1. COMPANY OVERVIEW, SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ACCOUNTING JUDGEMENTS, ESTIMATES AND ASSUMPTIONS.
1.1 CORPORATE INFORMATION
FDC Limited (the Company) is a public Company domiciled in India and is incorporated under the provisions of the Companies Act applicable in India. Its shares are listed on two recognized stock exchanges in India. The registered office of the Company is located at Waluj, Dist. Aurangabad, Maharashtra.
The Company is principally engaged in the business of Pharmaceuticals.
The financial statements were authorized for issue in accordance with a resolution of the board of directors on May 26, 2017.
1.2 BASIS OF PREPARATION
The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 (as amended from time to time).
For all periods up to and including the year ended 31st March 2016, the Company prepared its financial statements in accordance with accounting standards notified under the section 133 of the Companies Act 2013, read together with paragraph 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 (Indian GAAP). These financial statements for the year ended 31st March 2017 are the first the Company has prepared in accordance with Ind AS.
These financial statements are prepared on accrual basis under the historical cost convention, except for certain financial assets and liabilities which are measured at fair value (refer accounting policy regarding financial instruments).
The financial statements are prepared in INR and all values are rounded to the nearest lakhs (INR 00,000), except when otherwise stated.
1.3 SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
a. Current versus non-current classification
The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current/ non-current classification. An asset is treated as current when it is:
- Expected to be realized or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle
- Held primarily for the purpose of trading
- Expected to be realized within twelve months after the reporting period, or
- Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period
All other assets are classified as non-current.
A liability is current when:
- It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle
- It is held primarily for the purpose of trading
- It is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or
- There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period
The Company classifies all other liabilities as non-current.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.
The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash and cash equivalents. Based on the nature of products and the time between acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash and cash equivalents, the Company has identified twelve months as its operating cycle for the purpose of current / non-current classification of assets and liabilities.
b. REVENUE RECOGNITION
Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured, regardless of when the payment is being made. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes or duties collected on behalf of the government.
The recovery of excise duty flows to the Company on its own account since it is a liability of the manufacturer irrespective of whether the goods are sold or not. Accordingly revenue is stated inclusive of excise duty.
However, sales tax/ value added tax (VAT) is not received by the Company on its own account. Rather, it is tax collected on value added to the commodity by the seller on behalf of the government. Accordingly, it is excluded from revenue.
The specific recognition criteria described below must also be met before revenue is recognized.
Sale of products
Revenue from the sale of products is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have passed to the buyer, usually on delivery of the goods. Revenue from sale of products is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of returns and allowances, trade discounts, volume rebates and cash discounts.
Profit share revenues
The Company has certain marketing arrangements based on the profit sharing model whereby Company sells its products to the business partner on price agreed upon agreement and is also entitled for profit share over and above its sale price. Revenue from the sale of goods to the partner is recognized upon delivery of products to them and additional amount representing the profit share component is recognized as revenue in the period which corresponds to the ultimate sales of the products made by business partners only when the collectability of the profit share becomes probable and a reliable measurement of the profit share is available.
The Company accounts for sales returns by recording an allowance for sales returns concurrent with the recognition of revenue at the time of a product sale. This allowance is based on the Company''''s estimate of expected sales returns towards expiry, breakages and damages. The estimate of sales returns is determined primarily by the Company''''s historical experience of sales returns trends with respect to the shelf life of various products.
For all debt instruments measured either at amortized cost, interest income is recorded using the effective interest rate (EIR). EIR is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash payments or receipts over the expected life of the financial instrument or a shorter period, where appropriate, to the gross carrying amount of the financial asset or to the amortized cost of a financial liability. When calculating the effective interest rate, the Company estimates the expected cash flows by considering all the contractual terms of the financial instrument (for example, prepayment, extension, call and similar options) but does not consider the expected credit losses.
Revenue is recognized when the Company''''s right to receive the payment is established, which is generally when shareholders approve the dividend.
Other income is accounted for on accrual basis except where the receipt of income is uncertain.
c. PROPERTY, PLANT & EQUIPMENT
The items of property, plant and equipment including Capital-work in-progress are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and any attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Such cost includes the cost of replacing part of the plant and equipment and borrowing costs for long-term construction projects if the recognition criteria are met.
When significant parts of plant and equipment are required to be replaced at regular intervals, the Company depreciates them separately based on their specific useful lives. All other repair and maintenance costs are recognized statement of profit or loss as incurred. In respect of additions to /deletions from the plant, property & equipment, depreciation is provided on pro-rata reference to the month of addition/deletion of the assets.
Subsequent expenditure related to an item of plant, property & equipments is added to its book value only if it increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance.
An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of the asset. Any gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an item of property, plant and equipment is determined as the difference between the sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognized in statement of profit or loss.
Assets costing less than Rs.5,000 are depreciated at the rate of hundred per cent.
Impairment of assets
The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/ external factors. An impairment loss is recognized whenever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the assets fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of the money and risks specific to the assets. In determining fair value less costs of disposal, recent market transactions are taken into account. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used.
After recognition of impairment loss, the depreciation charge for the asset is adjusted in future periods to allocate the assets revised carrying amount, less its residual value (if any), on straight line basis over its remaining useful life.
A previously recognized impairment loss is increased or reversed depending on changes in circumstances. However, the carrying value after reversal is not increased beyond the carrying value that would have prevailed by charging usual depreciation if there was no impairment.
d. INTANGIBLE ASSETS
Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets with finite life at cost less any accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses. Internally generated intangibles, excluding capitalized development costs, are not capitalized and the related expenditure is reflected in profit or loss in the period in which the expenditure is incurred.
The amortization period and the amortization method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at least at the end of each reporting period.
Gains or losses arising from de-recognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit or loss when the asset is de-recognized.
e. FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
A Financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial assets of one entity and a financial liabilities or equity instrument of another entity.
Initial recognition and measurement
All financial assets are recognized initially at fair value. Further, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit and loss, transactions cost that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial assets are also recognized.
For purpose of subsequent measurements, financial assets are classified in following categories:
(a) Debt instruments at amortized cost
A financial asset is subsequently measured at amortized cost if it is held within a business model whose objective is to hold the asset in order to collect contractual cash flows and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortized cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are integral part of EIR. The EIR amortization is included in other income in the profit and loss.
(b) Debt instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income
A financial asset is subsequently measured at fair value through other comprehensive income if it is held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
Debt instruments included within the FVTOCI category are measured initially as well as at each reporting date at fair value. Fair value movements is recognized in the OCI. However, the Company recognizes any interest income or impairment losses in profit and loss. On derecognition of the asset, cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in OCI is reclassified from the OCI to profit and loss.
(c) Debt instruments at fair value through profit and loss
A financial asset which is not classified in any of the above categories are subsequently fair valued through profit or loss. Debt instruments included within FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the P&L.
(d) Equity instruments
All equity investments in scope of Ind AS 109 are measured at fair value. For all equity instruments, the Company may make an irrevocable election to present in other comprehensive income subsequent changes in the fair value. All fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognized in the OCI. There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to P&L, even on sale of investment. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity. The Company has made such election on an instrument-by-instrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable.
A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a group of similar financial assets) is primarily derecognized when:
* The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or
* The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ''''pass-through'''' arrangement; and either (a) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.
When the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into a pass-through arrangement, it evaluates if and to what extent it has retained the risks and rewards of ownership. When it has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the asset, nor transferred control of the asset, the Company continues to recognize the transferred asset to the extent of the Company''''s continuing involvement. In that case, the Company also recognizes an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained.
The Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured at the lower of the original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration that the Company could be required to repay.
Impairment of financial assets
In accordance with Ind AS 109, the Company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the following financial assets and credit risk exposure:
(a) Financial assets that are debt instruments, and are measured at amortized cost e.g., loans, debt securities, deposits, trade receivables and bank balance
(b) Financial assets that are equity instruments and are measured as at FVTOCI
(c) Trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 18
The Company follows ''''simplified approach'''' for recognition of impairment loss allowance on Trade Receivable and Other Receivables.
The application of simplified approach does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognizes impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition.
For recognition of impairment loss on other financial assets and risk exposure, the Company determines that whether there has been a significant increase in the credit risk since initial recognition. If credit risk has not increased significantly, 12-month ECL is used to provide for impairment loss. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, lifetime ECL is used. If, in a subsequent period, credit quality of the instrument improves such that there is no longer a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, then the entity reverts to recognizing impairment loss allowance based on 12-month ECL.
Lifetime ECL are the expected credit losses resulting from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial instrument. The 12-month ECL is a portion of the lifetime ECL which results from default events that are possible within 12 months after the reporting date.
As a practical expedient, the Company uses a provision matrix to determine impairment loss allowance on portfolio of its trade receivables. The provision matrix is based on its historically observed default rates over the expected life of the trade receivables and is adjusted for forward-looking estimates. At every reporting date, the historical observed default rates are updated and changes in the forward-looking estimates are analyzed.
ECL impairment loss allowance (or reversal) recognized during the period is recognized as income/ expense in the statement of profit and loss (P&L). This amount is reflected under the head ''''other expenses'''' in the P&L. The balance sheet presentation for various financial instruments is described below:
Financial assets measured as at amortized cost, contractual revenue receivables:
ECL is presented as an allowance, i.e., as an integral part of the measurement of those assets in the balance sheet. The allowance reduces the net carrying amount. Until the asset meets write-off criteria, the Company does not reduce impairment allowance from the gross carrying amount.
Equity instruments measured at FVTOCI:
Since financial assets are already reflected at fair value, impairment allowance is not further reduced from its value. Rather, ECL amount is presented as ''''accumulated impairment amount'''' in the OCI.
For trade receivables only, the Company applies the simplified approach permitted by Ind AS 109 financial instruments, which requires expected lifetime losses to be recognized from initial recognition of the receivables.
Initial recognition and measurement
All financial liabilities are recognized initially at fair value and, in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs.
The Company''''s financial liabilities include trade and other payables and borrowings including bank overdrafts.
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit and loss
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities designated upon recognition as at fair value through profit or loss. Financial liabilities are classified as held for trading if they are incurred for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term. This category also includes derivative financial instruments entered into by the Company that are not designated as instruments in hedge relationships as defined by Ind AS 109.
Gains or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.
Financial guarantee contracts
Financial guarantee contracts issued by the Company are those contracts that require a payment to be made to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because the specified debtor fails to make a payment when due in accordance with the terms of a debt instruments. Financial guarantee contracts are recognized initially as a liability at fair value, adjusted for transaction costs that are directly attributable to the issuance of the guarantee. Subsequently, the liability is measured at the higher of the amount of loss allowance determined as per impairment requirements of Ind AS 109 and the amount recognized less cumulative amortization.
A Financial liability is derecognized when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.
f. FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENT
The Company measures financial instruments at fair value at each balance sheet date.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:
- In the principal market for the asset or liability, or
- In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the Company.
The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.
The Company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximizing the use of relevant observable inputs and minimizing the use of unobservable inputs.
All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorized within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:
- Level 1 - Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
- Level 2 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable
- Level 3 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable
For assets and liabilities that are recognized in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorisation (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.
For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the Company has determined classes of assets and liabilities on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy as explained above.
This note summarizes accounting policy for fair value. Other fair value related disclosures are given in the relevant notes.
Raw materials and packing materials are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value, cost of which includes duties and taxes (net of CENVAT and VAT, wherever applicable) and is arrived at on weighted average cost basis. Cost of imported raw materials and packing materials lying in bonded warehouse includes customs duty. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost.
Finished products including traded goods and work-in-progress are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost is arrived at on weighted average cost basis. Cost of finished products and work-in-progress includes material cost, labour, direct expenses, production overheads and excise duty, where applicable.
Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
h. FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSLATION/ TRANSACTIONS
The financial statements are presented in Indian Rupees (INR) which is company''''s functional and presentation currency.
Transactions in foreign currency are recorded at the rates prevailing on the date of the transaction.
Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in a foreign currency outstanding at the yearend are restated at the yearend exchange rates. Non-monetary items which are carried in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction; and non-monetary items which are carried at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates that existed when the values were determined.
Exchange difference arising on the settlement of monetary items at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded during the year, or reported in previous financial statements, are recognized as income or expenses in the year in which they arise.
i. GOVERNMENT GRANTS
Grants and subsidies from the government are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the grant/ subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with.
Government grants related to revenue is recognized on a systematic basis in the Statement of Profit and Loss over the periods necessary to match them with the related costs which they are intended to compensate.
Government grants relating to specific fixed assets is recognized as income in equal amounts over the expected useful life of the related asset.
j. EMPLOYEE BENEFITS Defined contribution plans
The Company''''s contribution to recognized provident fund, family pension fund and superannuation fund is defined contribution plan and is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss on accrual basis. The Company recognizes contribution payable to the provident fund scheme as an expenditure, when an employee renders the related service. There are no other obligations other than the contribution payable to the respective trusts.
Defined benefit plans
Contribution to gratuity fund is defined benefit obligation and is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year.
Remeasurement of the net defined liability, which comprise actuarial gains and losses, the return on plan assets (excluding interest income) are recognized in other comprehensive income. Remeasurements are not reclassified to profit and loss in subsequent periods. Net interest and other expenses related to defined benefit plans are recognized in profit and loss.
Other employee benefits
Short-term employee benefit obligations are measured on an undiscounted basis and are expensed as the related service is provided. The Company has other long-term employee benefits in the nature of leave encashment. The liability in respect of leave encashment is provided for on the basis of an actuarial valuation on projected unit credit method at the end of financial year.
k. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
Research costs are expensed as incurred. Development expenditures on an individual project are recognized as an intangible asset when the Company can demonstrate technical and commercial feasibility of making the asset available for use.
Following initial recognition of the development expenditure as an asset, the asset is carried at cost less any accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses. Amortization of the asset begins when development is complete and the asset is available for use. It is amortized over the period of expected future benefit. Amortization expense is recognized in the statement of profit and loss unless such expenditure forms part of carrying value of another asset.
l. LEASE ACCOUNTING
The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfillment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.
Company as a lessee
A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Company is classified as a finance lease.
Finance leases are capitalized at the commencement of the lease at the inception date fair value of the leased property or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognized in finance costs in the statement of profit and loss, unless they are directly attributable to qualifying assets, in which case they are capitalized in accordance with the Company''''s general policy on the borrowing costs. Contingent rentals are recognized as expenses in the periods in which they are incurred.
A leased asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term.
Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Company as a less or
Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of an asset are classified as operating leases. Rental income from operating lease is recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease.
Leases are classified as finance leases when substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership transfer from the Company to the lessee. Amounts due from lessees under finance leases are recorded as receivables at the Company''''s net investment in the leases. Finance lease income is allocated to accounting periods so as to reflect a constant periodic rate of return on the net investment outstanding in respect of the lease.
m. EARNING PER SHARE
Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the net profit after tax attributable to equity shareholders for the year by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.
Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the net profit after tax attributable to equity shareholders for the year by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year as adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares, if any.
n. TAXATION Current tax
Current income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities in accordance with the Income-tax Act, 1961. The tax rates and tax laws used to compute the amount are those that are enacted or substantively enacted, reporting date.
Management periodically evaluates positions taken in the tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulations are subject to interpretation and establishes provisions where appropriate.
Deferred tax is provided using the balance sheet approach on temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes at the reporting date using the tax rates and the tax laws enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.
Deferred tax assets are recognized for carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be recognized. At each balance sheet date, the Company reassesses unrecognized deferred tax assets and are recognized to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available for their realization.
Current and deferred tax for the year
Current and deferred tax are recognized in profit or loss, except when they relate to items that are recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case, the current and deferred tax are also recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity respectively.
Minimum Alternate tax ( MAT)
Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid as per Indian Income Tax Act, 1961 is in the nature of unused tax credit which can be carried forward and adjusted when the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. Deferred tax assets on such tax credit is recognized to the extent probable that the unused tax credit can be utilized in the specified future period. The net amount of tax recoverable from, or payable to, the authority is included as part of receivables or payables in the balance sheet.
Provisions are recognized when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. When the Company expects some or all of a provision to be reimbursed, for example, under an insurance contract, the reimbursement is recognized as a separate asset, but only when the reimbursement is virtually certain. The expense relating to a provision is presented in the statement of profit and loss net of any reimbursement.
If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognized as a finance cost. Provisions are reviewed at each balance sheet and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.
p. CONTINGENT LIABILITY AND CONTINGENT ASSETS
A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.
A contingent asset is not recognized unless it becomes virtually certain that an inflow of economic benefits will arise. When an inflow of benefits is probable, contingent asset are disclosed in the financial statements.
Contingent liabilities and contingent assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date.
q. SEGMENT REPORTING
Based on "Management Approach" as defined in Ind AS 108 -Operating Segments, the Chief Operating Decision Maker evaluates the Company''''s performance and allocate the resources based on an analysis of various performance indicators by business segments.
The Company prepares its segment information in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for preparing and presenting the financial statements of the Company as a whole.
r. CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS
Cash and cash equivalent in the balance sheet comprise cash at banks and on hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.
For the purpose of the statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and short-term deposits, as defined above, net of outstanding bank overdrafts as they are considered an integral part of the Company''''s cash management.
s. CASH DIVIDEND TO EQUITY HOLDERS
The Company recognizes a liability to make cash distribution to equity holders of the Company when the distribution is authorized and the distribution is no longer at the discretion of the company. As per the law, a distribution is authorized when it is approved by the shareholders. A corresponding amount is recognized directly in equity.
1.4 SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING JUDGEMENTS, ESTIMATES AND ASSUMPTIONS
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Ind AS requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts of revenue, expenses, assets and liabilities and the disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reported period. Although these estimates are based upon management''''s best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates.
Revenue from sale of goods is recognized when significant risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to customers, which coincides with dispatch of goods to customers. However, the Company needs to accept goods returned from its customers towards expiry, breakages and damages. Accordingly, the Company has made provision based on the historical sales return trends with respect to the shelf life of various products.
Impairment of financial assets
The Company recognizes loss allowances on financial assets using expected credit loss model which is equal to the 12 months expected credit losses or full time expected credit losses.
The Company follows ''''Simplified approach'''' for recognition of loss allowance on trade receivables under which Company does not track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognizes loss allowance based on lifetime expected credit losses at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition.
The Company uses a provision matrix to determine impairment loss allowance on the portfolio of trade receivables. The provision matrix is based on its historically observed default rates over the expected life of the trade receivable and is adjusted for forward looking estimates. At every reporting date, the historical observed default rates are updated and changes in the forward looking estimates are analyzed.
Defined benefit plans (gratuity benefits)
The cost of the defined benefit plan and other post-employment benefits and the present value of such obligation are determined using actuarial valuations. An actuarial valuation involves making various assumptions that may differ from actual developments in the future. These includes the determination of the discount rate, future salary increases, mortality rates and attrition rate. Due to the complexities involved in the valuation and its long term nature, a defined benefit obligation is highly sensitive to changes in these assumptions. All assumptions are reviewed at each reporting date.
Fair value measurement of financial instruments
When the fair value of financial assets and liabilities recorded in the balance sheet cannot be measured based on quoted prices in active markets, their fair value is measured using valuation techniques including the discounted cash flow model. The inputs to these models are taken from observable markets where possible, but where this is not feasible, a degree of judgment is required in establishing fair values. Judgments includes considerations of inputs such as liquidity risk, credit risk and volatility. Changes in assumptions about these factors could affect the reported fair value of financial instruments.
There are many transactions and calculations undertaken during the ordinary course of business for which the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Where the final tax outcome of these matters is different from the amounts initially recorded, such differences will impact the current and deferred tax provisions in the period in which the tax determination is made. Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which the assets can be utilized. The assessment of probability involves estimation of a number of factors including future taxable income.
Provisions against obsolete and slow - moving inventories
The Company reviews the condition of its inventories and makes provision against obsolete and slow-moving inventory items which are identified as no longer suitable for sale or use. The Company estimates the net realizable value for such inventories based on the latest invoice prices and current market conditions. The Company carries out an inventory review at each balance sheet date and makes provision against obsolete and slow-moving items. The Company reassesses the estimation on each balance sheet date.
The provision against obsolete and slow-moving inventories requires the use of judgments and estimates. Where the expectation is different from the original estimate, such difference will impact on the carrying value of inventories and the write-down of inventories recognized in the periods in which such estimates have been changed.
b. Terms/rights attached to equity shares
The Company has one class of equity shares having a par value of Re.1 per share. Each holder of equity shares is entitled to one vote per share. The Company declares and pays dividend in Indian Rupees. The Final dividend proposed by the Board of Directors is subject to the approval of the shareholders in the ensuing Annual General Meeting.
During the year ended 31st March 2017, the amount of per share dividend proposed as distribution to equity shareholders is Rs.2.25 (Previous year - Nil).
In the event of liquidation of the Company, the holders of equity shares will be entitled to receive remaining assets of the Company. The distribution will be in proportion to the number of equity shares held by the shareholders.
(a) As per the information available with the Company, there are no Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, as defined in the Micro, Small, Medium Enterprises Development Act 2006, to whom the Company owes dues on account of principal amount together with interest and accordingly no additional disclosure have been made. The Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises has been determined to the extent such parties have been identified on the basis of information available with the Company. This has been relied upon by the Auditors.
(b) Terms and conditions of the above trade payables:
Trade payables are non interest bearing and are normally settled on 90-360 days terms.
Note:- There are no amounts due and outstanding to be credited to Investor Education and Protection Fund. There has been no delay in transferring amounts required to be transferred to the Investor Education and Protection fund.
Proposed dividends on equity shares are subject to approval at the annual general meeting and are not recognized as a liability (including tax thereon) as at 31st March 2017.
34. Financial Risk Management Objectives and Policies
Risk Management is an integral part of the Company’s plans and operations. While the Company has a proven ability to successfully take on challenges, the efforts are to become even more proactive in recognizing and managing risks, through an organized framework. The Company recognizes risk management as an integral component of good corporate governance and fundamental in achieving its strategic and operational objectives.
The Company, through its Board of Directors, has constituted a Risk Management Committee, consisting of majority of Board members. The Board has defined the roles and responsibilities of the Risk Management Committee and may delegate monitoring and reviewing of the Risk Management plan, to the Committee, and such other functions as it may deem fit.
Market risk :
Market risk is the risk that the fair value of future cash flows of a financial instrument will fluctuate because of changes in market prices. Market risk comprises three types of risk: interest rate risk, currency risk and other price risk, such as equity price risk. Financial instruments affected by market risk include deposits, FVTOCI investments and derivative financial instruments.
The Company has designed risk management frame work to control various risks effectively to achieve the business objectives. This includes identification of risk, its assessment, control and monitoring at timely intervals.
Interest rate risk :
Interest rate risk is the loss of fair value of future earnings of financial instruments because of changes in market interest rates. Investment committee manages and constantly reviewing the interest rate movements in the market in order to optimize the company''''s interest income. The Company’s exposures to interest rate risk is not significant.
Foreign currency risk :
Foreign currency risk is the loss of fair value of future earnings of a financial instruments because of changes in foreign exchange rates. The Company’s exposure to the risk of changes in foreign exchange rates relates primarily to the Company’s operating activities (when revenue or expense is denominated in a foreign currency).
Foreign currency sensitivity
The following table demonstrate the sensitivity to a reasonably possible change in USD rate, with all other variables held constant. The impact on the Company’s profit before tax is due to changes in the fair value of monetary assets and liabilities. The Company’s exposure to foreign currency changes for all other currencies is not material.
Credit risk :
Credit risk is the risk of possible default by the counter party resulting in a financial loss. The Company manages its credit risk through various internal policies and procedure set forth for effective control over credit exposure. Major credit risk at the reporting date is from trade receivables. Trade receivables are managed by way of setting various parameters like credit limit, evaluation of financial condition before supply, supply terms, industry trends, ageing analysis.
Liquidity risk is the risk that the Company will not be able to meet its financial obligations as they fall due. The Company''''s approach to managing liquidity is to ensure, as far as possible, that it will always have sufficient liquidity to meet its liabilities when due, under both normal and stressed conditions, without incurring unacceptable losses or risking damage to the Company''''s reputation.
The Company manages liquidity risk by maintaining adequate reserves, by continuously monitoring forecast and actual cash flows and matching the maturity profiles of the financial assets and liabilities.
The table below summarizes the maturity profile of the Company’s financial liabilities based on the contractual undiscounted payments.
The management assessed that cash and cash equivalents, trade receivables, loans, trade payables, other financial assets and other financial liabilities approximate their carrying amounts largely due to the short-term maturities of these instruments.
The fair value of the financial assets and liabilities is included at the amount at which the instrument could be exchanged in a current transaction between willing parties, other than in a forced or liquidation sale. The following methods and assumptions were used to estimate the fair values:
The fair values of quoted equity instruments are derived from quoted market prices in active markets.
Reconciliation of fair value measurement of equity shares classified as FVTOCI assets:
Level 1 - Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable.
Level 3 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly unobservable.
The following table represents the fair value hierarchy of financial assets and liabilities as on 31st March 2017:
There have been no transfer between Level 1 and Level 2 during the period .