Company Overview & Significant Accounting Policies
1. Reporting Entity
AIA Engineering Limited (the ''''Company’) is a Company domiciled in India, with its registered office situated at 115, G.V.M.M Estate, Odhav Road, Odhav, Ahmedabad-382410, Gujarat, India. The Company has been incorporated under the provisions of Companies Act applicable in India and its equity shares are listed on the National Stock Exchange of India Ltd. (NSE) and BSE Ltd. in India. The Company is primarily involved in manufacturing of High Chrome Mill Internals.
2. Basis of preparation
(a) Statement of compliance with Ind AS
These financial statements are prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) as per the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 and Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016 notified under Section 133 of Companies Act, 2013 (the ''''Act’) and other relevant provisions of the Act.
The Company has adopted all the relevant Ind AS and the adoption was carried out in accordance with Ind AS 101, "First Time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standards". The transition was carried out from Indian Accounting Principles generally accepted in India as prescribed under Section 133 of the Act, read with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 (IGAAP), which was the previous GAAP Reconciliation and description of the effect of the transition have been summarized in Note 46.
The transition to Ind AS has resulted in changes in the presentation of the financial statements, disclosures in the notes thereto and accounting policies and principles.
The financial statements were authorized for issue by the Company’s Board of Directors on 25/05/2017 Details of Significant accounting policies are included in the Note 3
(b) Functional and presentation currency
These financial statements are presented in Indian Rupees (INR), which is also the functional currency. All the amounts have been rounded off to the nearest lacs, unless otherwise indicated.
(c) Basis of Measurement
The financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except for the following items:
(d) Use of Estimates and Judgments
In preparing these financial statements, management has made judgments, estimates, and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, incomes and expenses. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. They are based on historical experience and other factors including expectations of future events that may have a financial impact on the Company and that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. Revisions to the accounting estimates are recognized prospectively.
Information about judgments made in applying accounting policies that have the most significant effects on the amounts recognized in the financial statements is included in the respective note.
Assumptions and Estimation Uncertainties:
Information about assumptions and estimation uncertainties that have a significant risk of resulting in a material adjustment within the next financial year are included in the respective note.
(e) Measurement of Fair Values
The Company has established control framework with respect to the measurement of fair values. The Company regularly reviews significant unobservable inputs and valuation adjustments. If third party information, such as broker quotes or pricing services, is used to measure fair values, then the Company assesses the evidence obtained from the third parties to support the conclusion that these valuations meet the requirements of Ind AS, including the level in fair value hierarchy in which the valuations should be classified.
Significant valuation issues are reported to the Company’s Board of Directors.
Fair values are categorized into different levels in a fair value hierarchy based on the inputs used in the valuation techniques as follows:
Level 1 - quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 - inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly (i.e as prices) or indirectly (i.e derived from prices).
Level 3 - inputs for the asset or liability that are not based on observable market data (unobservable inputs).
When measuring the fair value of an asset or a liability, the Company uses observable market data as far as possible. If the inputs used to measure the fair value of an asset or a liability fall into different levels of the fair value hierarchy, then the fair value measurement is categorized in its entirety in the same level of the fair value hierarchy as the lowest level input that is significant to the entire measurement.
The Company recognizes transfers between levels of the fair value hierarchy at the end of the reporting period during which the change has occurred.
Further information about the assumptions made in measuring fair values is included in the respective note.
3. Significant Accounting Policies
a. Foreign Currency
Transactions in foreign currencies are translated into the functional currency of the Company at exchange rates at the date of transactions or an average rate if the average rate approximates the actual rate at the date of transaction.
Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rate at the reporting date. Non-monetary assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rate when the fair value was determined. Nonmonetary assets and liabilities that are measured based on historical cost in foreign currency are translated at the exchange rate at the date of transaction. Exchange differences are recognized in the profit or loss, except exchange differences arising from the translation of qualifying cash flow hedges to the extent hedges are effective which are recognized in Other Comprehensive Income (OCI).
b. Financial Instruments
1. Financial Assets
The Company classifies its financial assets in the following measurement categories:
- Those measured at amortized cost and
- Those to be measured subsequently at fair value (either through other comprehensive income or through profit or loss)
The classification depends on the Company’s business model for managing the financial assets and the contractual terms of the cash flows.
- A financial asset is measured at amortized cost if it meets both of the following conditions and is not designated as at FVTPL :
- the asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets to collect contractual cash flows; and
- the contractual terms of a financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
- A debt investment is measured at FVOCI if it meets both of the following conditions and is not designated as at FVTPL :
- the asset is held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets; and
- the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.
- Financial assets are not reclassified subsequent to their initial recognition except if and in the period the Company changes its business model for managing financial assets.
At initial recognition, the Company measures a financial asset when it becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instruments and measures at its fair value except trade receivables which are initially measured at transaction price. Transaction costs are incremental costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Transaction costs of financial assets carried at fair value through profit or loss are expensed in profit or loss. A regular way purchase and sale of financial assets are accounted for at trade date.
The Company derecognizes a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire, or it transfers the rights to receive the contractual cash flows in a transaction in which substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset are transferred or in which the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership and does not retain control of the financial asset.
If the Company enters into transactions whereby it transfers assets recognized on its balance sheet, but retains either all or substantially all of the risks and rewards of the transferred assets, the transferred assets are not derecognized.
2. Financial Liabilities
i) Classification, Subsequent Measurement and Gains and Losses
Financial liabilities are classified as measured at amortized cost or FVTPL. A financial liability is classified as at FVTPL if it is classified as held- for- trading, or it is a derivative or it is designated as such on initial recognition. Financial liabilities at FVTPL are measured at fair value and net gains and losses, including any interest expense, are recognized in profit or loss. Other financial liabilities are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method. Interest expense and foreign exchange gains and losses are recognized in profit or loss. Any gain or loss on derecognition is also recognized in profit or loss.
The Company derecognizes a financial liability when its contractual obligations are discharged or cancelled, or expire.
The Company also derecognizes a financial liability when its terms are modified and the cash flows under the modified terms are substantially different. In this case, a new financial liability based on the modified terms is recognized at fair value. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability extinguished and the new financial liability with modified terms is recognized in the profit or loss.
Financial assets and financial liabilities are off set and the net amount presented in the Balance Sheet when, and only when, the Company currently has a legally enforceable right to set off the amounts and it intends either to settle them on a net basis or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.
4. Investment in Subsidiaries
Investment in subsidiaries is carried at cost in the separate financial statements.
c. Derivative Instruments and Hedge Accounting
The Company strictly uses foreign currency forward contracts/interest rate swap to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency/interest rate fluctuations relating to certain forecasted transactions. As per Ind AS 109-Financial Instruments- Foreign currency forward contract/interest rate swap derivative instruments are initially measured at fair value and are re-measured at subsequent reporting dates. Changes in the fair value of these derivatives that are designated and effective as hedges of future cash flows are recognized in Hedging Reserve (under reserves and surplus) through OCI and the ineffective portion is recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
The accumulated gains/losses on the derivatives accounted in Hedging Reserve are transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the same period in which gains/losses on the underlying item hedged are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. When hedge accounting is discontinued for a cash flow hedge, the net gain or loss will remain in Hedging Reserve and be reclassified to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the same period or periods during which the formerly hedged transaction is reported in the Statement of Profit and Loss. If a hedged transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gains / losses recognized in Hedging Reserve is transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss.
d. Property, Plant and Equipment
i. Recognition and Measurement
Items of property, plant and equipment are measured at cost, which includes capitalized borrowing costs, less accumulated depreciation, and accumulated impairment losses, if any, except freehold land which is carried at historical cost.
Cost of an item of property, plant and equipment comprises its purchase price, including import duties and non-refundable purchase taxes, after deducting trade discounts and rebates, any directly attributable cost of bringing the item to its working condition for its intended use and estimated costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located.
The cost of a self-constructed item of property, plant and equipment comprises the cost of materials and direct labor, any other costs directly attributable to bringing the item to working condition for its intended use, and estimated costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located.
If significant parts of an item of property, plant and equipment have different useful lives, then they are accounted for as separate items (major components) of property, plant and equipment.
Useful lives have been determined in accordance with Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013. The residual values are not more than 5% of the original cost of the asset.
Capital Work-in-progress includes cost of assets at sites and constructions expenditure.
Any gain or loss on disposal of an item of property, plant and equipment is recognized in profit or loss.
ii. Transition to Ind AS
On transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its property, plant and equipment recognized as at 1st April, 2015, measured as per the previous GAAP and use that carrying value as the deemed cost of such property, plant and equipment.
iii. Subsequent Expenditure
Subsequent expenditure is capitalized only if it is probable that the future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the Company.
Depreciation is calculated on cost of items of property, plant and equipment (other than freehold land and properties under construction) less their estimated residual values over their estimated useful lives using the straight-line method and is generally recognized in the statement of profit and loss. Amortization on leasehold land is provided over the period of lease.
Depreciation method, useful lives and residual values are reviewed at each financial year-end and adjusted if appropriate. Based on technical evaluation and consequent advice, the management believes that its estimates of useful lives best represent the period over which management expects to use these assets.
Depreciation on additions (disposals) is provided on a pro-rata basis i.e. from (up to) the date on which asset is ready for use (disposed of).
An item of Property, Plant and Equipment is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of assets.
e. Intangible Assets
i. Initial Recognition and Classification
Goodwill is not amortized. It is tested annually for impairment.
Other intangible assets including those acquired by the Company are initially measured at cost. Such intangible assets are subsequently measured at cost less accumulated amortization and any accumulated impairment losses.
ii. Subsequent Expenditure
Subsequent expenditure is capitalized only when it increases the future economic benefits embodied in the specific asset to which it relates. All other expenditures are recognized in profit or loss as incurred.
iii. Transition to Ind AS
On transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its intangible assets recognized as at 1st April, 2015, measured as per the previous GAAP, and use that carrying value as the deemed cost of such intangible assets.
Amortization is calculated to write off the cost of intangible assets less their estimated residual values over the estimated useful lives using the straight line method, and is included in depreciation and amortization in Statement of Profit and Loss.
The estimated useful lives of software are 6 years. Patents are amortized over a period of 20 years on straight basis as the benefits are generally available to the company for more than 10 years. Goodwill is not amortized and is tested for impairment annually.
Amortization method, useful lives and residual values are reviewed at the end of each financial year and adjusted if appropriate.
An item of an intangible asset is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of assets.
Inventories are measured at the lower of cost and net realizable value. The cost of inventories includes expenditure incurred in acquiring the inventories, production or conversion costs and other costs incurred in bringing them to their present location and condition. In the case of manufactured inventories and work-in-progress, cost includes an appropriate share of fixed production overheads based on normal operating capacity.
Cost of raw materials, stores and spares are determined on weighted average basis.
Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and selling expenses.
The net realizable value of work-in-progress is determined with reference to the selling prices of related finished products.
Raw materials, components and other supplies held for use in the production of finished products are not written down below cost except in cases where material prices have declined and it is estimated that the cost of the finished products will exceed their net realizable value.
The comparison of cost and net realizable value is made on an item-by-item basis.
Excess/shortages if any, arising on physical verification are absorbed in the respective consumption accounts.
i. Impairment of Financial Assets
The Company recognizes loss allowances for financial assets measured at amortized cost using expected credit loss model.
At each reporting date, the Company assesses whether financial assets carried at amortized cost are credit-impaired. A financial asset is ''''credit- impaired’ when one or more events that have a detrimental impact on the estimated future cash flows of the financial asset have occurred.
For trade receivables, the Company always measures the loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses.
For all other financial assets, the Company measures loss allowances at an amount equal to twelve months expected credit losses unless there has been a significant increase in credit risk from initial recognition in which those are measured at lifetime expected credit risk.
Lifetime expected credit losses are the expected credit losses that result from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial asset. Twelve months expected credit losses are the portion of lifetime expected credit losses that represent the expected credit losses that result from default events on a financial instrument that are possible within the twelve months after the reporting date (or a shorter period if the expected life of the instrument is less than twelve months).
When determining whether the credit risk of a financial asset has increased significantly since initial recognition and when estimating expected credit losses, the Company considers reasonable and supportable information that is relevant and available without undue cost or effort. This includes both quantitative and qualitative information and analysis, based on the Company’s historical experience and informed credit assessment and including forward-looking information.
The Company assumes that the credit risk on a financial asset has increased significantly if it is more than 360 days past due. The Company considers a financial asset to be in default when the borrower is unlikely to pay its credit obligations to the Company in full.
Measurement of Expected Credit Losses
Expected credit losses are a probability-weighted estimate of credit losses. Credit losses are measured as the present value of all cash shortfalls (i.e. the difference between the cash flows due to the Company in accordance with the contract and the cash flows that the Company expects to receive).
Presentation of Allowance for Expected Credit Losses in the Balance Sheet
Loss allowances for financial assets measured at amortized cost are deducted from the gross carrying amount of the assets.
The gross carrying amount of a financial asset is written off (either partially or in full) to the extent that there is no realistic prospect of recovery. This is generally the case when the Company determines (on the basis of availability of the information) that the debtor does not have assets or sources of income that could generate sufficient cash flows to repay the amounts subject to the write- off. However, financial assets that are written off could still be subject to enforcement activities in order to comply with the Company’s procedures for recovery of amounts due.
ii. Impairment of Non-Financial Assets
The Company’s non-financial assets are reviewed at each reporting date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, then the asset’s recoverable amount is estimated.
An impairment loss is recognized if the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated recoverable amount. Impairment losses are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.
In respect of assets for which impairment loss has been recognized in prior periods, the Company reviews at each reporting date whether there is any indication that the loss has decreased or no longer exists. An impairment loss is reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. Such a reversal is made only to the extent that the asset’s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortization, if no impairment loss had been recognized.
h. Employee Benefits
i. Short Term Employee Benefits
Short-term employee benefit obligations are measured on an undiscounted basis and are expensed as the related service is provided.
ii. Defined Contribution Plan
A defined contribution plan is a post-employment benefit plan under which an entity pays fixed contributions into a separate entity and will have no legal or constructive obligation to pay further amounts. The Company makes specified monthly contributions towards Government administered provident fund scheme. Obligations for contributions to defined contribution plans are recognized as an employee benefit expense in profit or loss in the periods during which the related services are rendered by employees.
Prepaid contributions are recognized as an asset to the extent that a cash refund or a reduction in future payments is available.
iii. Defined Benefit Plan
A defined benefit plan is a post-employment benefit plan other than a defined contribution plan. The Company’s net obligation in respect of defined benefit plans is calculated separately for each plan by estimating the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in the current and prior periods, discounting that amount using market yields at the end of reporting period on government bonds and deducting the fair value of any plan assets.
The calculation of defined benefit obligation is performed annually by a qualified actuary using the projected unit credit method. When the calculation results in a potential asset for the Company, the recognized asset is limited to the present value of economic benefits available in the form of any future refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan (''''the Asset Ceiling’). In order to calculate the present value of economic benefits, consideration is given to any minimum funding requirements.
Remeasurements of the net defined benefit liability, which comprise actuarial gains and losses, the return on plan assets (excluding interest) and the effect of the asset ceiling (if any, excluding interest), are recognized in OCI. The Company determines the net interest expense (income) on the net defined benefit liability (asset) for the period by applying the discount rate used to measure the defined benefit obligation at the beginning of the annual period to the net defined benefit liability (asset), taking into account any changes in the net defined benefit liability (asset) during the period as a result of contributions and benefit payments. Net interest expense and other expenses related to defined benefit plans are recognized in profit or loss.
When the benefits of a plan are changed or when a plan is curtailed, the resulting change in benefit that relates to past service (''''past service cost'''' or ''''past service gain'''') or the gain or loss on curtailment is recognized immediately in profit or loss. The Company recognizes gains and losses on the settlement of a defined benefit plan when the settlement occurs.
i. Provisions (other than Employee Benefits), Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets
A provision is recognized when the Company has a present legal obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which reliable estimate can be made. Provisions are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. These are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. Contingent liabilities are not recognized but are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements. A contingent asset is neither recognized nor disclosed if inflow of economic benefit is probable.
j. Revenue Recognition
i. Sale of Goods:
Revenue from the sale of goods in the course of ordinary activities is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of returns, trade discounts and volume rebates. Revenue is recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer, recovery of the consideration is probable, the associated costs and possible return of goods can be estimated reliably, there is no continuing effective control over, or managerial involvement with, the goods, and the amount of revenue can be measured reliably.
The timing of transfers of risks and rewards varies depending on the individual terms of sale, usually in case of domestic, such transfer occurs when the product is sold on ex-works; however, for exports transfer occurs upon loading the goods onto the relevant carrier at the port of seller. Generally for such products buyer has no right to return.
ii. Export Benefits
Export benefits are recognized as income on all the eligible exports and where there is no significant uncertainty regarding the ultimate collection of relevant exports. k. Recognition of Dividend Income, Interest Income
Dividend on financial instruments is recognized as and when realized. Interest is recognized on accrual basis.
l. Income Tax
Income tax comprises current and deferred tax. It is recognized in profit or loss except to the extent that it relates to a business combination or to an item recognized directly in equity or in other comprehensive income.
i. Current Tax
Current tax comprises the expected tax payable or receivable on the taxable income or loss for the year and any adjustment to the tax payable or receivable in respect of previous years. The amount of current tax reflects the best estimate of the tax amount expected to be paid or received after considering the uncertainty, if any, related to income taxes. It is measured using tax rates (and tax laws) enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date. Current tax assets and current tax liabilities are offset only if there is a legally enforceable right to set off the recognized amounts, and it is intended to realize the asset and settle the liability on a net basis or simultaneously.
ii. Deferred Tax
Deferred tax is recognized in respect of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the corresponding amounts used for taxation purposes. Deferred tax is also recognized in respect of carried forward tax losses and tax credits.
Deferred tax assets are recognized to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which they can be used. The existence of unused tax losses is strong evidence that future taxable profit may not be available. Therefore, in case of a history of recent losses, the Company recognizes a deferred tax asset only to the extent that it has sufficient taxable temporary differences or there is convincing other evidence that sufficient taxable profit will be available against which such deferred tax asset can be realized. Deferred tax assets
- unrecognized or recognized, are reviewed at each reporting date and are recognized/ reduced to the extent that it is probable/ no longer probable respectively that the related tax benefit will be realized.
Deferred tax is measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply to the period when the asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on the laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date.
The measurement of deferred tax reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the reporting date, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset only if there is a legally enforceable right to offset current tax liabilities and assets, and they relate to income taxes levied by the same tax authority on the same taxable entity, or on different taxable entities, but they intend to settle current tax liabilities and assets on net basis or their tax assists and liabilities will be realized simultaneously. m. Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash and cheques in hand, bank balances, demand deposits with banks and other short term highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to know amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value where original maturity is three months or less. n. Borrowing Cost
Borrowing cost are interest and other costs (including exchange differences relating to foreign currency borrowings to the extent that they are regarded as an adjustment to interest cost) incurred in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing costs directly attributable to acquisition or construction of asset which necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use are capitalized as part of cost of asset until such time the assets are substantially ready for their intended use. Other borrowing costs are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.
o. Earnings Per Share
Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing the net profit after tax for the year attributable to equity shareholders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share is calculated by dividing net profit attributable to equity shareholders (after adjustment for diluted earnings) by average number of weighted equity shares outstanding during the year plus potential equity shares. p. Cash Flow Statement
Cash flows are reported using the indirect method whereby the profit before tax is adjusted for the effect of the transactions of a non cash nature, any deferrals or accruals of past and future operating cash receipts or payments and items of income or expenses associated with investing or financing cash flows. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated.
19.2 Rights, preferences and restrictions attached to Equity Shares :
The company has one class of equity shares having a par value of ''''2 each. Each shareholder is eligible for one vote per share held. The dividend proposed by the Board of Directors is subject to the approval of the shareholders in the ensuing Annual General Meeting. In the event of liquidation, the equity shareholders are eligible to receive the remaining assets of the Company after distribution of all preferential amounts, in proportion to their shareholding.
During the financial year 2016-17, the Company has declared and paid an interim dividend of Rs,4 (200%) per share on 9,43,20,370 equity shares of the face value of Rs,2 each amounting to Rs,3,772.81 lacs on 13th February, 2017.
The Board of Directors in their meeting dated 25th May, 2017 has recommended a Final dividend of Rs,4 (200%) per Equity Share of the face value of Rs,2 each amounting to Rs,3,772.81 lacs, thereby making aggregate dividend of Rs,8 per share (400%) for the financial year 2016-17