1. CORPORATE INFORMATION
Container Corporation of India Limited (CONCOR), was incorporated on 10 March 1988 under the Companies Act with registration number 030915, and commenced its operation from November 1989 taking over the existing network of 7 ICDs from the Indian Railways. The shares of the Company are listed on two stock exchanges in India i.e. National Stock Exchange of India Limited (NSE) and BSE Limited (BSE).
From its humble beginning, it is now an undisputed market leader having the largest network of 68 ICDs/CFSs in India. In addition to providing inland transport by rail for containers, it has also expanded to cover management of Ports, air cargo complexes and establishing cold-chain. It has and will continue to play the role of promoting containerization of India by virtue of its modern rail wagon fleet, customer friendly commercial practices and extensively used Information Technology. The company developed multimodal logistics support for India''''s International and Domestic containerization and trade. Though rail is the main stay of our transportation plan, road transportation is and also provided to cater the need of door-to-door services both in the International and Domestic business segment.
2. APPLICATION OF NEW OR REVISED IND AS
At the date of preparation of these financial statements, there were some amendments issued to the existing Ind ASs, after the initial notification issued by the MCA. The amendments and the impact of such amendments on the Company has been summarized as follows:
Recent accounting amendments:
Standards issued but not yet effective
The Ministry of Corporate Affairs has notified Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendments) Rules, 2017, which are effective from April 1, 2017. These rules bring in amendments to Ind AS 7, ‘Statement of cash flows'''' and Ind AS 102, ‘Share-based payment''''.
Amendment to Ind AS 7:
The amendment to Ind AS 7 requires the entities to provide disclosures that enable users of financial statements to evaluate changes in liabilities arising from financing activities, including both changes arising from cash flows and non-cash changes. Liabilities arising from financing activities are liabilities for which cash flows were, or future cash flows will be, classified in the statement of cash flows as cash flows from financing activities. In addition, the disclosure requirement in paragraph 44A also applies to changes in financial assets (for example, assets that hedge liabilities arising from financing activities) if cash flows from those financial assets were, or future cash flows will be, included in cash flows from financing activities. One way to fulfill the requirement is by providing a reconciliation between the opening and closing balances in the balance sheet for liabilities arising from financing activities. Where an entity discloses such a reconciliation, it shall provide sufficient information to enable users of the financial statements to link items included in the reconciliation to the balance sheet and the statement of cash flows.
The Company is evaluating the requirements of the amendment and the effect on the financial statements is being evaluated.
Amendment to Ind AS 102:
The amendment to Ind AS 102 is regarding the classification and measurement of share based payment transactions. However Company does not have any share-based payments and accordingly this amendment is not applicable to the company.
3. STATEMENT OF COMPLIANCE
The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind ASs'''') notified by the Central Government under section 133 of the Indian Companies Act, 2013 as Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015. Upto the year ended 31 March, 2016, the Company prepared its financial statements in accordance with the accounting principles generally accepted in India, including the accounting standards specified under section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 read with rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014. These are Company''''s first Ind AS financial statements. The date of transition to Ind AS is April 1, 2015.
4. BASIS OF PREPARATION
The financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except financial instruments that are measured at revalued amounts or fair values at the end of each reporting period. In estimating the fair value of an asset or a liability, the company takes into account the characteristics of the asset or liability if market participants would take those characteristics into account when pricing the asset or liability at the measurement date. Fair value for measurement and/ or disclosure purposes in the financial statements is determined on such a basis, except for leasing transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 17, and measurements that have some similarities to fair value but are not fair value, such as net realizable value in Ind AS 2 or value in use in Ind AS 36.
5. PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT
i. Property, plant and equipment is stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. The initial cost of an asset comprises its purchase price or construction cost, any costs directly attributable to bringing the asset into the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management, the initial estimate of any decommissioning obligation, if any, and, for assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use, finance costs. Cost includes net of interest on capital advances and duty credits and is inclusive of freight, duties, taxes and other incidental expenses. In respect of assets due for capitalization, where final bills/claims are to be received/passed, the capitalization is based on the engineering estimates. Final adjustments, for costs and depreciation are made retrospectively in the year of ascertainment of actual cost and finalization of claim. Items such as spare parts, stand-by equipment and servicing equipment are recognized in accordance with this Ind AS 16 when they meet the definition of property, plant and equipment.
ii. Capital work in progress includes the cost of fixed assets that are not yet ready for their intended use and the cost of assets not put to use before the Balance Sheet date.
iii. Provision for stamp duty at the prevailing rate is made by the company at the time of capitalization of the amount paid for acquisition of land & is capitalized as part of the cost of Land.
iv. Fixed assets are depreciated over its useful life and in the manner prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act 2013, other than as prescribed below:
- Assets constructed on leasehold land, other than perpetual leases, and assets classified as finance leases are depreciated over the period of lease or useful life of such assets, as prescribed under Schedule II of Companies Act 2013, whichever is less.
- Land leases where the lease term is for the significant economic life of the asset are considered as finance leases. Such leases are included in property plant and equipment and are depreciated over the lease period. Freehold land or perpetual land leases are not depreciated. Land leases where the lease term is not for the significant economic life of land are considered as operating leases and are classified as prepayments. Such leases are amortized over the lease terms.
In respect of assets whose useful lives has been revised, the unamortized depreciable amount is charged over the revised remaining useful lives of the assets.
v. Capital expenditure on enabling assets, like roads, culverts & electricity transmissions etc., the ownership of which is not with the Company are charged off to revenue in the accounting period of incurrence of such expenditure. However, capital expenditure on enabling assets, ownership of which rests with the company and which have been created on land not belonging to the Company is written off to the Statement of Profit & Loss over its approximate period of utility or over a period of 5 years, whichever is less. For this purpose, land is not considered to be belonging to the company, if the same is not owned or leased/licensed to the company.
vi. An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of the asset. Any gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an item of property, plant and equipment is determined as the difference between the sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognized in statement of profit and loss.
6. INTANGIBLE ASSETS
Expenditure on computer software, which is not an integral part of hardware, is capitalized as an intangible asset. The cost of software includes license fee and implementation cost and is capitalized in the year of its implementation. Software is amortized over five years being management''''s estimate of life of assets over which economic benefits will be derived. The estimated useful life and amortization method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate being accounted for on a prospective basis.
7. IMPAIRMENT OF NON-FINANCIAL ASSETS
At the end of each reporting period, the company reviews the carrying amounts of its tangible and intangible assets to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss (if any). When it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of an individual asset, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs. When a reasonable and consistent basis of allocation can be identified, corporate assets are also allocated to individual cash-generating units, or otherwise they are allocated to the smallest Component of cash-generating units for which a reasonable and consistent allocation basis can be identified.
Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted.
If the recoverable amount of an asset (or cash-generating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset (or cash-generating unit) is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognized immediately in statement of profit and loss.
Stores and spare parts are valued at cost on weighted average basis or Net Realizable Value (NRV) whichever is lower. Provision for obsolescence is made, whenever required.
9. EMPLOYEE BENEFITS
(i) Liability for gratuity, leave salary and post retirement medical benefits payable to employees is provided for on accrual basis using the Projected Accrued Benefit Method (Projected Unit Credit Method with control period of one year) done by an independent actuary as at the Balance Sheet date. Contributions are made to approved gratuity fund created in a separate trust set up by the company for this purpose.
Remeasurement, comprising actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the changes to the asset ceiling (if applicable) and the return on plan assets (excluding interest), is reflected immediately in the balance sheet with a charge or credit recognized in other comprehensive income in the period in which they occur. Remeasurement recognized in other comprehensive income is reflected immediately in retained earnings and will not be reclassified to statement of profit and loss. Past service cost is recognized in statement of profit and loss in the period of a plan amendment. Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate at the beginning of the period to the net defined benefit liability or asset. Defined benefit costs are categorized as follows:
- service cost (including current service cost, past service cost, as well as gains and losses on curtailments and settlements);
- net interest expense or income; and
The Company presents the first two components of defined benefit costs in statement of profit and loss in the line item [‘employee benefits expenses]. Curtailment gains and losses are accounted for as past service costs.
The retirement benefit obligation recognized in the balance sheet represents the actual deficit or surplus in the company''''s defined benefit plans. Any surplus resulting from this calculation is limited to the present value of any economic benefits available in the form of refunds from the plans or reductions in future contributions to the plans.
Termination benefits are immediately recognized in the statement of profit and loss. A liability for a termination benefit is recognized at the earlier of when the entity can no longer withdraw the offer of the termination benefit and when the entity recognizes any related restructuring costs.
(ii) Contribution to defined contribution plans such as Provident Fund, Pension Fund and Family Pension Fund are charged to the Statement of Profit & Loss as and when accrued.
(iii) The undiscounted amount of short term employee benefits expected to be paid for the services rendered are recognized as an expense during the period when the employees render the services.
10. FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS
i Income & Expenditure denominated in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of transaction.
ii Loans, Current liabilities and Current assets in foreign currencies are translated at the exchange rate prevailing at the end of financial year.
iii Gains or losses due to foreign exchange fluctuations are recognized in the Statement of Profit & Loss.
11. REVENUE RECOGNITION
i Rail freight income & related expenses are accounted for at the time of issue of RRs by Indian Railways.
ii Road transportation/handling income & related expenses are accounted for at the time of booking of containers.
iii Terminal service charges (TSC) for empty containers are accounted for on accrual basis.
iv Terminal service charges (TSC) for loaded container & warehousing charges are accounted for on receipt/at the time of release of containers on “completed service contract method”.
v Dividend income is recognized when the company''''s right to receive the dividend is established.
Claims/counter-claims/penalties/awards are accounted for in the year of its settlement.
13. TAXES ON INCOME
Income tax expense represents the sum of the tax currently payable and deferred tax.
The tax currently payable is based on taxable profit for the year. Taxable profit differs from ‘profit before tax'''' as reported in the statement of profit and loss because of items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and items that are never taxable or deductible. The Company''''s current tax is calculated using tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.
Deferred tax is recognized on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax base used in the computation of taxable profit. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognized for all taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are generally recognized for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which those deductible temporary differences can be utilized. Such deferred tax assets and liabilities are not recognized if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the taxable profit nor the accounting profit.
The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.
Deferred tax liabilities and assets are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period in which the liability is settled or the asset realized, based on tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.
The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and assets reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the end of the reporting period, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.
Current and deferred tax for the year
Current and deferred tax are recognized in statement of profit and loss, except when they relate to items that are recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case, the current and deferred tax are also recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity respectively.
14. INVESTMENT IN EQUITY INSTRUMENT OF CONSOLIDATED ENTITIES
The Company''''s investment in equity instruments of subsidiaries and joint ventures are accounted for at cost.
15. PROVISIONS, CONTINGENT LIABILITIES & CONTINGENT ASSETS
Provisions are recognized when the company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that the company will be required to settle the obligation, and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.
The amount recognized as a provision is the best estimate of the consideration required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period, taking into account the risks and uncertainties surrounding the obligation. When a provision is measured using the cash flows estimated to settle the present obligation, its carrying amount is the present value of those cash flows (when the effect of the time value of money is material).
When some or all of the economic benefits required to settle a provision are expected to be recovered from a third party, a receivable is recognized as an asset if it is virtually certain that reimbursement will be received and the amount of the receivable can be measured reliably.
b. Onerous contracts
Onerous Contracts: A contract is considered as onerous when the expected economic benefits to be derived by the company from the contract are lower than the unavoidable cost of meeting its obligations under the contract. The provision for an onerous contract is measured at the lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of continuing with the contract. Before a provision is established, the company recognizes any impairment loss on the assets associated with that contract.
c. Contingent Liabilities
Contingent liabilities are disclosed when there is a possible obligation arising from past events, the existence of which will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non- occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company or a present obligation that arises from past events where it is either not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle or a reliable estimate of the amount cannot be made.
d. Contingent Assets
Contingent assets are not recognized in the accounts. However they are disclosed when the possible right to receive exists.
16. EARNINGS PER SHARE (EPS)
Basic earnings per share (‘EPS'''') is computed by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year.
Diluted EPS is computed using the weighted average number of equity and dilutive equity equivalent shares outstanding during the period except where the result would be anti-dilutive.
17. CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENT
In the cash flow statement, cash and cash equivalents include cash in hand, demand deposits with banks, other short term highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less, that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.
Leases are classified as finance leases whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee. All other leases are classified as operating leases.
The Company as lessee
Assets held under finance leases are initially recognized as assets of the Company at their fair value at the inception of the lease or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. The corresponding liability to the less or is included in the Company balance sheet as a finance lease obligation.
Lease payments are apportioned between finance expenses and reduction of the lease obligation so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance expenses are recognized immediately in profit or loss, unless they are directly attributable to qualifying assets, in which case they are capitalized in accordance with the Company''''s general policy on borrowing costs. Contingent rentals are recognized as expenses in the periods in which they are incurred.
Rental expense from operating leases is generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Where the rentals are structured solely to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the less or’s expected inflationary cost increases, such increases are recognized in the year in which such benefits accrue. Contingent rentals arising under operating leases are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.
In the event that lease incentives are received to enter into operating leases, such incentives are recognized as a liability. The aggregate benefit of incentives is recognized as a reduction of rental expense on a straight-line basis, except where another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which economic benefits from the leased asset are consumed.
The Company as less or
Amounts due from lessees under finance leases are recognized as receivables at the amount of the Company''''s net investment in the leases. Finance lease income is allocated to accounting periods so as to reflect a constant periodic rate of return on the Company''''s net investment outstanding in respect of the leases.
Rental income from operating leases is generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Where the rentals are structured solely to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the Company''''s expected inflationary cost increases, such increases are recognized in the year in which such benefits accrue. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating and arranging an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
19. FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognized when the company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instruments.
Financial assets and financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value of the financial assets or financial liabilities, as appropriate, on initial recognition. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are recognized immediately in statement of profit and loss.
Fair value of financial instruments that are quoted in active markets using the quoted bid prices ( financial assets held ) or quoted ask prices ( financial liabilities held ) and using valuation techniques for other instruments . Valuation techniques include discounted cash flow method and other valuation models.
Initial recognition and measurement
All financial assets are recognized initially at fair value and transaction cost that is attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset is also adjusted.
i. Debt instrument/Tax free bonds at amortized cost - A debt instrument at the amortized cost if both the following conditions are met:
a. The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and
b. Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.
After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method.
ii. Equity instruments - All equity instruments in scope of Ind-AS 109 are measured at fair value. Equity instruments which are held for trading are classified as at fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL). For all other equity instruments, the Company decides to classify the same either as at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI) or fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL).
iii. Mutual Funds - All mutual funds in scope of Ind-AS 109 are measured at amortized cost and the (FVTPL) since they could be readily available for sales with significant change in value of the cash inflows.
De-recognition of financial assets
A financial asset is primarily de-recognized when the rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired or the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset.
Initial recognition and measurement
All financial liabilities are recognized initially at fair value and transaction cost that is attributable to the acquisition of the financial liabilities is also adjusted. These liabilities are classified at amortized cost.
Subsequent to initial recognition, these liabilities are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method. This category generally applies to long-term payables and deposits.
De-recognition of financial liabilities
A financial liability is de-recognized when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the de-recognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.
Offsetting of financial instruments
Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognized amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realize the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.
Financial guarantee contracts
A financial guarantee contract is a contract that requires the issuer to make specified payments to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because a specified debtor fails to make payments when due in accordance with the terms of a debt instrument.
Financial guarantee contracts issued by a Company entity are initially measured at their fair values and, if not designated as at FVTPL, are subsequently measured at the higher of:
- the amount of loss allowance determined in accordance with impairment requirements of Ind AS 109; and
- the amount initially recognized less, when appropriate, the cumulative amount of income recognized in accordance with the principles of Ind AS 18.
20. IMPAIRMENT OF FINANCIAL ASSET
In accordance with Ind-AS 109, the Company applies Expected Credit Loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss for financial assets.
ECL is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the Company expects to receive. When estimating the cash flows, the Company is required to consider -
- All contractual terms of the financial assets (including prepayment and extension) over the expected life of the assets.
- Cash flows from the sale of collateral held or other credit enhancements that are integral to the contractual terms.
As a practical expedient the Company has adopted ‘simplified approach'''' using the provision matrix method for recognition of expected loss on trade receivables. The provision matrix is based on historical default rate observed over the expected life of the trade receivable and is adjusted for forward-looking estimates. At every reporting date, the historical default rates are updated and changes in the forward-looking estimates are analyzed. Further receivables are segmented for this analysis where the credit risk characteristics of the receivables are similar.
Other financial assets
For recognition of impairment loss on other financial assets and risk exposure, the Company determines whether there has been a significant increase in the credit risk since initial recognition and if credit risk has increased significantly, impairment loss is provided.
21. REGISTRATION FEE
Registration fee paid to Ministry of Railways (MOR) for movement of container trains on Indian Railways Network and running of Private Freight Terminals (PFT) is shown as Prepaid Expenditure under ‘Current Assets'''' and ‘Non Current Assets''''. The registration fee is amortized over the period covered by the respective agreements with Indian Railways.
22. SIGNIFICANT MANAGEMENT JUDGEMENT IN APPLYING ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATION UNCERTAINTY
Significant management judgments
When preparing the financial statements, management undertakes a number of judgments, estimates and assumptions about the recognition and measurement of assets, liabilities, income and expenses.
The following are significant management judgments in applying the accounting policies of the Company that have the most significant effect on the financial statements.
Recognition of deferred tax assets: The extent to which deferred tax assets can be recognized is based on an assessment of the probability of the Company''''s future taxable income against which the deferred tax assets can be utilized.
Information about estimates and assumptions that have the most significant effect on recognition and measurement of assets, liabilities, income and expenses is provided below. Actual result may be substantially different.
Defined benefit obligation: Management estimates of these obligation is based on a number of critical underlying assumptions such as standard rates of inflation, medical cost trends, mortality, discount rate and anticipation of future salary increases. Variation in these assumptions may significantly impact the defined benefit obligation amount and the annual defined benefit expenses.
Provisions: At each balance sheet date based on management judgment, changes in facts and legal aspects, the Company assesses the requirement of provisions against the outstanding warranties and guarantees. However the actual future outcome may be deferent from this judgment.
Grants are recognized when there is a reasonable assurance that the company has complied with the conditions attached to them and it is reasonably certain that the ultimate realization and utilization will be made. Grants which are receivable as compensation for expenses or losses already incurred or for the purpose of giving immediate financial support to the company, with no future related costs are recognized in statement of profit and loss in period in which they have accrued.
The grants under ‘Served from India Scheme (SFIS)'''' are recognized at the time of utilization of SFIS Scrip towards procurement of assets and inventories. Such assets/inventories have been capitalized with a gross value from transaction date based on deemed cost exemption availed by the Company.
The grants under ‘Service Export from India (SEIS)'''' are recognized when the conditions attached with the grant have been satisfied and there is reasonable assurance that the grants will be received. These are recognized in the period in which the right to receive the same is established i.e. the year during which the services eligible for grant of SEIS have been performed.