1.1 Company Overview
Dilip Buildcon Limited (the ‘company’) is domiciled in India with its registered office at Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. The Company has been incorporated under the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.
The Company’s equity shares are listed on Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and National Stock Exchange (NSE) with effect from 11 August 2016.
The company is presently in the business of development of infrastructure facilities on Engineering Procurement and Construction basis (EPC) and undertakes contract from various Government and other parties and special purpose vehicles promoted by the Company.
1.2 Basis of Preparation of financial statements
The Company’s financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) as notified by Ministry of Corporate Affairs under sections 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 read with Rule 3 of the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 and Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2016.
The financials for the year ended March 31, 2017 of the Company are the first financial statements prepared in compliance with Ind AS. The date of transition to Ind AS is April 1, 2015.
The financial statements for all periods upto and including the year ended March 31, 2016, were prepared in accordance with the accounting standards notified under the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 and other relevant provisions of the Act. The figures for the year ended March 31, 2016 and April 1, 2015 have now been restated under Ind AS for like to like comparison. Reconciliations and descriptions of the effect of the transition have been summarized in note 35.
The financial statements of the Company for the year ended 31st March 2017 were approved for issue in accordance with the resolution of the Board of Directors on 17th May 2017.
1.3 Basis of accounting
The Company maintains its accounts on accrual basis following the historical cost convention, except for certain financial instruments that are measured at fair values in accordance with Ind AS. Further, the guidance notes/ announcements issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) are also considered, wherever applicable except to the extent where compliance with other statutory promulgations override the same requiring a different treatment.
1.4 Presentation of Financial Statements
The Balance Sheet, Statement of Profit and Loss and Statement of Changes in equity are prepared and presented in the format prescribed in the Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013 (“the Act”). The disclosure requirements with respect to items in the Balance Sheet and Statement of Profit and Loss, as prescribed in the Schedule III to the Act, are presented by way of notes forming part of the financial statements along with the other notes required to be disclosed under the notified Accounting Standards and the SEBI (Listing Obligations and Disclosure Requirements) Regulations, 2015.
1.5 Use of estimates
The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Ind AS requires management to make estimates, judgments and assumptions. These estimates, judgments and assumptions affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosures of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the period. Accounting estimates could change from period to period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Appropriate changes in estimates are made as management becomes aware of changes in circumstances surrounding the estimates. Changes in estimates are reflected in the financial statements in the period in which changes are made and, if material, their effects are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements.
This note provides an overview of the areas that involved a higher degree of judgement or complexity and of items which are more likely to be materially adjusted due to estimates and assumptions turning out to be different than those originally assessed. Detailed information about each of these estimates and judgements is included in the relevant note.
Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised prospectively.
A. Judgements in applying accounting policies
The judgements, apart from those involving estimations (see note below) that the Company has made in the process of applying its accounting policies and that have a significant effect on the amounts recognised in these financial statements pertain to useful life of assets. The Company is required to determine whether its intangible assets have indefinite or finite life which is a subject matter of judgement.
B. Key source of estimation uncertainty
The following are the key assumptions concerning the future, and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the end of the reporting period that may have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year.
a) Property, Plant and Equipment
Determination of the estimated useful lives of tangible assets and the assessment as to which components of the cost may be capitalized. Useful lives of tangible assets are based on the life prescribed in Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013. In cases, where the useful lives are different from that prescribed in Schedule II, they are based on technical advice, taking into account the nature of the asset, the estimated usage of the asset, the operating conditions of the asset, past history of replacement, anticipated technological changes, manufacturers’ warranties and maintenance support.
b) Recognition and measurement of defined benefit obligations
The obligation arising from defined benefit plan is determined on the basis of actuarial assumptions. Key actuarial assumptions include discount rate, trends in salary escalation and vested future benefits and life expectancy. The discount rate is determined based on the prevailing market yields of Indian Government Securities as at the Balance Sheet Date for the estimated term of the obligations
c) Recognition of deferred tax assets
A deferred tax asset is recognised for all the deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary difference can be utilised.
d) Recognition and measurement of other provision
The recognition and measurement of other provisions are based on the assessment of the probability of an outflow of resources, and on past experience and circumstances known at the balance sheet date. The actual outflow of resources at a future date may therefore vary from the figure included in other provisions.
e) Discounting of long-term financial instrument
All financial instruments are required to be measured at fair value on initial recognition. In case of financial instruments which are required to subsequently measured at amortised cost, interest is accrued using the effective interest method.
1.6 Functional and presentation currency
These financial statements are presented in Indian Rupees (INR), which is also the Company’s functional currency. All amounts have been rounded-off to the nearest lakhs, unless otherwise indicated.
1.7 Property, plant and equipment
Items of property, plant and equipment are measured at cost, which includes capitalised borrowing costs, less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.
Cost of an item of property, plant and equipment comprises its purchase price, including import duties and non-refundable purchase taxes, after deducting trade discounts and rebates, any directly attributable cost of bringing the item to its working condition for its intended use and estimated costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located.
If significant parts of an item of property, plant and equipment have different useful lives, then they are accounted for as separate items (major components) of property, plant and equipment.
Any gain or loss on disposal of an item of property, plant and equipment is recognised in profit or loss.
Subsequent expenditure is capitalised only if it is probable that the future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the company.
1.8 Intangible Assets
Intangible assets that the Company controls and from which it expects future economic benefits are capitalised upon acquisition at cost comprising the purchase price and directly attributable costs to prepare the assets for its intended use.
Intangible assets that have finite lives are amortised over their useful lives by the straight line method.
1.9 Investments in associates, joint ventures and subsidiaries
The Company has accounted for its investment in subsidiaries at cost.
The Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of its investment in subsidiaries recognised as at 1st April 2015, measured as per previous GAAP and hence the carrying value is considered to be the deemed cost of such investment.
Construction material, components, stores and spares are valued at lower of cost or net realisable value. Cost is determined on first in first out basis and comprise all cost of purchase, duties, taxes and all other costs incurred in bringing the inventory to their present location and condition.
1.11 Impairment of non-financial assets
The Company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any indication that an asset or cash generating unit (CGU) may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s or CGU’s net selling price or its value in use. Where the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount.
In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset.
An impairment loss is recognised if the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount.
Impairment losses are recognised in the statement of profit and loss. They are allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the CGU, and then to reduce the carrying amounts of the other assets in the CGU on a pro rata basis.
An impairment loss in respect of goodwill is not reversed. For other assets, an impairment loss is reversed only to the extent that the asset’s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortisation, if no impairment loss had been recognised.
1.12 Financial Instruments
A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.
Financial Assets Initial Recognition
The Company recognizes financial assets when it becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. All financial assets are recognized at fair value on initial recognition, except for trade receivables which are initially measured at transaction price. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets that are not at fair value through profit or loss are added to the fair value on initial recognition.
A financial asset is subsequently measured at amortised cost if it is held within a business model whose objective is to hold the asset in order to collect contractual cash flows and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
The company derecognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire, or it transfers the rights to receive the contractual cash flows in a transaction in which substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset are transferred or in which the company neither transfers nor retain substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership and it does not retain control of the financial asset.
Impairment of financial asset
For impairment of financial assets, Company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model. Following financial assets and credit risk exposure are covered within the ECL model:
a. Financial assets that are debt instruments, and are measured at amortised cost e.g. loans, debt securities, deposits, trade receivables and bank balance.
b. Trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 11 and Ind AS 18.
The company follows ‘simplified approach’ for recognition of impairment loss allowance on trade receivables including receivables recognised under service concession arrangements.
The application of simplified approach does not require the company to track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognises impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition. For recognition of impairment loss on other financial assets and risk exposure, the company determines that whether there has been a significant increase in the credit risk since initial recognition. If credit risk has not increased significantly, 12-month ECL is used to provide for impairment loss. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, then the impairment loss is provided based on lifetime ECL.
Financial liabilities Initial recognition
The company initially recognises borrowings, trade payables and related financial liabilities on the date on which they are originated.
All other financial instruments (including regular-way purchases and sales of financial assets) are recognised on the trade date, which is the date on which the company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.
Non-derivative financial liabilities are initially recognised at fair value, net of transaction costs incurred.
Financial liabilities are subsequently carried at amortized cost using the effective interest method, except for contingent consideration recognized in a business combination which is subsequently measured at fair value through profit and loss. For trade and other payables maturing within one year from the Balance Sheet date, the carrying amounts approximate fair value due to the short maturity of these instruments.
A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognised in the statement of profit or loss.
Offsetting of financial instruments
Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.
Leases in which a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are not transferred to the group as lessee are classified as operating leases. Payments made under operating leases (net of any incentives received from the lessor) are charged to profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the period of the lease.
1.14 Provisions and Contingencies
Provisions involving substantial degree of estimation in measurement are recognized when there is a present obligation as a result of past events, it is probable that there will be an outflow of resources and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimate. Contingent liabilities are not provided for and are disclosed by way of notes.
If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as a finance cost in the statement of profit and loss.
1.15 Revenue recognition
Contract revenue includes the initial amount agreed in the contract plus any variations in contract work, claims and incentive payments, to the extent that it is probable that they will result in revenue and can be measured reliably.
If the outcome of a construction contract can be estimated reliably, contract revenue is recognised in profit or loss in proportion to the stage of completion of the contract. The stage of completion is assessed by reference to surveys of work performed. Otherwise, contract revenue is recognised only to the extent of contract costs incurred that are likely to be recoverable.
Revenue related to construction or upgrade services provided under a service concession arrangement is recognised based on the stage of completion of the work performed. Operation or service revenue is recognised in the period in which the services are provided by the company.
Interest income is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss using the effective interest method.
Depreciation is calculated on cost of items of property, plant and equipment less their estimated residual values over their estimated useful lives using the straight-line method, and is generally recognised in the statement of profit and loss. Assets acquired under finance leases are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and their useful lives unless it is reasonably certain that the company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term. Freehold land is not depreciated.
Depreciation on additions (disposals) is provided on a pro-rata basis i.e. from (upto) the date on which asset is ready for use (disposed of).
1.17 Borrowing Cost
Borrowing costs are interest and other costs (including exchange differences relating to foreign currency borrowings to the extent that they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs) incurred in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing costs directly attributable to acquisition or construction of an asset which necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use are capitalised as part of the cost of that asset. Other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.
1.18 Earnings per equity share
Basic earnings per equity share is computed by dividing the net profit or loss attributable to the equity holders of the company by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per equity share is computed by dividing the net profit or loss attributable to the equity holders of the company by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per equity share and also the weighted average number of equity shares that could have been issued upon conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. The dilutive potential equity shares are adjusted for the proceeds receivable had the equity shares been actually issued at fair value (i.e. the average market value of the outstanding equity shares). Dilutive potential equity shares are deemed converted as of the beginning of the period, unless issued at a later date. Dilutive potential equity shares are determined independently for each period present.
1.19 Cash Flow statement
Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit for the period is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a noncash nature, any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments and item of income or expenses associated with investing or financing cash flows. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated.
1.20 Employee Benefits Short Term Employment benefits
All employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short-term employee benefits. Benefits such as salaries, wages etc. and the expected cost of ex-gratia are recognized in the period in which the employee renders the related service. A liability is recognised for the amount expected to be paid if the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation to pay this amount as a result of past service provided by the employee and the obligation can be estimated reliably.
Post Employment Employee Benefits
Retirement benefits to employees comprise payments to government provident funds, gratuity fund and Employees State Insurance.
Defined Contribution Plans
The Company’s contribution to defined contributions plans such as Provident Fund, Employee State Insurance are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year when the contributions to the respective funds are due. There are no other obligations other than the contribution payable to the respective Funds.
Defined Benefit Plans
Gratuity liability is defined benefit obligation. The Company’s net obligation in respect of the gratuity benefit scheme is calculated by estimating the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior periods;that benefit is discounted to determine its present value. The present value of the obligation under such defined benefit plan is determined based on actuarial valuation by an independent actuary, using the projected unit credit method, which recognizes each period of service as giving rise to additional unit of employee benefit entitlement and measures each unit separately to build up the final obligation.
The obligation is measured at the present value of the estimated future cash flows. The discount rates used for determining the present value of the obligation under defined benefit plan, are based on the market yields on Government securities as at the Balance Sheet date.
Remeasurement of the net defined benefit liability, which comprise actuarial gains and losses, the return on plan assets (excluding interest) and the effect of the asset ceiling (if any, excluding interest), are recognised immediately in Other Comprehensive Income. Net interest expense (income) on the net defined liability (assets) is computed by applying the discount rate, used to measure the net defined liability (asset), to the net defined liability (asset) at the start of the financial year after taking into account any changes as a result of contribution and benefit payments during the year. Net interest expense and other expenses related to defined benefit plans are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss.
When the benefits of a plan are changed or when a plan is curtailed, the resulting change in benefit that relates to past service or the gain or loss on curtailment is recognised immediately in Statement of Profit and Loss. The Company recognises gains and losses on the settlement of a defined benefit plan when the settlement occurs.
Actuarial gains/losses are recognized in the other comprehensive income.
1.21 Income Taxes Current Tax
Current tax comprises the expected tax payable or receivable on the taxable income or loss for the year and any adjustment to the tax payable or receivable in respect of previous years. The amount of current tax reflects the best estimate of the tax amount expected to be paid or received after considering the uncertainty, if any, related to income taxes. It is measured using tax rates (and tax laws) enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date.
Current tax assets and current tax liabilities are offset only if there is a legally enforceable right to set off the recognised amounts, and it is intended to realise the asset and settle the liability on a net basis or simultaneously.
Minimum alternative tax (MAT) credit is recognized as an asset only when and to the extent there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay income tax higher than that computed under
MAT, during the year that MAT is permitted to be set off under the Income Tax Act, 1961 (specified year). In the year, in which the MAT credit becomes eligible to be recognized as an asset the said asset is created by way of a credit to the Statement of profit and loss and shown as MAT credit entitlement. The Company reviews the same at each balance sheet date and writes down the carrying amount of MAT credit entitlement to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that the Company will pay income tax higher than MAT during the specified year.
Deferred tax is recognised in respect of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the corresponding amounts used for taxation purposes. Deferred tax is also recognised in respect of carried forward tax losses and tax credits. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured using tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date and are expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect of changes in tax rates on deferred income tax assets and liabilities is recognized as income or expense in the period that includes the enactment or the substantive enactment date. A deferred income tax asset is recognized to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences and tax losses can be utilized. The company offsets current tax assets and current tax liabilities, where it has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognized amounts and where it intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously. The income tax provision for the interim period is made based on the best estimate of the annual average tax rate expected to be applicable for the full financial year.
1.22 Fair value measurement
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:
- In the principal market for the asset or liability, or
- In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability.
The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the company. The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.
For cash and other liquid assets, the fair value is assumed to approximate to book value, given the short term nature of these instruments. For those items with a stated maturity exceeding twelve months, fair value is calculated using a discounted cash flow methodology.
A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset considers a market participant’s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another.
The Company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximizing the use of relevant observable inputs and minimizing the use of unobservable inputs.
- Level 1 — Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
- Level 2 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable.
- Level 3 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable.
For assets and liabilities that are recognised in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by reassessing categorisation (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.
For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the company has determined classes of assets and liabilities based on the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy as explained above.
1.23 Recent accounting developments
In March 2017, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs issued the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendments) Rules, 2017, notifying amendments to Ind AS 7, ‘Statement of cash flows’ and Ind AS 102, ‘Share-based payment.’ The amendments are applicable to the Company from April 1, 2017.
Amendment to Ind AS 7:
The amendment to Ind AS 7 requires the entities to provide disclosures that enable users of financial statements to evaluate changes in liabilities arising from financing activities, including both changes arising from cash flows and non-cash changes, suggesting inclusion of a reconciliation between the opening and closing balances in the balance sheet for liabilities arising from financing activities, to meet the disclosure requirement. The effect on the financial statements is being evaluated by the Company.
Amendment to Ind AS 102:
The amendment to Ind AS 102 provides specific guidance to measurement of cash-settled awards, modification of cash-settled awards and awards that include a net settlement feature in respect of withholding taxes. It clarifies that the fair value of cash-settled awards is determined on a basis consistent with that used for equity settled awards. Market-based performance conditions and non-vesting conditions are reflected in the ‘fair values’, but non-market performance conditions and service vesting conditions are reflected in the estimate of the number of awards expected to vest. Also, the amendment clarifies that if the terms and conditions of a cash-settled share-based payment transaction are modified with the result that it becomes an equity-settled share-based payment transaction, the transaction is accounted for as such from the date of the modification. Further, the amendment requires the award that include a net settlement feature in respect of withholding taxes to be treated as equity-settled in its entirety. The cash payment to the tax authority is treated as if it was part of an equity settlement. The effect on the financial statements is being evaluated by the Company.
The Company does not have share based payments and hence no impact on financial statements.