A) Significant Accounting Policies:
(a) Basis of Preparation
The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in India (‘Indian GAAP’) under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis in compliance with all material aspect of the Accounting Standard (‘AS’) notified under section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 (‘the Act’) read with Rule 7 of Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014. The accounting policies have been consistently applied by the Company, and are consistent with those used in the previous year, unless otherwise mentioned in the notes.
Based on the nature of products/ services and their realization in cash and cash equivalents, the company has ascertained its operating cycle as twelve months for the purpose of current and non-current classification of assets and liabilities, in terms of Revised Schedule III to the Act.
(b) Use of Estimates
The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and reported amount of assets, liabilities, income and expenses and the disclosure of contingent liabilities on the date of financial statements. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Any revision to accounting estimates is recognized in the period in which such revisions are made.
(c) Fixed Assets (Property, Plant & Equipments & Intangible Assets)
Fixed assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment loss if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and any cost, attributable to bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use.
Intangible assets are recognized only if it is probable that the future economic benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to the enterprise and the cost of the asset can be measured reliably. The intangible assets are recorded at cost and are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation.
(d) Depreciation and Amortisation
Depreciation on fixed assets is provided on economic useful life of the Assets in the manner specified in the Schedule II of the act, except,
i. Certain items of Plant and machinery (including computers) installed at and used in Institutional projects and certain training centers which are depreciated over the number of years till the completion of the period of the contract when the assets are transferred to those parties.
ii. Vehicles purchased under the “Own Your Car” (OYC) scheme for the employees, which are depreciated over the period of the scheme.
iii. Goodwill arising on acquisition of business unit is amortised over a period of ten years.
iv. Depreciation on Fixed Assets are provided at the following rates based on estimated useful life as per the Act.
Office Premises 60 years
Furniture & fixtures 5 years
Computers Hardware, Software & Courseware 3 years
Office Equipment 5 years
Electrical Equipments 10 years
v. Depreciation on furniture & fixtures which are installed at leasehold premises, are amortised over lease period
vi. Depreciation on the fixed assets added / disposed off / discarded during the year has been provided on pro-rata basis with reference to the date of addition / disposition / discardation
vii. Assets purchased during the year whose acquisition cost is Rs 5,000 or less are depreciated fully in the month of purchase.
(e) Impairment of Fixed Assets
The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal/external factors. An asset is treated as impaired when the carrying cost of the assets exceed its recoverable value. An impairment loss, if any, is charged to the Statement of profit and loss in the year, in which an asset is identified as impaired. When there is indication that an impairment loss recognised for an assets earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss, except in case of revalued assets.
(f) Borrowing Costs
Borrowing costs attributable to acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as a part of the cost of such assets up to the date when such asset is ready for its intended use.
All other borrowing costs are charged to Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they are incurred. Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs that an entity incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds.
(g) Foreign Currency Transactions
Transactions in foreign currency are recorded at the rate of exchange prevailing on the date of transaction. Foreign currency monetary items are reported using closing rate of exchange at the end of the year. The resulting exchange gain/loss is reflected in the Statement of profit and loss. Other non-monetary items, like fixed assets, investments in equity shares, are carried in terms of historical cost using the exchange rate at the date of transaction.
Any Premium/discount arising at the inception of a forward exchange contract is recognized as income/expenses over the life of the contracts, except where the contract is designated as a cash flow hedge. Any Profit/Loss on cancellation/renewal of forward exchange contract is recognized as income/expense for the year.
Investments which, being readily disposable and are intended to be held for period lesser than a year are considered as ‘Current’ and other Investments are termed as ‘Long Term’. Current Investments are stated at lower of cost and fair value, determined by category of investment.
Long Term Investments are stated at cost after deducting provision, if any, made for decline, other than temporary in the value.
Inventory of educational course material is valued at cost or net realisable value whichever is lower. Cost is determined on Weighted Average basis.
(j) Government Grants
Government Grants are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the same will be received. Revenue grants are recognized in the Statement of profit and loss. Capital grants relating to specific fixed assets are reduced from the gross value of the respective fixed assets. Other capital grants are credited to capital reserve.
(k) Revenue Recognition
Revenue in respect of Training and Education services is recognised on rendering of services, only when it is reasonably certain that the ultimate collection will be made. The revenue from fixed time contracts is recognized over the period of contracts. For services rendered through franchisees only the company’s share of revenue is recognized.
Revenue in respect of sale of Education course materials is recognised on delivery of the course materials to the customers.
Revenue is recognized when significant risks & rewards of the goods and services have been transferred to the buyer & when it is probable that the economic benefits will flows to the Company and revenue can be reliably measured.
Dividend from investments is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss, when the right to receive payment is established.
Interest Income is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and applicable interest rate.
(l) Retirement Benefits Defined Contribution plan
The Company’s makes defined contribution to Government Employee Provident Fund, Government Employee Pension Fund, Employee Deposit Linked Insurance, ESI and Superannuation Schemes, which are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on accrual basis.
Defined benefit plan
The Company’s liabilities under Payment of Gratuity Act (funded) and long term compensated absences are determined on the basis of actuarial valuation made at the end of each financial year using the projected unit credit method except for short term compensated absences, which are provided on estimates. Actuarial gain & losses are recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss as income or expenses. Obligation is measured at the present value of estimated future cash flows using the discounted rate that is determined by reference to market yields at the Balance Sheet date on government bonds where the currency and terms of the government bonds are consistent with the currency and estimated terms of the defined benefit obligation
(m) Employees Stock Option Plan ( ESOP)
In respect of the stock option granted to employees pursuant to the Company’s stock option schemes, accounting is done as per the Fair value method as permitted by the Securities Exchange Board of India SEBI (Share Based Employee Benefits) regulations 2014 and the Guidance Note on Accounting for employee Share Based Payment issued by the ICAI, whereby the Fair value of the option is recognized as deferred employee compensation. The deferred employee compensation is charged to Statement of profit & loss account on straight line basis over the vesting period of the option. The options that lapse are reversed by a credit to employee compensation expense, to the extent of the amortised portion of value of lapsed portion.The Employee Stock Option Account (share option outstanding account), net of any unamortised deferred employee compensation is shown separately as part of reserves.
(n) Income Tax
Tax expense comprises of current and deferred tax.
Provision for current tax is made on the basis of estimated taxable income for the current accounting year in accordance with the Income Tax Act, 1961.
The deferred tax for timing differences between the book and tax profits for the year is accounted for, using the tax rates and laws that have been substantively enacted as of the Balance Sheet Date. Deferred tax assets arising from timing differences are recognized to the extent there is reasonable certainty that these would be realized in future.
Deferred tax assets, in case of unabsorbed losses and unabsorbed depreciation, are recognized only if there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that sufficient future tax income will be available against which such deferred tax asset can be realized.
(o) Operating Lease
Leases, where significant portion of risk and reward of ownership are retained by the Lessor, are classified as Operating Leases and lease rentals thereon are charged to the Statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
(p) Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and Cash Equivalents for the purpose of cash flow statement comprise cash on hand and cash at bank including fixed deposit with original maturity period of less than three months and short term highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less.
(q) Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets
Contingent Liabilities are possible but not probable obligations as on Balance Sheet date, based on the available evidence.
Provisions are recognised when there is a present obligation as a result of past events, and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made.
Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date.
Department appeals, in respect of cases won by the Company, are also considered as contingent Liabilities.
Contingent Assets are neither recognized, nor disclosed.
(r) Segment Reporting Policies
(i) Identification of segments
The Company has disclosed Business Segment as the primary segment. Segments have been identified taking into account the nature of the products and services provided the differing risks and returns, the organization structure and internal reporting system.
The Company has identified geographical markets as the secondary segments. Geographical revenues are allocated based on the location of the customer. The analysis of geographical segments is based on the areas in which major operating divisions of the Group operate.
(ii) Inter segment Transfers
The Group generally accounts for intersegment sales and transfers as if the sales or transfers were to third parties at current market prices.
(iii) Allocation of Assets and liabilities
Assets and liabilities that are directly attributable to segments are disclosed under each reportable segment. All other assets and liabilities are disclosed as unallocable.
(iv) Allocation of Income and expenses
Income and expenses directly attributable to segments are reported under each reportable segment. Common expenses which are not directly identifiable to each reporting segment have been allocated to each reporting segment on the basis of relative contribution of each segment to the total common costs.
All other income and expenses which are not attributable or allocable to segments have been disclosed as unallocable items
(s) Hedge Accounting
The Company has started hedging its risk of foreign currency fluctuations relating to receivables of highly probable forecast transactions pertaining to Franchise income by entering into Exchange Traded Futures (ETF’s). In accordance with Company’s risk mitigating policy, it has designated these ETF”s as cash flow hedge by early application of the recognition and measurement principles set out in the Accounting Standard 30 “Financial Instrument-Recognition and Measurement” to these transactions. Accordingly, changes in the fair value of these ETF’s designated as effective hedges for the future cash flows are recognised directly in shareholder’s funds and ineffective portion thereof is recognised directly in the ‘ Statement of profit and loss’. On squaring off the complete position of such ETF on expire, sold, terminated or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting as on any date the gain or loss on such transactions is accounted in statement of profit and loss.