1. Significant Accounting Policies Followed by The Company
Fiem Industries Limited (referred to as ''''The Company'''') is a public limited company domiciled in India and incorporated under the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956. The Company''''s registered office is at New Delhi and it has several manufacturing plants and depots across the country. Its shares are listed on National Stock Exchange and Bombay Stock Exchange in India. It has one wholly owned foreign subsidiary-Fiem Industries Japan Co., Limited located in Japan. The Company also has entered into a 50:50 Joint Venture with Horustech Lighting SRL Italy and incorporated a Joint Venture, namely ''''Centro Ricerche Fiem Horustech SRL'''' which has been set-up at Italy as a design centre. The Company has research and development facilities located at Rai, Sonepat, Haryana which has been approved by Department of Science & Industrial Research, Ministry of Science & Technology. The Company is in the business of manufacturing and supply of auto components comprising of automotive lighting & signalling equipments, rear-view mirror, prismatic mirror, plastic moulded parts and sheet metal components for motorized vehicles, and LED luminaries comprising of indoor and outdoor lighting, display panels and integrated passengers information system.
Significant Accounting Policies
The Accounting Policies have been consistently applied by the Company and are consistent with those applied in previous year. However the changes as required by a change or revision to an existing Accounting Standard are dealt in the appropriate paras in the notes forming part of the financial statements.
A. Basis of Preparation
The Financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (''''Indian GAAP) to comply with the Accounting Standards specified under Section 133 of Companies Act, 2013, read with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 and the relevant provisions of Companies Act, 2013, as applicable, other pronouncements of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, and guidelines issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India. The financial statements have been prepared as a going concern on accrual basis under the historical cost convention except for certain revalued fixed assets which has been stated at revalued amount.
B. Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements requires estimates and assumptions to be made that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities and disclosures relating to contingent liabilities as at the date of the financial statement and the reported amount of the income and expenses during the year. Difference between the actual result and estimates are recognized in the period in which the results are known/materialized. Example of such estimates includes provision for doubtful receivables, employee benefits, provision for warranty expenses, provision for income taxes, the useful life of depreciable fixed assets etc. The estimates are based upon management knowledge of current events and economic circumstances.
C. Current-Non Current Classification
All assets and liabilities are classified into current and non-current.
An asset is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:
(a) it is expected to be realized in, or is intended for sale or consumption in, the Company''''s normal operating cycle;
(b) it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;
(c) it is expected to be realized within 12 months after the reporting date; or;
(d) it is cash or cash equivalent unless it is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date
A liability is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:
(a) it is expected to be settled in the Company''''s normal operating cycle;
(b) it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;
(c) it is due to be settled within 12 months after the reporting date; or;
(d) the company does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date. Terms of a liability that could, at the option of the counterparty, result in its settlement by the issue of equity instruments do not affect its classification.
Based on the nature of products/activities of the Company and the normal time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash or cash equivalents, the Company has determined its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of current and noncurrent classification of assets and liabilities
D. Tangible and Intangible Fixed Assets
(i) Tangible fixed assets except for certain fixed assets, which have been stated at revalued amounts are valued at the historical cost of acquisition, construction or manufacturing cost, as the case may be, less accumulated depreciation and/or impairment loss, if any . Cost of an item of tangible fixed asset comprises its purchase price, import duties and other non-refundable taxes or levies and any directly attributable cost of bringing the assets to its working condition for its intended use. Any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price. Borrowing cost during the period of construction or installation of fixed assets which take substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use up to the date of commencement of commercial production is added to the cost of respective tangible assets. Profit or loss on disposal on tangible assets is recognized in the Statement of Profit & Loss .
(ii) Subsequent expenditures related to an item of tangible fixed asset are added to its book value only if they increase the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance.
(iii) Intangible assets are shown at the consideration paid for acquisition less accumulated amortization.
(iv) Own manufactured tangible assets are capitalized at cost including an appropriate proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacities.
(v) Capital work-in-progress comprises the cost of fixed assets that are not yet ready for their intended use at the balance sheet date & expenditure during construction period pending allocation and fixed assets in transit that are not yet received for their intended use at the balance sheet date.
(vi) Advances given towards acquisition of fixed assets outstanding at each balance sheet date are disclosed as Long Term Loans & Advances
(vii) In respect of accounting periods commencing on or after 7th December, 2006, exchange differences (favourable as well as unfavourable) arising in respect of translation/settlement of the long-term foreign currency borrowings attributable to the acquisition of a depreciable fixed assets are added to or deducted from the cost of the asset and are depreciated over the balance life of the fixed asset.
Investments that are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost or fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. Provision for diminution in the value of Investment is made only if such a decline is other than temporary in the opinion of management.
(i) Raw materials, components, stores and spares are valued at lower of cost or net realizable value. However, raw materials and other supplies held for use in the production of finished products are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. In determining the cost, First in First Out method (FIFO) is used.
(ii) Semi-finished goods and finished goods are valued lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost includes direct materials and direct labour and a proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal operating capacity. Finished stocks lying in the factory premises, branches, Depots are valued inclusive of excise duty.
(iii) Manufactured and bought out moulds, block & dies for sale are valued at lower of cost or net realizable value. Manufactured moulds, block & dies include direct material, direct labour and a proportion of manufacturing overhead based on normal operating capacity. Cost is determined on a First in First Out basis (FIFO).
(iv) Inventories of non-reusable waste say scrap for which facilities for reprocessing do not exist have been valued at net realizable value.
(iv) Cost of inventories comprises all cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.
(v) Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
(vi) Goods in transit are stated as a component of inventories if the significant risk and rewards of ownership have passed to the company and valued at actual cost incurred up to the date of Balance Sheet.
G. Depreciation and Amortization
(i) Depreciation on tangible fixed assets acquired on or after April 1, 2014 is charged to the Statement of Profit & Loss as per ''''Straight Line Method'''' in accordance with the useful life specified in Part "C" of Schedule II of the Companies Act 2013.
(ii) Depreciation on tangible fixed assets acquired prior to April 1, 2014, the carrying amount as on April 1, 2014 is charged to the Statement of Profit & Loss over the remaining useful life as specified in Part "C" of Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013.
(iii) Leasehold land is amortized over the primary period of lease
(iv) Depreciation on assets purchased during the year has been charged from the date of purchase.
(v) Depreciation on assets sold, discarded or demolished during the year is being provided at their rates up to the date of sale, discarded or demolished.
(vi) Intangible assets are amortized over their estimated useful life as follows.
(a) Computer software is amortized over a period of 3 years
(b) Trademark & Technical knowhow over a period of 5 years.
(vii) Depreciation is not charged on capital work in progress until construction and installation are complete and asset ready for its intended use.
(viii) From April 1, 2014, On the revalued assets, the difference between the depreciation calculated on the revalued amount & on the original cost is charged to the Statement of Profit & Loss as specified in Schedule II of the Companies Act 2013.
H. Revenue Recognition
(i) Revenue is recognized to the extent of the probability of the economic benefits flowing to the company, which can be reliably measured.
(ii) The sale of goods in the course of ordinary activities is recognized when all significant risk & rewards of ownership have transferred to the customer and no significant uncertainty exists regarding the amount of the consideration that will be derived from the sale of goods and regarding its collection. The amount recognized as sale is exclusive of sales tax/value added taxes (VAT) and is net of returns and discounts. Sales is shown net of excise duty. The excise duty on sales is disclosed separately. The excise duty related to difference between the closing stock and opening stock of finished goods is recognized separately as part of ''''variation in excise duty on finished goods'''' under the head ''''Other Expenses''''.
(iii) Service income is recognized (net of service tax, as applicable) as per the terms of contracts/arrangements when related services are performed.
(iv) Inter-unit/warehouse transfer has not been considered as part of "Turnover".
(v) Insurance claims lodged with insurance companies are accounted for on the basis of claim admitted/expected to be admitted and to the extent that there is no uncertainty in receiving the claims.
(vi) Dividend income is recognized when the right to receive the dividend is established at the Balance Sheet date.
(vii) Interest income is accounted on the time proportion basis.
I. Government Grants, Subsidies and Export Incentives
(i) Government grants and subsidies are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in accordance with related schemes and when there is reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with the conditions attached to them and the grants/subsidy will be received.
(ii) Duty drawback is recognized in the statement of profit and loss at the time of exports subject to the right to entitlement has been established.
J. Foreign Currency Transactions Initial Recognition
Transactions in foreign currencies entered into by the Company are accounted at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction or at rates that closely approximate the rate at the date of the transaction.
Measurement of Foreign Currency Monetary Items at the Balance Sheet date
(i) Foreign currency monetary items of the Company outstanding at the Balance Sheet date are restated at the year-end rates.
(ii) Foreign currency non monetary items are carried at cost.
Treatment of Exchange Differences
(i) Exchange differences arising on settlement / restatement of short-term foreign currency monetary assets and liabilities of the Company are recognized as income or expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
(ii) The exchange differences arising on restatement / settlement of long-term foreign currency monetary items are capitalized as part of the depreciable fixed assets to which the monetary item relates and depreciated over the remaining useful life of such assets. If such items do not relate to acquisition of depreciable fixed assets, the difference is accumulated as "Foreign currency monetary item translation difference account" and amortized over the balance period of such long term foreign currency monetary items but not beyond 31st March, 2020.''''
K. Research and Development
Research expenses are charged to Statement of Profit & Loss as and when incurred. Development expenses are capitalized when the Company is certain to recover the development cost from future economic benefits in accordance with AS-26. Fixed Assets utilized for research and development are capitalized and amortized in accordance with the policies stated for tangible and intangible fixed assets.
L. Employee Benefits
Short Term Employee Benefits:
All employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits and they are recognized in the period in which the employee renders the related service. These benefits include salaries and wages, bonus and ex-gratia. The Company recognizes the undiscounted amount of short term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for services rendered as a liability (accrued expense) after deducting any amount already paid.
Post Employment Benefits:
(i) Retirement Benefits in the form of Provident Fund and ESI schemes are a defined contribution plans and the contributions are charged to Statement of Profit & Loss of the year when the contributions to the respective funds are due.
(ii) Leave encashment is applicable to all permanent and full time employees of the company and is provided for on the basis of actuarial valuation made at the end of each financial year using Projected Unit Credit Method.
(iii) Gratuity is a defined benefit obligation and is provided on the basis of an actuarial valuation made at the end of each financial year using Projected Unit Credit Method. The Liability as at the year-end represents the difference between the actuarial valuation of the future gratuity liability of the continuing employees and the fair value of plan assets with Exide Life Insurance Company as at the end of the year.
(iv) Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss.
M. Pre-operative Expenditure Pending Allocation
Expenditure during the construction period of new units/substantial expansion has been debited to fixed assets (expenditure during the construction pending allocation has been debited to capital work in progress account) which are specifically attributable to construction of project or to the acquisition of a fixed assets or bringing it to its working condition and other expenditure during the construction period which are not specifically attributable to construction of projects or to the acquisition of a fixed assets or bringing to its working condition are recognized as an expenses when it is incurred.
N. Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets
A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event, and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which reliable estimate can be made. Provisions (excluding retirement benefits) are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Contingent liabilities are not recognized in the financial statements but disclosed in the Notes on financial statement. A contingent assets is neither recognized nor disclosed in the financial statements.
O. Provision for Taxation
(i) Provision for Current Tax is made for the current accounting period on the basis of the taxable profits computed accordance with the Income Tax Act, 1961.
(ii) Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) is paid in accordance to the tax laws, which gives rise to future economic benefits in the form of adjustment of future income tax liability. It is considered as an asset if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. Accordingly, MAT is recognized as an asset in the balance sheet when it is probable that the future economic benefit associated with it will flow to the Company and the assets can be measured reliably. The said asset is created by way of a credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as MAT Credit Entitlement. The Company reviews the same at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT Credit Entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that Company will pay normal Income Tax during the specified period.
(iii) Deferred Tax charge or credit are recognized on timing differences, being the difference between taxable incomes and accounting income that originate in one period and are capable of reversal in one or more subsequent period. Deferred Tax assets are recognized subject to the consideration of prudence. Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities are measured using the tax rates as per tax Laws that have been enacted or substantially enacted as on the Balance Sheet date.
(iv) Deferred Tax Assets are recognized only to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realized in future; however, where there is unabsorbed depreciation or carried forward loss under taxation law, deferred tax assets are recognized only if there is a virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. Deferred tax assets are reviewed as at each balance sheet date are written down or written-up to reflect the amount that is reasonably certain (as the case may be) to be realized.
(v) Provisions for current taxes are presented in the balance sheet after off-setting advance taxes paid.
P. Borrowing Cost
(i) Borrowing costs include interest, amortization of ancillary costs incurred and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost. The Company is applying Para 46-A of AS-11, and also following the clarification issued by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, Government of India through circular no. 25/2012 dated 09.08.12. Pursuant to this, exchange differences arising on reporting of Long Term Foreign Currency Monetary Items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the period or reported in previous financial statements, insofar as they relate to the acquisition of depreciable capital assets are added to or deducted from the cost of asset and are depreciated over the balance life of the asset. In other cases it is accumulated in a " Foreign Currency Monetary Item Translation Difference Account" and amortized over the balance period of the such long term asset/liability but not beyond 31st March 2020.
(ii) Borrowing costs in connection with the borrowing of funds to the extent not directly related to the acquisition of qualifying assets are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.
(iii) Borrowing costs, allocated to and utilized for qualifying assets, pertaining to the period from commencement of activities relating to construction / development of the qualifying asset up to the date of capitalization of such asset is added to the cost of the assets.
(iv) Capitalization of borrowing costs is suspended and charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss during extended periods when active development activity on the qualifying assets is interrupted.
Q. Excise Duty
The Excise duty has been accounted on finished goods on the basis of both payments made in respect of goods cleared as also goods lying in warehouse/factory. The company makes provision for liability of unpaid excise duty on finished stock lying in factory or warehouse. The estimate of such liability has been made at the rates in force on the balance sheet date. On stock meant for exports, no excise duty provision has been made since excise duty is not livable on goods meant for exports.
Consideration is given at each balance sheet date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment of the carrying amount of the Company''''s fixed assets. If any indication exists, an asset''''s recoverable amount is estimated, an impairment loss is recognized whenever the carrying amount of an assets exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and value in use. In assessing Value in use, the estimated future cash flows is discounted to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor.
S. Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of Cash Flow Statement comprises cash in hand, bank balances and demand deposits with banks and other short term highly liquid investments where the original maturity is three months or less.
T. Cash Flow Statement
Cash flow statement are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit / (loss) before extraordinary items and tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated based on the available information.
U. Derivatives Instruments and Hedge Accounting
The Company enters into derivatives contracts in the nature of foreign currency swaps, currency options, forward contracts etc. to hedge its exposure to movements in foreign exchange rates. The use of these contracts reduces the risk or cost to the Company and the Company does not use those for trading or speculative purposes.
With effect from 01.04.2016, the company has adopted the recommendations as laid down in the Guidance Note on '''' Accounting for Derivative Contracts'''' wherein all derivative contracts are recognized & measured at fair value. The Company uses cross currency interest rates swap derivative to hedge its interest rate liability. Therefore, as per Guidance Note foreign currency loans are fair valued as on balance sheet date and corresponding derivative liability/assets is recognized separately.
V. Segment Reporting
Identification of Segments
The Company''''s operating businesses are organized and managed separately according to the nature of products and service provided, with each segment representing a strategic business unit that offers different products and serve different markets. The analysis of geographical segment is based on the areas in which major operating division of the Company operates.
Unallocated items include general corporate income and expense items which are not allocated to any business segment.
Segment Accounting Policies
The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the Company as a whole.
W. Operating Lease
Leases other than finance lease, are operating leases, and the such assets are not recognized on the Company''''s balance sheet. Payments under operating leases are recognized in statement of operations on a straight-line-basis over the term of the lease.
X. Share Issue Expenses
Share issue expenses have been debited to Securities Premium Account as per the provision of section 52 (2) of Companies Act, 2013
Y. Earnings Per Share
The Basic and Diulated Earnings Per Share (''''EPS'''') is computed by dividing the profit after tax for the year by weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit for the year attributable to equity shareholder and the weighted average number of share outstanding during the year are adjusted for the effect of all dilutive potential equity shares. The weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year are adjusted for events of bonus issue and share split, if any.