1. (a) Significant Accounting policies
(a) Basis of preparation
(i) The financial statements have been prepared in compliance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 (the Act) [Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015] and other relevant provisions of the Act. The financial statements up to year ended 31 March 2016 were prepared in accordance with the accounting standards notified under Companies (Accounting Standard) Rules, 2006 (as amended) and other relevant provisions of the Act. These financial statements are the first financial statements of the Company under Ind AS. The date of transition to Ind AS is 1 April, 2015. Refer note 53 for an explanation of how the transition from previous GAAP to Ind AS has affected the Company’s financial position and its net profit.
(ii) The financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except for the following assets and liabilities which have been measured at fair value:
1. Financial instruments measured at fair value through profit and loss
2. Financial instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income
3. Defined benefit plans - plan assets measured at fair value
(b) Foreign currency translation
(i) Functional and presentation currency
Items included in the financial statements of the Company are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (‘the functional currency’). The standalone financial statements are presented in Indian rupee (INR), which is the company’s functional and presentation currency.
(ii) Transactions and balances
Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates prevailing at the dates of the transactions. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at year end exchange rates(except for long term monetary items outstanding as of 31st March 2016) are generally recognised in profit and loss.
In case of long term monetary items outstanding as of 31st March 2016, foreign exchange differences arising on settlement or translation of long-term foreign currency monetary items relating to acquisition of depreciable assets are adjusted to the carrying cost of the assets and depreciated over the balance life of the asset Non-monetary items that are measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value was determined. Translation differences on assets and liabilities carried at fair value are reported as part of the fair value gain or loss. The gain or loss arising on translation of non-monetary items measured at fair value is treated in line with the recognition of the gain or loss on the change in fair value of the item (i.e., translation differences on items whose fair value gain or loss is recognised in OCI or profit and loss are also recognised in OCI or profit and loss, respectively).
(c) Revenue recognition Sale of goods
Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable. Revenue from sale of goods is recognised when the significant risks and rewards in respect of ownership of products are transferred by the Company, the entity retains neither continuing managerial involvement to the degree usually associated with ownership nor effective control over the goods sold and no significant uncertainty exist regarding the amount of consideration that will be derived from the sale of goods as well as regarding its ultimate collection. Amounts disclosed as revenue are inclusive of excise duty and net of returns, Trade Discounts, Rebates, incentives, Value added taxes/Central Sales Tax and amounts collected on behalf of third parties.
The Company recognizes revenue when the amount of revenue can be reliably measured, it is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the entity.
Consumption of Raw Materials is arrived at after adjusting the difference between the cost of indigenous/duty paid imported raw materials and international cost of raw materials entitled to be imported/imported under Duty Exemption Scheme of the Government of India against direct/indirect exports made/to be made by the Company during the year. Export Incentives under prevalent schemes under EXIM policy/ Foreign Trade Policy are accounted for once received by Company from the Government.
Government grants relating to the purchase of property, plant and equipment are included in non-current liabilities as deferred income and are credited to Profit and Loss on a systematic basis as and when export obligation are fulfilled.
Dividend is recognized as revenue when the right to receive payment has been established.
For all interest bearing financial assets measured at amortised cost, interest income is recorded using the effective interest rate (EIR). EIR is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash receipts over the expected life of the financial instrument or a shorter period, where appropriate, to the gross carrying amount of the financial asset.
(d) Property, Plant and Equipment (PPE)
i. Recognition and measurement
Freehold land is carried at historical cost. All other items of PPE are measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses, if any.
The cost of an item of PPE comprises:
a) its purchase price, including import duties and non-refundable purchase taxes, after deducting trade discounts and rebates.
b) any costs directly attributable to bringing the asset to the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management.
Income and expenses related to the incidental operations, not necessary to bring the item to the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management, are recognised in profit or loss.
The Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all its property, plant and equipment as recognized in the consolidated financial statements as at the date of transition to Ind AS, measured as per the previous GAAP and use that as the deemed cost as at the transition date pursuant to the exemption under Ind AS 101.
Any gain or loss on disposal of an item of PPE is recognised in profit and loss.
ii. Subsequent expenditure
Subsequent expenditure is capitalised only if it is probable that the future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the Company.
Depreciable amount for assets is the cost of an asset, or other amount substituted for cost, less its estimated residual value.
Depreciation on PPE (other than leasehold land) has been provided based on useful life of the assets in accordance with Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013, on Straight Line Method except in respect of Plant and Equipment where the useful life is considered differently based on an independent technical evaluation as 10 to 15 years.
Leasehold land are amortised over the lease period.
Depreciation methods, useful lives and residual values are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted if appropriate.
Profit and loss on disposals are determined by comparing proceeds with carrying amount. These are included in statement of profit and loss.
(e) Investment properties
Property that is held for long-term rental yields or for capital appreciation or both, and that is not occupied by the Company, is classified as investment property. Investment property is measured initially at its cost, including related transaction costs and where applicable borrowing costs. Subsequent expenditure is capitalised to the asset’s carrying amount only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the Company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. All other repairs and maintenance costs are expensed when incurred. When part of an investment property is replaced, the carrying amount of the replaced part is derecognised.
Investment properties are depreciated using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives.
Investment properties generally have a useful life of 30 years for factory building and 60 years for residential and office premises.
(f) Intangible assets
Intangible assets comprise application software purchased, which are not an integral part of the related hardware, and are amortized on a straight line basis over a period of 6 years, which in Management’s estimate represents the period during which the economic benefits will be derived from their use.
Subsequent expenditure is capitalized only when it increases the future economic benefits embodied in the specific to which it relates.
The Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all its intangible assets as recognized in the standalone financial statements as at the date of transition to Ind AS, measured as per the previous GAAP and use that as the deemed cost as at the transition date pursuant to the exemption under Ind AS 101
(g) Impairment of non-financial assets
Assets that have a definite useful life are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. Management periodically assesses using, external and internal sources, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired.
The recoverable amount is higher of the asset’s net selling price or value in use, which means the present value of future cash flows expected to arise from the continuing use of the asset and its eventual disposal. An impairment loss for an asset is reversed if, and only if, the reversal can be related objectively to an event occurring after the impairment loss was recognized. The carrying amount of an asset is increased to its revised recoverable amount, provided that this amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of any accumulated amortization or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years.
(h) Borrowing cost
General and specific borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset are capitalised during the period of time that is required to complete and prepare the asset for its intended use or sale. Qualifying assets are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale.
Investment income earned on the temporary investment of specific borrowings pending their expenditure on qualifying assets is deducted from the borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation.
Other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they are incurred.
(i) Operating lease
Assets taken/given on lease under which substantially all risks and rewards of ownership are effectively retained by the lessor are classified as operating lease. Lease payments/receipts under operating leases are recognised as expenses/income on straight line basis over the primary period of lease only if lease rentals are not linked to inflation in accordance with the respective lease agreements.
(j) Income Tax
Income tax expense comprises current and deferred tax. It is recognised in profit and loss except to the extent that it relates to items recognised directly in equity or in OCI.
i. Current tax
Current tax comprises the expected tax payable or receivable on the taxable income or loss for the year and any adjustment to the tax payable or receivable in respect of previous years. It is measured using tax rates enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Management periodically evaluates positions taken in tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulation is subject to interpretation. It establishes provisions where appropriate on the basis of amounts expected to be paid to the tax authorities.
Current tax assets and liabilities are offset only if:
a) there is a legally enforceable right to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and when they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority; and
b) there is intention either to settle on a net basis, or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.
ii. Deferred tax
Deferred tax is recognised in respect of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for taxation purposes. However, deferred tax liabilities are not recognised if they arise from the initial recognition of goodwill. Deferred income tax is also not accounted for if it arises from initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction other than a business combination that at the time of the transaction affects neither accounting profit nor taxable profit (tax loss).
Deferred tax assets are recognised for unused tax losses, unused tax credits and deductible temporary differences (if any) to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which they can be used. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realised; such reductions are reversed when the probability of future taxable profits improves. Unrecognised deferred tax assets are reassessed at each reporting date and recognised to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will be available against which they can be used.
Deferred tax is measured at the tax rates that are expected to be applied to temporary differences when they reverse, using tax rates enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date and are expected to apply when the related deferred income tax asset is realised or the deferred income tax liability is settled.
Deferred tax liabilities are not recognised for temporary differences between the carrying amount and tax bases of investments in subsidiaries where the Company is able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences and it is probable that the differences will not reverse in the foreseeable future.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset only if they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority on the same taxable entity.
(k) Cash and cash equivalents
For the purpose of presentation in the statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents includes cash on hand, call deposits and other short-term, highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.
Raw materials, packing materials and stores, work in progress, traded and finished goods are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value, cost is calculated on moving weighted average basis.
In respect of finished goods, cost includes materials, appropriate share of utilities, other overheads and applicable excise duty. Cost of inventories comprises all costs of purchase, costs of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.
Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
(m) Research and development
Revenue expenditure on Research and Development is charged to Profit and Loss Account as incurred. Capital expenditure on assets acquired for Research and Development is added to PPE.
(n) Financial instruments
A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity. Financial instruments also include derivative contracts such as foreign currency foreign exchange forward contracts, interest rate swaps and currency options; and embedded derivatives in the host contract.
i. Financial assets
The Company shall classify financial assets as subsequently measured at amortised cost, fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI) or fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL) on the basis of its business model for managing the financial assets and the contractual cash flow characteristics of the financial asset.
Initial recognition and measurement
All financial assets are recognised initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within a time frame established by regulation or convention in the market place (regular way trades) are recognised on the trade date, i.e., the date that the Company commits to purchase or sell the asset.
- A ‘debt instrument’ is measured at the amortised cost if both the following conditions are met:
a) The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and
b) Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.
- After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included in finance income in the profit and loss.
- Debt instruments included within the fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL) category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the statement of profit and loss.
- The Company subsequently measures all equity investments in companies other than equity investments in subsidiaries, at fair value. Where the Company’s management has elected to present fair value gains and losses on equity investments in other comprehensive income, there is no subsequent reclassification of fair value gains and losses to profit or loss. Dividends from such investments are recognised in profit and loss as other income when the Company’s right to receive payments is established.
- A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a Company of similar financial assets) is primarily derecognised (i.e. removed from the Company’s balance sheet) when:
- The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or
- The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ‘pass-through’ arrangement; and either (a) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.
- When the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into a pass-through arrangement, it evaluates if and to what extent it has retained the risks and rewards of ownership. When it has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the asset, nor transferred control of the asset, the Company continues to recognise the transferred asset to the extent of the Company’s continuing involvement. In that case, the Company also recognises an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained.
- Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured at the lower of the original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration that the Company could be required to repay.
Impairment of financial assets
In accordance with Ind-AS 109, the Company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the following financial assets and credit risk exposure:
a) Financial assets that are debt instruments, and are measured at amortised cost e.g., loans, debt securities, deposits, and bank balance
b) Trade receivables - The application of simplified approach does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognises impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition.
ii. Financial liabilities
The Company classifies all financial liabilities as subsequently measured at amortised cost, except for financial liabilities at fair value through profit and loss. Such liabilities, including derivatives that are liabilities, shall be subsequently measured at fair value.
Initial recognition and measurement
Financial liabilities are classified, at initial recognition, as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, loans and borrowings, payables, or as derivatives designated as hedging instruments in an effective hedge, as appropriate.
All financial liabilities are recognised initially at fair value and, in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs.
The Company’s financial liabilities include trade and other payables, loans and borrowings including bank overdrafts, and derivative financial instruments.
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit and loss
Financial liabilities at fair value through profit and loss include financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit and loss. Financial liabilities are classified as held for trading if they are incurred for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term. This category also includes derivative financial instruments entered into by the Company that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as defined by Ind-AS 109.
Gains or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognised in the profit and loss.
Financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition at fair value through profit and loss are designated at the initial date of recognition, and only if the criteria in Ind-AS 109 are satisfied. For liabilities designated as FVTPL, fair value gains/ losses attributable to changes in own credit risk are recognized in OCI. These gains/loss are not subsequently transferred to profit and loss. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity. All other changes in fair value of such liability are recognised in the statement of profit and loss. The Company has not designated any financial liability as at fair value through profit and loss.
Loans and borrowings
After initial recognition, interest-bearing loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the EIR method. Gains and losses are recognised in profit and loss when the liabilities are derecognized.
Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included as finance costs in the statement of profit and loss.
This category generally applies to interest-bearing loans and borrowings.
A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.
Offsetting of financial instruments
Financial assets and liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet where there is a legally enforceable right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis or realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously. The legally enforceable right must not be contingent on future events and must be enforceable in the normal course of business and in the event of default, insolvency or bankruptcy of the Company or the counterparty.
Derivative financial instruments
The Company uses derivative financial instruments, such as foreign exchange forward contracts to manage its exposure to foreign exchange risks. For contracts where hedge accounting is not followed, such derivative financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at fair value through profit and loss. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.
iii. Hedge accounting
Forward exchange contracts entered to hedge highly probable forecast revenues are recorded using the principles of hedge accounting as per Ind AS 109. Such forward exchange contracts which qualify for cash flow hedge accounting and where the conditions of Ind AS 109 have been met are initially measured at fair value and are re-measured at subsequent reporting dates. Changes in the fair value of these derivatives that are designated and effective as hedges of the future cash flows are recognized directly under shareholder’s funds in the cash flow hedging reserve and the ineffective portion is recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.
At the inception of a hedge relationship, the Company formally designates and documents the hedge relationship to which the Company wishes to apply hedge accounting and the risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge. The documentation includes the Company’s risk management objective and strategy for undertaking hedge, the hedging/economic relationship, the hedged item or transaction, the nature of the risk being hedged, hedge ratio and how the entity will assess the effectiveness of changes in the hedging instrument’s fair value in offsetting the exposure to changes in the hedged item’s fair value or cash flows attributable to the hedged risk. Such hedges are expected to be highly effective in achieving offsetting changes in fair value or cash flows and are assessed on an ongoing basis to determine that they actually have been highly effective throughout the financial reporting periods for which they were designated.
Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold or terminated or exercised or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. Cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in shareholders’ funds is transferred to statement of profit and loss when the forecasted transaction occurs. If a hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in shareholders’ funds is transferred to the statement of profit and loss.
(o) Employee benefits
i. Short term employee benefits
Short term employee benefits consisting of wages, salaries, social security contributions, ex-gratia and accrued leave, are benefits payable and recognised in 12 months. Short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognised undiscounted during the year as the related service are rendered by the employee.
ii. Defined contribution plans
Company’s contribution for the year paid/payable to defined contribution retirement benefit schemes are charged to Statement of Profit and Loss
The Company’s contribution towards provident fund, superannuation fund and employee state insurance scheme for certain eligible employees are considered to be defined contribution plan for which the Company made contribution on monthly basis.
iii. Defined benefit plans
Company’s liabilities towards defined benefit plans and other long term benefits viz. gratuity and compensated absences expected to occur after twelve months, are determined using the Projected Unit Credit Method. Actuarial valuations under the Projected Unit Credit Method are carried out at the balance sheet date. Actuarial gains and losses are recognised in the Statement of other comprehensive income in the period of occurrence of such gains and losses. The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the balance sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as adjusted for unrecognised past service cost, and as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets, if any.
(p) Provisions , Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets
A provision is recognised if as a result of a past event, the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) that can be estimated reliably and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are recognised at the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the balance sheet date. If the effect of time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability.
A contingent liability exists when there is a possible but not probable obligation, or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources, or a present obligation whose amount cannot be estimated reliably. Contingent liabilities do not warrant provisions but are disclosed unless the possibility of outflow of resources is remote. Contingent assets are neither recognised nor disclosed in the financial statements. However, when the realisation of income is virtually certain, then the related asset is not a contingent asset and its recognition is appropriate.
(q) Earnings per share (EPS)
Basic EPS is computed using the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. Diluted EPS is computed using the weighted average number of equity and dilutive equity equivalent shares outstanding during the period except where the results would be anti-dilutive.
(r) Current vs non-current classification
The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current/ non-current classification. An asset is treated as current when it is:
- Expected to be realised or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle
- Held primarily for the purpose of trading
- Expected to be realised within twelve months after the reporting period, or
- Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period
All other assets are classified as non-current.
A liability is current when:
- It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle
- It is held primarily for the purpose of trading
- It is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or
- There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period The Company classifies all other liabilities as non-current.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.
The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash and cash equivalents. The Company has identified twelve months as its operating cycle.
(s) Key estimates and assumptions
The preparation of financial statements in accordance with Ind AS requires use of estimates and assumptions for some items, which might have an effect on their recognition and measurement in the balance sheet and statement of profit and loss. The actual amounts realised may differ from these estimates.
Estimates and assumptions are required in particular for:
- Determination of the estimated useful lives of tangible assets and intangible assets and the assessment as to which components of the cost may be capitalized.
Useful lives of tangible assets and intangible assets are based on the life prescribed in Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013. In cases, where the useful lives are different from that prescribed in Schedule II, they are based on management estimate, taking into account the nature of the asset, the estimated usage of the asset, the operating conditions of the asset, past history of replacement, anticipated technological changes, manufacturers’ warranties and maintenance support. Assumptions also need to be made, when the Company assesses, whether an asset may be capitalized and which components of the cost of the asset may be capitalised.
- Recognition and measurement of defined benefit obligations
The obligation arising from defined benefit plan is determined on the basis of actuarial assumptions. Key actuarial assumptions include discount rate, trends in salary escalation and vested future benefits and life expectancy. The discount rate is determined by reference to market yields at the end of the reporting period on government bonds. The period to maturity of the underlying bonds correspond to the probable maturity of the post-employment benefit obligations.
- Provisions and contingent liabilities
The Company exercises judgment in measuring and recognising provisions and the exposures to contingent liabilities related to pending litigation or other outstanding claims subject to negotiated settlement, mediation, arbitration or government regulation, as well as other contingent liabilities. Judgment is necessary in assessing the likelihood that a pending claim will succeed, or a liability will arise, and to quantify the possible range of the financial settlement. Because of the inherent uncertainty in this evaluation process, actual losses may be different from the originally estimated provision.
- Measurement of fair values
The Company’s accounting policies and disclosures require the measurement of fair values, for both financial and non-financial assets and liabilities. The Company has an established control framework with respect to the measurement of fair values. The finance team has overall responsibility for overseeing all significant fair value measurements, including Level 3 fair values, and reports directly to the CFO.
They regularly review significant unobservable inputs and valuation adjustments. If third party information is used to measure fair values then the finance team assesses the evidence obtained from the third parties to support the conclusion that such valuations meet the requirements of Ind AS, including the level in the fair value hierarchy in which such valuations should be classified.
When measuring the fair value of an asset or a liability, the Company uses observable market data as far as possible. Fair values are categorized into different levels in a fair value hierarchy based on the inputs used in the valuation techniques as follows:
- Level 1: quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
- Level 2: inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly (i.e. as prices) or indirectly (i.e. derived from prices).
- Level 3: inputs for the asset or liability that are not based on observable market data (unobservable inputs).
If the inputs used to measure the fair value of an asset or a liability fall into different levels of the fair value hierarchy, then the fair value measurement is categorized in its entirety in the same level of the fair value hierarchy as the lowest level input that is significant to the entire measurement.
(t) Rounding of amounts
All amounts disclosed in the financial statements and notes have been rounded off to the nearest lakhs as per the requirement of Schedule III, unless otherwise stated.
(u) Standards issued or modified but not yet effective up to the date of issuance of the company’s financial statements:
In March 2017, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs issued the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendments) Rules, 2017, notifying amendments to Ind AS 7, Statement of Cash Flows and Ind AS 102, Share-Based Payment. These amendments are in accordance with the recent amendments made by International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) to IAS 7, Statement of Cash Flows and IFRS 2, Share-Based Payments, respectively. The amendments are applicable to the Company from April 1, 2017.
Amendment to Ind AS 7
The amendment to Ind AS 7 requires the entities to provide disclosures that enable users of financial statements to evaluate changes in liabilities arising from financing activities, including both changes arising from cash flows and non-cash changes, suggesting inclusion of a reconciliation between the opening and closing balances in the Balance Sheet for liabilities arising from financing activities, to meet the disclosure requirement.
The Company had evaluated the disclosure requirements of the amendment and the effect on the Standalone Financial Statements is not expected to be material.
Securities premium reserve
The amounts received in excess of the par value of Equity shares issued have been classified as Securities premium. In accordance with the provisions of Section 52 of the Indian Companies Act, 2013, the securities premium account can only be utilised for the purposes of issuing bonus shares, repurchasing the Company’s shares, redemption of preference shares and debentures, and offsetting direct issue costs and discount allowed for the issue of shares or debentures.
The General reserve is used from time to time to transfer profits from retained earnings for appropriation purposes. As the General reserve is created by a transfer from one component of equity to another and is not an item of other comprehensive income, items included in the General reserve will not be reclassified subsequently to the statement of profit and loss.
Retained earnings includes the Company’s cumulative earnings and losses respectively
Remeasurements of the net defined benefit Plans
Remeasurements of defined benefit liability comprises actuarial gains and losses and returm om plan assets (excluding interest income)
Fair value through other comprehensive income - equity instruments
The Company has elected to recognise changes in the fair value of certain investments in equity securities in other comprehensive income. These changes are accumulated within the FVOCI equity investments reserve within equity. The company transfers amount from this reserve to retained earnings when the relevant equity securities are derecognised.
Cash flow hedging reserve
The company uses hedging instruments as part of its management of foreign currency risk associated with its highly probable forecast sale. For hedging foreign currency risk, the company uses foreign currency forward contracts which are designated as cash flow hedges. To the extent these hedges are effective; the change in fair value of the hedging instrument is recognised in the cash flow hedging reserve. Amounts recognised in the cash flow hedging reserve is reclassified to profit or loss when the hedge item affects profit or loss i.e., when the designated sale occurs.