payment to be made to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because the specified debtor fails to make a payment when due in accordance with the terms of a debt instrument. Financial guarantee contracts are recognised initially as a liability at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL), adjusted for transaction costs that are directly attributable to the issuance of the guarantee. Subsequently, the liability is measured at the higher of the amount of loss allowance determined as per impairment requirements of Ind AS 109 and the amount recognised less cumulative amortisation.
A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognised in the statement of profit or loss.
Reclassification of financial assets
The Company determines classification of financial assets and liabilities on initial recognition. After initial recognition, no reclassification is made for financial assets which are equity instruments and financial liabilities. For financial assets which are debt instruments, a reclassification is made only if there is a change in the business model for managing those assets. Changes to the business model are expected to be infrequent. The Company’s senior management determines change in the business model as a result of external or internal changes which are significant to the Company’s operations. Such changes are evident to external parties. A change in the business model occurs when the Company either begins or ceases to perform an activity that is significant to its operations. If the Company reclassifies financial assets, it applies the reclassification prospectively from the reclassification date which is the first day of the immediately next reporting period following the change in business model. The Company does not restate any previously recognised gains, losses (including impairment gains or losses) or interest.
Offsetting of financial instruments
Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.
p) Derivative financial instruments
Initial recognition and subsequent measurement
The Company uses derivative financial instruments, such as forward currency contracts, cross currency swaps, options, interest rate futures and interest rate swaps to hedge its foreign currency risks and interest rate risks, respectively Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL) on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at fair value. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.
Any gains or losses arising from changes in the fair value of derivative financial instrument or on settlement of such derivative financial instruments are recognised in statement of profit and loss and are classified as Foreign Exchange (Gain) / Loss except those relating to borrowings, which are separately classified under Finance Cost.
q) Redeemable preference shares
Redeemable preference shares are separated into liability and equity components based on the terms of the contract. On issuance of the redeemable preference shares, the fair value of the liability component is determined using a market rate for an equivalent non-convertible instrument. This amount is classified as a financial liability measured at amortised cost (net of transaction costs) until it is extinguished on redemption.
Transaction costs are apportioned between the liability and equity components of the redeemable preference shares based on the allocation of proceeds to the liability and equity components when the instruments are initially recognised.
r) Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalent in the balance sheet comprise cash at banks and on hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.
For the purpose of the statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and short-term deposits, as defined above, net of outstanding bank overdrafts as they are considered an integral part of the Company’s cash management.
s) Cash dividend to equity holders of the company
The Company recognises a liability to make cash to equity holders of the parent when the distribution is authorised and the distribution is no longer at the discretion of the Company. As per the corporate laws in India, a distribution is authorised when it is approved by the shareholders. A corresponding amount is recognised directly in equity.
t) Earnings per share
Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the profit for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period, adjusted for scheme of demerger whereby new equity shares were issued and existing share cancelled during the previous year.
For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the profit the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.